Te Kotahitanga

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Māori Parliament Movement
Te Kotahitanga
Coat of arms or logo
Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand
Type
Type
Houses Te Whare Ariki (Upper House)
Te Whare o Raro (Lower House)
History
Founded 14 June 1892 (14 June 1892)
Disbanded 21 March 1902 (21 March 1902)
Succeeded by Māori Councils
Leadership
Chairman
Speaker
Premier
Hamiora Mangakahia (1892, 1897, 1898)
Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury (1893, 1894)
Seats 140 (1892)
44 (Whare Ariki)
96 (Whare o Raro)
Meeting place
Waipatu (1892, 1893), Pākirikiri (1894), Rotorua (1895), Taupō (1896), Pāpāwai (1897, 1898), Rotorua (1900, 1901), Waiōmatatini (1902)

The Kotahitanga movement was an autonomous Māori Parliament convened annually in New Zealand from 1892 until 1902. Though not recognised by the New Zealand Government, the Māori Parliament was an influential body while it lasted. By 1902 its role was largely superseded by the Māori Councils established by James Carroll and Hone Heke Ngapua through the Māori Councils Act 1900, as a result, Kotahitanga members unanimously voted for its dissolution at the 10th Parliament at Waiōmatatini in 1902.

Te Kotahitanga was distinct from Te Kauhanganui, the Māori parliament established by the Kingitanga movement in the late 1880s, because it called for the union of all Māori tribes, whereas Te Kauhanganui was convened by and for the hapu of the Waikato-Tainui region. In 1895 the two movements considered merging, but this ultimately failed.

Sessions[edit]

Waipatu 1892[edit]

The first formal session of Te Kotahitanga was held in June 1892 at Waipatu in Heretaunga, it was hosted by the former Member of Parliament for the Eastern Maori electorate, Henare Tomoana. 96 representatives sat in the Whare o Raro and 44 chiefs sat in the Whare Ariki. Tomoana was elected Speaker of the House because his tenure in parliament gave him the experience necessary to guide debates and maintain order. Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury was elected Chairman, the formal head of the Whare o Raro, and Hamiora Mangakahia was elected premier, a position that made him the chief spokesperson for the movement.

Pāpāwai House in 1897, built to host the 6th and 7th sittings of the Kotahitanga Parliament.
The 6th sitting of the ''Kotahitanga'' Parliament at Pāpāwai in 1897, with Prime Minister of New Zealand Richard Seddon in attendance.

Waipatu 1893[edit]

In 1893 the second session of Te Kotahitanga was also convened at Waipatu, though this session was poorly attended. Only 58 representatives sat in the Whare o Raro, at that time, Mangakahia had fallen out of favour with many of the movement's representatives and was not returned as premier. Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury was elected in his place.

Pakirikiri 1894[edit]

The 1894 session took place at Pakirikiri, near Gisborne, the session, hosted by local chief Otene Pitau, was well attended and lasted for over a month.

Rotorua 1895[edit]

The 1895 session of Te Kotahitanga was convened at Ohinemotu in Rotorua. Hamiora Mangakahia was re-elected for a second term as premier, and the role of speaker was given to Mohi Te Atahikoia of Ngāti Kahungunu. In the course of this session, Henare Tomoana accused Mangakahia of financial mismanagement of Te Kotahitanga during his first term as premier, and attempted to force his resignation, but Mangakahia was able to demonstrate in rebuttal that the mismanagement of Kotahitanga funds had actually developed during the term of his successor, Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury.[3] The session is also notable as the setting for a potential merger of Te Kotahitanga with the Kingitanga movement. Mahuta Tāwhiao, the new King of the Waikato-Tainui tribes, was visited by representatives from the 1895 sitting of Te Kotahitanga, who invited him to sign the Kotahitanga deed of union, calling for the political union of all Māori tribes. Mahuta appointed a committee to consider the proposal, but was undermined by Waikato chief Tupu Atanatiu Taingakawa Te Waharoa, who circulated a rival deed of union calling for all Māori tribes to unite under the Kingitanga.

Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury, elected first Chairman of Te Kotahitanga and later premier.
Henare Tomoana, formerly a member of the New Zealand Parliament for Eastern Maori, served as Speaker of Te Kotahitanga.

Membership[edit]

The lower house, or Whare o Raro, had 96 members, elected at large from electorates defined according to tribal affiliation, the upper house, or Whare Ariki, was composed of 44 paramount chiefs elected by the members of the Whare o Raro. 127 representatives filled the 140 positions in both houses at the parliament's first sitting at Waipatu Marae in 1892, as 13 chiefs were elected to both houses.

Whare o Raro Members (1892)[edit]

Constituency Member Iwi Affiliation Member's Origin Position
Ngāpuhi Wikiriwhi Hemana Ngāti Whatua Kaipara
Muriwai Hepehi Ngāpuhi, Te Rarawa Whangaroa
Kaipo Hotereni Ngāpuhi, Te Rarawa Waihou ki te Kauru
Miti Kakau Te Rarawa Hokianga
Wi Katene Ngāpuhi Ohaeawai, Tautoro
Maihi Kawiti Ngāpuhi Waiomio, Taumarere
Pomare Kingi Ngāpuhi Whatitiri
Karena Kiwa Ngāpuhi Whangaroa
Taniora Moto Te Rarawa Mangamuka
Eramiha Paikea Ngāti Whatua Kaipara
Ngakuru Pana Ngāpuhi, Te Rarawa Waimamaku
Kereama Papaka Ngāpuhi Waikara
Peri Paraihe Te Rarawa Hokianga
Hemi Parata Ngāti Whatua Te Awaroa, Kaipara
Netana Patuawa Ngāti Whatua Opanaki, Maunganui
Te Kaka Porowini Ngāpuhi Te Karetu, Pewhairangi
Timoti Puhipi Te Rarawa Ahipara, Kaitara, Te Awanui
Pere Riwhi Ngāpuhi Whirinaki
Riwi Taikawa Ngāpuhi Whangarei, Kaihou
Pene Taui Ngāpuhi Oromahoe, Waimate
Heremia Te Wake Te Rarawa Hokianga
Re Te Tai Maunga Te Rarawa Hokianga
Wiki Te Pirihi Ngāpuhi Whangarei, Kaihou
Mitai Titore Ngāpuhi Mangakāhia, Ahuahu
Hemi Tupe Ngāpuhi Whangaroa
Raniera Wharerau Ngāpuhi Waima
Te Paki Wihongi Ngāpuhi Kaikohe
Mohi Wikitahi Ngāpuhi Waima
Te Tai Hauāuru Hoani Amorangi Ngāti Raukawa, Muaupoko
Reha Aperahama Ngāti Maru Te Aroha
Hoani Wiremu Hipango Ngāti Hau Whanganui
Hamiora Mangakahia Ngāti Whanaua, Ngāti Pare Whitianga Premier
Wiremu Ngapaki Ngāti Ruanui Hawera, Patea
Ngarangikatitia-Tutae Ngāti Ruanui
Manahi Paewai Rangitane Manawatu
Te Aohau Pungarehu Ngāti Raukawa Waikato
Ropiha Rangihaukori Opunake
Hamapiri Te Arahori Ngāti Maniapoto Otorohanga, Te Kuiti
Wi Te Kākākura Ngāti Awa Waitotara, Mokau
Wiari Te Kuri Ngāti Maniapoto Otorohanga, Te Kuiti
Te Manaotawhaki Ngāti Apa Manawatu
Rore Te Rangiheuea Rangitane Warupere
Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui Ngāti Awa Hawera, Taranaki
E.H. Te Taitea Ngāti Awa Te Whanganui-a-Tara
E.H. Te Taitea Ngāti Toa Porirua, Waikanae
Kipa Te Whatanui Ngāti Raukawa, Muaupoko Otaki
Hamiora Tupaea Ngai Te Rangi Tauranga
Te Tai Rawhiti Kipa Anaru Ngāti Kahungunu Mohaka
Te Makiri Hona Te Urewera Katoa Te Waimana
Hoani Kehua Ngāti Kahungunu Wairoa
Hoani Kerei Te Whanau-a-Apanui Whangaparaoa
Akuhata Kiharoa Te Arawa Wairakei, Rotorua
Wiremu Kupa Ngāti Kahungunu Mohaka
Nepia Mahuika Ngāti Porou Waiapu
Hori Mania Ngāti Kahungunu Wairoa
Tuta Nihoniho Ngāti Porou Waiapu
Wi Pakai Ngāti Hineuru
Eruini Paranihi Ngāti Tuwharetoa Taupo-nui-a-tia
Wiremu Potae Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti Tolaga Bay
Timi Rimene Te Arawa, Ngāti Pikiao Maketu
H. Ropiha Ngāti Kahungunu Ahuriri, Heretaunga
Hoani Ruru Ngāti Kahungunu Gisborne ki Paritu
H. M. Tamahau Ngāti Kahungunu Wairarapa
Karaitiana Te Amaru Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti Tolaga Bay
Mohi Te Atahikoia Ngāti Kahungunu Wairarapa
H. Te Aweawe Ngāti Kahungunu Ahuriri, Heretaunga
Apiata Te Hame Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti Tolaga Bay
Hami Te Heru Ngāti Kahungunu Te Paritu ki te Kaha-a-Tureia
Tureiti Te Heuheu Tukino V Ngāti Tuwharetoa Taupo-nui-a-tia
Wi Te Houkamau Ngāti Porou Whangaparaoa
Anaru Te Kakahi Ngāti Porou Waiapu
Aperahama Te Kume Ngāti Tuwharetoa Taupo-nui-a-tia
Maraku Te Rangihirawea Ngāti Tuwharetoa Taupo-nui-a-tia
H. Te Rango Ngāti Kahungunu Ahuriri, Heretaunga
Hoani Te Rohurohu Ngāti Kahungunu Gisborne ki Paritu
Nikora Te Wakaunua Manawa Tarawera, Rangitaiki
Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury Ngāti Kahungunu Ahuriri, Heretaunga Chairman
Rewi Toheriri Ngāti Kahungunu Te Paritu ki te Kaha-a-Tureia
Henare Tomoana Ngāti Kahungunu Ahuriri, Heretaunga Speaker of the House
Hoani Paraone Tunuiarangi Ngāti Kahungunu Wairarapa
Hapimana Tunupaura Ngāti Kahungunu Wairoa
Raniera Turoa Ngāti Kahungunu Gisborne ki Paritu
Hemi Waeka Ngāti Kahungunu Gisborne ki Paritu
Tupara Te Arawa Wairakei, Rotorua
Toha Ngāti Kahungunu Wairoa
Rahurahu Ngāti Kahungunu Wairoa
Netane Te Urewera Katoa Ruatoki
Te Waipounamu Raniera Erihana Ngāi Tahu Waikouaiti
Taituha Hape Ngāi Tahu Kaiapoi
Hoani Maaka Ngāi Tahu Kaiapoi
Wiwi Tairoa Ngāi Tahu Arahura, Hauauru
Timoti Te Whiu Ngāi Tahu Wairewa
Hone Taare Tikao Ngāi Tahu Wairewa
Pita Tipa Ngāi Tahu Moerangi
Paratenei Tunuiarangi Ngāi Tahu Kaiapoi
Taniora Rau Rangitane, Ngāti Toa Arapawa

Whare Ariki Members (1892)[edit]

Member Iwi Affiliation
Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui Ngāti Awa
Takarangi Mete Kingi Ngāti Awa
Ropata Te Ao Ngāti Raukawa
Kipa Te Whatanui Ngāti Raukawa
Himona Papaka Ngāti Tuwharetoa
Paora Ngawaha Ngāti Tuwharetoa
Hoani Nahe Ngāti Maru
Pita Tipa Ngāi Tahu
Taiuru Ngāti Taurawhiti
Kingi Te Herekiekie Ngāti Tuwharetoa
Tuakau Ngāti Tuwharetoa
Raihania Takapa Ngāti Awa
Akapita Te We Ngāi Tūhoe
Wi Katene Ngāpuhi
Paratene Tunuiarangi Ngāi Tahu
Hemi Tupe Ngāpuhi
Pomare Kingi Ngāpuhi
Maihi Kawiti Ngāpuhi
Eramiha Paikea Ngāti Whatua
Mitikakau Te Rarawa
Re Te Tai Maunga Te Rarawa
Akuhata Kiharoa Te Arawa
Timoti Puhipi Te Rarawa
Wi Te Houkamau Ngāti Porou
Wiremu Potae Ngāti Porou
Nepia Mahuika Ngāti Porou
Ropata Wahawaha Ngāti Porou
Wi Pere Ngāti Kahungunu
Henare Matua Ngāti Kahungunu
Kerei Te Ota Ngāti Kahungunu
Hami Te Hau Ngāti Kahungunu
Hirini Te Kani Ngāti Kahungunu
Puhara Hawaikirangi Ngāti Kahungunu
Teira Tiakitai Ngāti Kahungunu
Ekengarangi Hapuku Ngāti Kahungunu
Hapuku Te Nahu Ngāti Kahungunu
Paora Ropiha Ngāti Kahungunu
Peni Te Uamairangi Ngāti Kahungunu
Wiremu M. Porotene Ngāti Kahungunu
Wiki Moa Ngamanako Ngāti Hineuru
Ngawaka te Wharehina Ngāti Hine
Piripi Te Maari Ngāti Kahungunu
Tamati M. Te Apatu Ngāti Kahungunu
Hori H. Te Huki Ngāti Kahungunu

References[edit]