New York City Hall
New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government, is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center area of Lower Manhattan, between Broadway, Park Row, Chambers Street. The building is the oldest city hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions, such as the office of the Mayor of New York City and the chambers of the New York City Council. While the Mayor's Office is in the building, the staff of thirteen municipal agencies under mayoral control are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, one of the largest government buildings in the world. Constructed from 1803 to 1812, New York City Hall is a National Historic Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Both its exterior and interior are designated New York City landmarks. New Amsterdam's first City Hall was built by the Dutch in the 17th century near 73 Pearl Street; the city's second City Hall, built in 1700, stood on Nassau Streets. That building was renamed Federal Hall after New York became the first official capital of the United States after the Revolutionary War.
Plans for building a new City Hall were discussed by the New York City Council as early as 1776, but the financial strains of the war delayed progress. The Council chose a site at the old Common at the northern limits of the City, now City Hall Park. City Hall was an area for the first almhouse in 1653. In 1736, there was a financed almhouse for those who were fit to work, for the unfit, those that were like criminals but were paupers. In 1802 the City held a competition for a new City Hall; the first prize of $350 was awarded to Joseph-François Mangin and John McComb Jr. Mangin, the principal designer, studied architecture in his native France before becoming a New York City surveyor in 1795 and publishing an official map of the city in 1803. Mangin was the architect of the landmark St. Patrick's Old Cathedral on Mulberry Street. McComb, whose father had worked on the old City Hall, was a New Yorker and designed Castle Clinton in Battery Park, he would supervise the construction of the building, designed the architectural detailing as well.
Many architects were in favor of Greek Revival style and created Brooklyn City Hall, now called Brooklyn Borough Hall in 1848. The New York City Police riot occurred in front of New York City Hall between the dissolved New York Municipal Police and the newly formed Metropolitan Police on June 16, 1857. Municipal police fought with Metropolitan officers who were attempting to arrest New York City Mayor Fernando Wood; the cornerstone of the new City Hall was laid in 1803. Construction was delayed. In response, McComb and Mangin reduced the size of the building and used brownstone at the rear of the building to lower costs. Labor disputes and an outbreak of yellow fever further slowed construction; the building was not dedicated until 1811, opened in 1812. The building's Governor's Room hosted President-elect Abraham Lincoln in 1861, his coffin was placed on the staircase landing across the rotunda when he lay in state in 1865 after his assassination. Ulysses S. Grant lay in state beneath the soaring rotunda dome – as did Colonel Elmer Ephraim Ellsworth, first Union officer killed in the Civil War and commander of the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment.
The Governor's Room, used for official receptions houses one of the most important collections of 19th-century American portraiture and notable artifacts such as George Washington's desk. The Outer Room is adjacent to the traditional Mayor's office, a small space on the northwest corner of the first floor; the Ceremonial Room is where the mayor would hold small group meetings. There are 108 paintings from the late 18th century through the 20th; the New York Times declared it "almost unrivaled as an ensemble, with several masterpieces." Among the collection is John Trumbull's 1805 portrait of Alexander Hamilton, the source of the face on the United States ten-dollar bill. There were significant efforts to restore the paintings in the 1940s. In 2006 a new restoration campaign began for 47 paintings identified by the Art Commission as highest in priority. On July 23, 2003, at 2:08 p.m. City Hall was the scene of a rare political assassination. Othniel Askew, a political rival of City Councilman James E. Davis, opened fire with a pistol from the balcony of the City Council chamber.
Askew shot Davis twice. A police officer on the floor of the chamber fatally shot Askew. Askew and Davis had entered the building together without passing through a metal detector, a courtesy extended to elected officials and their guests; as a result of the security breach, then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg revised security policy to require that everyone entering the building pass through metal detectors without exception. In 2008, work began after a century without a major renovation; the construction included structural enhancements, upgrades to building services, as well as in-depth restoration of much of the interior and exterior. Due to the complexity of the demands of the project, the New York City Department of Design and Construction hired Hill International to provide construction management. Renovations were estimated to cost $104 million and take four years, but ended up costing nearly $150 million and taking over five years. Although Mangin and McComb designed the building, constructed betwe
Trinity Church (Manhattan)
Trinity Church is a historic parish church in the Episcopal Diocese of New York located near the intersection of Wall Street and Broadway in the lower Manhattan section of New York City, New York. Known for both its location and endowment, Trinity is a traditional high church, with an active parish centered around the Episcopal Church and the worldwide Anglican Communion in missionary and fellowship; the Trinity Church has been significant to New York City's history for over 300 years. In 1696, Governor Benjamin Fletcher approved the purchase of land in Lower Manhattan by the Church of England community for construction of a new church; the parish received its charter from King William III on May 6, 1697. Its land grant specified an annual rent of 60 bushels of wheat; the first rector was William Vesey, a protege of Increase Mather, who served for 49 years until his death in 1746. The first Trinity Church building, a modest rectangular structure with a gambrel roof and small porch, was constructed in 1698, on Wall Street, facing the Hudson River.
The land on which it was built was a formal garden and a burial ground. It was built because in 1696, members of the Church of England protested to obtain a "charter granting the church legal status" in New York City. According to historical records, Captain William Kidd lent the runner and tackle from his ship for hoisting the stones. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, increased the parish's land holdings to 215 acres in 1705. In 1709, William Huddleston founded Trinity School as the Charity School of the church, classes were held in the steeple of the church. In 1754, King's College was chartered by King George II of Great Britain, instruction began with eight students in a school building near the church. During the American Revolutionary War the city became the British military and political base of operations in North America, following the departure of General George Washington and the Continental Army shortly after Battle of Long Island and subsequent local defeats. Under British occupation clergy were required to be Loyalists, while the parishioners included some members of the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress, as well as the First and Second Continental Congresses.
The church was destroyed in the Great New York City Fire of 1776, which started in the Fighting Cocks Tavern, destroying nearly 400 to 500 buildings and houses, leaving thousands of New Yorkers homeless. Six days most of the city's volunteer firemen followed General Washington north. Rev. Charles Inglis served throughout the war and to Nova Scotia on evacuation with the whole congregation of Trinity Church; the Rev. Samuel Provoost was appointed Rector of Trinity in 1784, the New York State Legislature ratified the charter of Trinity Church, deleting the provision that asserted its loyalty to the King of England. Whig patriots were appointed as vestrymen. In 1787, Provoost was consecrated as the first Bishop of the newly formed Diocese of New York. Following his 1789 inauguration at Federal Hall, George Washington attended Thanksgiving service, presided over by Bishop Provoost, at St. Paul's Chapel, a chapel of the Parish of Trinity Church, he continued to attend services there until the second Trinity Church was finished in 1790.
St. Paul's Chapel is part of the Parish of Trinity Church and is the oldest public building in continuous use in New York City. Construction on the second Trinity Church building began in 1788. St. Paul's Chapel was used; the second Trinity Church was built facing Wall Street. Building a bigger church was beneficial because the population of New York City was expanding; the church was torn down after being weakened by severe snows during the winter of 1838–39. The second Trinity Church was politically significant because President Washington and members of his government worshiped there. Additional notable parishioners included Alexander Hamilton; the third and current Trinity Church began construction in 1839 and was finished in 1846. When the Episcopal Bishop of New York consecrated Trinity Church on Ascension Day 1846, its soaring Gothic Revival spire, surmounted by a gilded cross, dominated the skyline of lower Manhattan. Trinity was a welcoming beacon for ships sailing into New York Harbor.
In 1843, Trinity Church's expanding parish was divided due to the burgeoning cityscape and to better serve the needs of its parishioners. The newly formed parish would build Grace Church, to the north on Broadway at 10th street, while the original parish would re-build Trinity Church, the structure that stands today. Both Grace and Trinity Churches were completed and consecrated in 1846. Trinity Church held the title of tallest building in the United States until 1869, when it was surpassed by St. Michael's Church, Old Town, Chicago. At the time of its completion, Trinity's 281-foot spire and cross comprised the highest point in New York, until it was surpassed in 1883 by the stone tower of the Brooklyn Bridge, in 1890 by the New York World Building. In 1876–1877 a reredos and altar were erected in memory of William Backhouse Astor, Sr. to the designs of architect Frederick Clarke Withers. On July 9, 1976, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh visited Trinity Church. Vestrymen presented the Queen with a symbolic "back rent" of 279 peppercorns.
Since 1993, Trinity Church has hosted the graduation ceremonies of the High School of Economics and Finance. The school is located on Trinity Place, a few blocks away from the church. Guided tours of the church are offered daily at 2 p.m
A mechanical floor, mechanical penthouse, mechanical layer or mechanical level is a story of a high-rise building, dedicated to mechanical and electronics equipment. "Mechanical" is the most used term, but words such as utility, technical and plant are used. They are present in all tall buildings including the world's tallest skyscrapers with significant structural and aesthetics concerns. While most buildings have mechanical rooms in the basement, tall buildings require dedicated floors throughout the structure for this purpose, for a variety of reasons discussed below; because they use up valuable floor area, engineers try to minimize the number of mechanical floors while allowing for sufficient redundancy in the services they provide. As a rule of thumb, skyscrapers require a mechanical floor for every 10 tenant floors although this percentage can vary widely. In some buildings they are clustered in groups that divide the building into blocks, in others they are spread evenly through the structure, while in others still they are concentrated at the top.
Mechanical floors are counted in the building's floor numbering but are accessed only by service elevators. In some legislations they have been excluded from maximum floor area calculations, leading to significant increases in building sizes. Sometimes buildings are designed with a mechanical floor located on the thirteenth floor, to avoid problems in renting the space due to superstitions about that number; some skyscrapers have narrow building cores. This is accomplished by joining the core to the external supercolumns at regular intervals using outrigger trusses; the triangular shape of the struts precludes the laying of tenant floors, so these sections house mechanical floors instead in groups of two. Additional stabilizer elements such as tuned mass dampers require mechanical floors to contain or service them; this layout is reflected in the internal elevator zoning. Since nearly all elevators require machine rooms above the last floor they service, mechanical floors are used to divide shafts that are stacked on top of each other to save space.
A transfer level or skylobby is sometimes placed just below those floors. Elevators that reach the top tenant floor require overhead machine rooms. On most building designs this is a simple "box" on the roof, on others it is concealed inside a decorative spire. A consequence of this is that if the topmost mechanical floors are counted in the total, there can be no such thing as a true "top-floor office" in a skyscraper with this design. Besides structural support and elevator management, the primary purpose of mechanical floors is heating and air-conditioning, other services, they contain electrical generators, chiller plants, water pumps, so on. In particular, the problem of bringing and keeping water on the upper floors is an important constraint in the design of skyscrapers. Water is necessary for tenant use, air conditioning, equipment cooling, basic firefighting through sprinklers, it is inefficient, feasible, for water pumps to send water directly to a height of several hundred meters, so intermediate pumps and water tanks are used.
The pumps on each group of mechanical floors act as a relay to the next one up, while the tanks hold water in reserve for normal and emergency use. The pumps have enough power to bypass a level if the pumps there have failed, send water two levels up. Special care is taken towards fire safety on mechanical floors that contain generators and elevator machine rooms, since oil is used as either a fuel or lubricant in those elements. Mechanical floors contain communication and control systems that service the building and sometimes outbound communications, such as through a large rooftop antenna. Modern computerized HVAC control systems minimize the problem of equipment distribution among floors, by enabling central remote control. Most mechanical floors require external vents or louvers for ventilation and heat rejection along most or all of their perimeter, precluding the use of glass windows; the resulting visible "dark bands" can disrupt the overall facade design if it is glass-clad. Different architectural styles approach this challenge in different ways.
In the Modern and International styles of the 1960s and 1970s where form follows function, the vents' presence is not seen as undesirable. Rather it emphasizes the functional layout of the building by dividing it neatly into equal blocks, mirroring the layout of the elevators and offices inside; this could be seen on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and can be seen on the Willis Tower. In the IDS Tower in Minneapolis, the lowest mechanical floor serves as a visual separation from the street- and skyway-level Crystal Court shopping center and the office tower above. Conversely, designers of the recent postmodern-style skyscrapers strive to mask the vents and other mechanical elements in clever and ingenious ways; this is accomplished through such means as complex wall angles, intricate latticework cladding (
African Burial Ground National Monument
African Burial Ground National Monument is a monument at Duane Street and African Burial Ground Way in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan, New York City. Its main building is the Ted Weiss Federal Building at 290 Broadway; the site contains the remains of more than 419 Africans buried during the late 17th and 18th centuries in a portion of what was the largest colonial-era cemetery for people of African descent, some free, most enslaved. Historians estimate there may have been as many as 10,000–20,000 burials in what was called the "Negroes Burial Ground" in the 1700s; the five to six acre site's excavation and study was called "the most important historic urban archaeological project in the United States." The Burial Ground site is New York's earliest known African-American "cemetery". The discovery highlighted the forgotten history of enslaved Africans in colonial and federal New York City, who were integral to its development. By the American Revolutionary War, they constituted nearly a quarter of the population in the city.
New York had the second-largest number of enslaved Africans in the nation after Charleston, South Carolina. Scholars and African-American civic activists joined to publicize the importance of the site and lobby for its preservation; the site was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1993 and a National Monument in 2006 by President George W. Bush. In 2003 Congress appropriated funds for a memorial at the site and directed redesign of the federal courthouse to allow for this. A design competition attracted more than 60 proposals for a design; the memorial was dedicated in 2007 to commemorate the role of Africans and African Americans in colonial and federal New York City, in United States history. Several pieces of public art were commissioned for the site. A visitor center opened in 2010 to provide interpretation of the site and African-American history in New York. In 2016, an offer to purchase 22 Reade Street and the Burial Grounds was made with a Letter of Intent to the City of New York.
The bidding group was led by African-American owned development firm The Hoeg Corporation. In 2018, the African Burial Ground Monument was defaced by graffiti "suggesting African-Americans should be killed. Slavery in the New York City area was introduced by the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland in about 1626 with the arrival of Paul D'Angola, Simon Congo, Lewis Guinea, Jan Guinea, Ascento Angola, six other men, their names denote their place of origin: Angola, the Congo, Guinea. Two years after their arrival three female Angolan slaves arrived; these two groups heralded the beginning of slavery in what would become New York City, which would continue for two hundred years. The first slave auction in the city took place in 1655 at Pearl Street and Wall Street - on the East River. Although the Dutch imported Africans as slaves, it was possible for some to gain freedom or "half-freedom" during the time of Dutch rule. In 1643, Paul D'Angola and his companions petitioned the Dutch West India Company for their freedom.
Their request was granted, resulting in their acquisition of land on which to build their own houses and farm. By the mid-17th century, farms of free blacks covered 130 acres where Washington Square Park appeared. Slaves in full bondage were granted certain rights and afforded protections such as the prohibition against arbitrary physical punishment – for example, whipping. After the English took over New Amsterdam in 1664, they changed the name to New York and changed the rules governing slavery in the colony; some 40 percent of the small population was in bondage. The new slavery rules were more harsh and restrictive than those of the Dutch, rescinded many of the former rights and protections of slaves, such as the prohibition against arbitrary physical punishment. In 1697 Trinity Church gained control of the burial grounds in the city and passed an ordinance excluding blacks from the right to be buried in churchyards; when Trinity took control of the municipal burial ground, now its northern graveyard, it barred Africans from interment within the city limits.
Through much of the 18th century, the African burying ground was beyond the northern boundary of the city, just beyond what is today Chambers Street. As the city population increased, so did the number of residents who held slaves. "In 1703, 42 percent of New York's households had slaves, much more than Philadelphia and Boston combined." Most slaveholding households had only a few slaves, used for domestic work. By the 1740s, 20 percent of the population of New York were slaves. Slaves worked as skilled artisans and craftsmen associated with shipping and other trades, as well as laborers. "On the eve of the American Revolution, New York City had the largest number of enslaved Africans of any English colonial settlement except Charleston, South Carolina, it had the highest proportion of slaves to Europeans of any northern settlement." Africans had become essential to the development of New York. During the Revolutionary War, the British occupied New York City in the summer of 1776 and they kept control until after the war ended and they departed on Evacuation Day: November 25, 1783.
As in the other rebellious American colonies, the British had offered freedom to slaves who left rebel masters. These individuals were listed in the Book of Negroes; this promise of freedom attracted thousands of slaves to the cit
Lower Manhattan known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census. Lower Manhattan is defined most as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, on the south by New York Harbor; when referring to the Lower Manhattan business district and its immediate environs, the northern border is designated by thoroughfares about a mile-and-a-half south of 14th Street and a mile north of the island's southern tip: around Chambers Street from near the Hudson east to the Brooklyn Bridge entrances and overpass.
Two other major arteries are sometimes identified as the northern border of "Lower" or "Downtown Manhattan": Canal Street half a mile north of Chambers Street, 23rd Street half a mile north of 14th Street. The Lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street, it includes the World Trade Center site. At the island's southern tip is Battery Park. South of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area; the neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers Street on the west side. North of Chambers Street and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New York's oldest Chinatown neighborhood. Many court buildings and other government offices are located in this area; the Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal Street. North of Canal Street and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy and the East Village. Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, as well as Gramercy, with the large residential development known as Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town situated on the eastern flank of this zone.
The area that would encompass modern day New York City was inhabited by the Lenape people. These groups of culturally and linguistically identical Native Americans traditionally spoke an Algonquian language now referred to as Unami. European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading post in Lower Manhattan called New Amsterdam in 1626; the first fort was built at The Battery to protect New Netherland. Soon thereafter, most in 1626, construction of Fort Amsterdam began; the Dutch West Indies Company imported African slaves to serve as laborers. Early directors included Peter Minuit. Willem Kieft became director in 1638 but five years was embroiled in Kieft's War against the Native Americans; the Pavonia Massacre, across the Hudson River in present-day Jersey City resulted in the death of 80 natives in February 1643. Following the massacre, Algonquian tribes nearly defeated the Dutch; the Dutch Republic sent additional forces to the aid of Kieft, leading to the overwhelming defeat of the Native Americans and a peace treaty on August 29, 1645.
On May 27, 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as director general upon his arrival. The colony was granted self-government in 1652, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653; the first mayors of New Amsterdam, Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier, were appointed in that year. In 1664, the English conquered the area and renamed it "New York" after the Duke of York and the city of York in Yorkshire. At that time, people of African descent made up 20% of the population of the city, with European settlers numbering 1,500, people of African descent numbering 375. While it has been claimed that African slaves comprised 40% of the small population of the city at that time, this claim has not been substantiated. During the mid 1600s, farms of free blacks covered 130 acres where Washington Square Park developed; the Dutch regained the city in 1673, renaming the city "New Orange", before permanently ceding the colony of New Netherland to the English for what is now Suriname in November 1674.
The new English rulers of the Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland renamed the settlement back to New York. As the colony grew and prospered, sentiment grew for greater autonomy. In the context of the Glorious Revolution in England, Jacob Leisler led Leisler's Rebellion and controlled the city and surrounding areas from 1689–1691, before being arrested and executed. By 1700, the Lenape population of New York had diminished to 200. By 1703, 42% of households in New York had slaves, a higher percentage than in Philadelphia or Boston; the 1735 libel trial of John Peter Zenger in the city was a seminal influence on freedom of the press in North America. It would be a standard for the basic articles of freedom in the United States Declaration of Independence. By the 1740s, with expansion of settlers, 20% of the population of New York were slaves, totaling about 2,500 people. After a series of fires in 1741, the city became panicked that blacks
Foley Square is a street intersection and green space in the Civic Center neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City and – by extension – the surrounding area, dominated by civic buildings. The space is bordered by Worth Street, Centre Street and Lafayette Street and lies between City Hall and Canal Street, near Manhattan's Chinatown and east of TriBeCa, it was named after a prominent Tammany Hall district leader and local saloon owner, Thomas F. "Big Tom" Foley. Foley Square sits on part of the former site of the Collect Pond the smaller portion known as "Little Collect Pond" which used to lie to the south of Collect Pond proper; this was one of the original fresh water sources for the city, but in 1811 was drained and filled in because it had become polluted and implicated in typhus and cholera outbreaks. The neighborhood around the pond was home of many gangs; the square is the site of a number of civic buildings including the classic facades and colonnaded entrances of the 1933-built United States Courthouse, fronted by the sculpture Triumph of the Human Spirit by the noted artist Lorenzo Pace.
Featured in the square are five bronze historical medallions, set flush into areas of the surrounding sidewalks, telling the history of the park and its surroundings, including one for the "Negro Burial Ground", an 18th-century African-American burial ground unearthed during construction of the square. This burial ground has been preserved as the African Burial Ground National Monument. In 2005, Tom Paine Park was established as a part of the square. Foley Square has been used several times for special purposes, it was used as a triage center on September 11, 2001. The Foley Square Greenmarket operates year-round at the corner of Centre Street between Worth and Pearl Streets, offers baked goods as well as local farm picked fruits and vegetables which are guaranteed to have been harvested within three days of sale; because of its proximity to Chinatown, Foley Square is host to a large group of people performing tai chi in the mornings. On November 17, 2011, Foley Square was the site of a protest, part of the Occupy Wall Street movement, which took place after the protestors had been removed from nearby Zuccotti Park.
Thousands of people attended the rally, including members of a dozen different unions. Foley Square has been the site of rallies. In December 2014, many thousands gathered there to protest the decision in the death of Eric Garner. In November 2016, in protest of the Dakota Access Pipeline and in solidarity with Standing Rock water protectors, dozens of the thousands of protesters were arrested. In January 2017, to protest the inauguration of Donald Trump, a collection of activist groups organized a rally titled "NYC Stand Against Trump", held at Foley Square. Film In the film of The Godfather, but not in the original 1969 novel, the Corleone Family enforcer, Al Neri, assassinates Don Emilio Barzini on the steps of a building in Foley Square. One scene of the film Spider-Man 3 was shot in Foley Square. Television Foley Square was the name of a television series starring Margaret Colin, which aired on the American television broadcast network CBS from December 1985 to April 1986. Foley Square is seen on the television series Law & Order and its spinoffs.
Foley Square was seen in the closing credits of the 1960s dramatic series The Defenders. Foley Square trial Notes Photographs of Foley Square buildings and surroundings. NYC Parks - Foley Square
Trinity Church Cemetery
Trinity Church Cemetery consists of three separate burial grounds associated with Trinity Church in New York City. The first was established in the Churchyard located at 74 Trinity Place at Wall Broadway. In 1842, the church, running out of space in its churchyard, established Trinity Church Cemetery and Mausoleum in Upper Manhattan between Broadway and Riverside Drive, at the Chapel of the Intercession the location of John James Audubon's estate. A third burial place is the Churchyard of St. Paul's Chapel. A no longer extant Trinity Church Cemetery was the Old Saint John's Burying Ground for St. John's Chapel; this location is bounded by Hudson and Clarkson Streets near Hudson Square. It was in use from 1806–52 with over 10,000 burials poor and young. In 1897, it was turned with most of the burials left in place; the park was renamed Hudson Park, is now James J. Walker Park; the burial grounds have been the final resting place for many historic figures since the Churchyard cemetery opened in 1697.
A non-denominational cemetery, it is listed in the United States National Register of Historic Places and is the only remaining active cemetery in Manhattan. There are two bronze plaques at the Church of the Intercession cemetery commemorating the Battle of Fort Washington, which included some of the fiercest fighting of the Revolutionary War. Trinity Church Cemetery, along with Broadway, marks the center of the Heritage Rose District of NYC. William Alexander, Lord Stirling, Continental Army Major General during the American Revolution John Alsop, Continental Congress delegate William Bayard Jr. banker William Berczy, Canadian painter and pioneer buried in unmarked grave and name recorded as William Burksay William Bradford, colonial American printer Richard Churcher, a child whose grave is marked with the oldest carved gravestone in New York City Angelica Schuyler Church, daughter of Philip Schuyler, sister of Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton Michael Cresap, frontiersman John R. Fellows, U. S. representative Robert Fulton, inventor Albert Gallatin, U.
S. congressman, Secretary of the Treasury, founder of New York University Horatio Gates, Continental Army general during the American Revolution Aaron Hackley, Jr. U. S. representative Alexander Hamilton, American revolutionary patriot and Founding Father. S. Secretary of the Treasury, a signer of the United States Constitution Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, wife of Alexander Hamilton, co-founder and deputy director of New York's first private orphanage Philip Hamilton, first son of Alexander Hamilton, grandson of U. S. General Philip Schuyler John Sloss Hobart, U. S. senator William Hogan, U. S. congressman James Lawrence, naval hero during the War of 1812 Francis Lewis, signer of the Declaration of Independence Walter Livingston, delegate to the Continental Congress Luther Martin, delegate to the Continental Congress Charles McKnight, Continental Army surgeon John Jordan Morgan, U. S. representative Thomas Jackson Oakley, U. S. representative John Morin Scott, Continental Congress delegate, Revolutionary War general, first secretary of state of New York George Templeton Strong, abolitionist, lawyer Robert Swartwout, brigadier general, Quartermaster general of the War of 1812 Silas Talbot, U.
S. Navy commodore, second captain of the USS Constitution John Watts, U. S. representative Franklin Wharton, Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1804–1818 Hugh Williamson, American politician, signer of the Constitution of the United States John Peter Zenger, newspaper publisher whose libel trial helped establish the right to a free press Mercedes de Acosta, socialite Rita de Acosta Lydig, socialite John Jacob Astor business magnate, progenitor of the Astor family of New York John Jacob Astor III, financier and philanthropist John Jacob Astor IV, millionaire killed in the sinking of the Titanic John Jacob Astor VI, shipping magnate William Backhouse Astor, Sr. real estate businessman William Backhouse Astor, Jr. businessman and race horse breeder/owner John James Audubon and naturalist Estelle Bennett, member of the 1960s girl group The Ronettes John Romeyn Brodhead Historian of early colonial New York John Winthrop Chanler, United States Congressman William Astor Chanler, United States Congressman Cadwallader D. Colden, Abolitionist New York Manumission Society.