SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Technology

Technology is the sum of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.

Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.

The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.

Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.

Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math and the ar

Megara Hyblaea

Megara Hyblaea – identical with Hybla Major – is an ancient Greek colony in Sicily, situated near Augusta on the east coast, 20 kilometres north-northwest of Syracuse, Italy, on the deep bay formed by the Xiphonian promontory. There were at least three cities named "Hybla" in ancient accounts of Sicily which are confounded with each other, among which it is sometimes difficult to distinguish, it was unquestionably a Greek colony, deriving its origin from the Megara in Greece. He tells us that a colony from Megara, under the command of a leader named Lamis, arrived in Sicily about the time that Leontini was founded by the Chalcidic colonists, settled themselves first near the mouth of the river Pantagias, at a place called Trotilon. From there they removed to Leontini itself, where they dwelt for a time together with the Chalcidians, they again relocated after the death of Lamis, and, at the suggestion of Hyblon, a Sicilian chief of the surrounding country settled at a place afterwards called the Hyblaean Megara.

Scymnus Chius follows a different tradition, as he describes the establishment of the Chalcidians at Naxos and that of the Megarians at Hybla as contemporary, both preceding the foundation of Syracuse, 734 BC. Strabo adopts the same view, representing Megara as founded about the same time with Naxos, before Syracuse, it is impossible to reconcile the two accounts, but that of Thucydides is the most trustworthy. Thus the foundation of Megara may be placed about 726 BC. Professor Miller, in her reinvestigation of ancient source materials has determined that they point to various dates of foundation from 758 BC to 728 BC. Of its earlier history we have scarcely any information, but it would appear to have attained a flourishing condition, as 100 years after its foundation it sent out, in its turn, a colony to the other end of Sicily, where it founded the city of Selinus, destined to rise to far greater power than its parent city. Nothing more is known of Megara till the period of its destruction by Gelon of Syracuse, about 483 BC, after a long siege, made himself master of the city by a capitulation.

Among the persons thus removed was the celebrated comic poet Epicharmus, who had received his education at Megara, though not a native of that city. According to Thucydides, this event took place 245 years after the foundation of Megara, may therefore be placed about 483 BC, it is certain that Megara never recovered its independence. Thucydides distinctly alludes to it as not existing in his time as a city, but mentions the locality, on the sea-coast, at that time occupied by the Syracusans, but which the Athenian general Lamachus, during the expedition against Syracuse, proposed to make the headquarters of their fleet. From this time we meet with repeated mention of a place named Megara or Megaris, which it seems impossible to separate from Hybla, it is probable that the two were, in fact, identical; the site of this Megara or Hybla may be fixed, with little doubt, at the mouth of the river Alabus. It is difficult to believe that this position, the port of, at least equal to that of Syracuse, while the peninsula itself has the same advantages as that of Ortygia, should have been wholly neglected in ancient times.

Excavations carried on in 1891 led to the discovery of the northern portion of the western town wall, which in one section served at the same time as an embankment against floods—it was more conspicuous in the time of Philipp Cluver, p. 133—of an extensive necropolis, about 1500 tombs of which have been explored, of a deposit of votive objects from a temple. The harbour lay to the north of the town. In the mid-seventh century, the city was organised according to a regularised plan. An agora emerged with stoas on eastern sides; this is among one of the earliest known agoras. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Megara Hyblaea". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 76–77. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray

Commission scolaire Marie-Victorin

Commission scolaire Marie-Victorin is a French-language, school board operating in the Province of Quebec and serving the tables of Longueuil and Saint-Lambert. The board's headquarters are in Longueuil. CSMV was created on July 1998 when school boards were reconfigured based on language; the school board employs 4,500 people in 73 schools. The school board was named for Marie-Victorin Kirouac. Charles-Bruneau Georges-P.-Vanier Guillaume-Vignal Marie-Victorin Sainte-Claire Saint-Laurent Samuel-De Champlain Tourterelle Centre hospitalier Charles-LeMoyne École internationale de Greenfield Park Pierre-Laporte des Saints-Anges Préville Rabeau Charles-LeMoyne de La Mosaïque De Maricourt des Mille-Fleurs des Quatre-Saisons D'Iberville du Jardin-Bienville Gaétan-Boucher Laurent-Benoît Maurice-L.-Duplessis Monseigneur-Forget Paul-Chagnon Saint-Joseph Adrien-Gamache Armand-Racicot Bel-Essor Bourgeoys-Champagnat Carillon Christ-Roi de Normandie du Curé-Lequin du Tournesol École des Petits-Explorateurs Félix-Leclerc Gentilly Gentilly George-Étienne-Cartier Hubert-Perron Jacques-Ouellette Joseph-De-Sérigny Lajeunesse le Déclic Lionel-Groulx Marie-Victorin Pavillon le Jardin Marie-Victorin Pavillon l'Herbier Paul-De Maricourt Pierre-D'Iberville Sainte-Claire Saint-Jude Saint-Romain École secondaire Antoine-Brossard École secondaire Pierre-BrosseauÉcole internationale Lucille-Teasdale École secondaire participative l'Agora École secondaire Saint-Edmond École secondaire André-Laurendeau École secondaire Mgr-A.-M.-Parent École secondaire Gérard-Filion École secondaire Jacques-Rousseau École secondaire Saint-Jean-Baptiste École régionale du Vent-Nouveau École secondaire Hélène-De Champlain Gérard-Filion École Jacques-Ouellette Commission scolaire Marie-Victorin