The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held every four years, between nations around or close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe and Asia meet. The games are under the auspices of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games; the idea was proposed at the 1948 Summer Olympics by Muhammed Taher Pasha, chairman of the Egyptian Olympic Committee and vice-president of the International Olympic Committee, assisted by the Greek member of the I. O. C. Ioannis Ketseas. In 1949 an unofficial event was held in Istanbul, Turkey but the first official Mediterranean Games were held in Egypt in 1951; the Games were inaugurated in October 1951, in Alexandria, Egypt, in honour of Muhammed Taher Pasha, with contests being held in 13 sports along with the participation of 734 athletes from 10 countries. In 1955, in Barcelona, during the II Games, the set up was decided of a Supervisory and Controlling Body for the Games, a kind of Executive Committee; the decisions were materialized on 16 June 1961, the said Body was named, upon a Greek notion, ICMG.
Twelve countries were hosted for Mediterranean Games - four from Africa: Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The first 11 games took place always one year preceding the Summer Olympic Games. However, from 1993 on, they were held the year following the Olympic games; this transition meant that the only time the Mediterranean Games were not held four years after the previous Games was in 1993, when Languedoc-Roussillon in France hosted the Games just two years after Athens. The Mediterranean Games, in terms of the preparation and composition of the National Delegation, are held under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee and the Hellenic Olympic Committee. However, their establishment too must be credited to the HOC, for it held a leading part in their being founded despite all difficulties. Athens is the permanent seat of the ICMG and the Committee’s General Secretary is Greek; this comes as a further tribute to Greece, highlighting its leading role with regard to the function and strengthening of the institution.
Except that Greece bailed out of its 2013 Mediterranean Games commitment when the two cities of Volos and Larissa were supposed to host the 2013 edition of the Games. But because of Greece's financial troubles, they had to give that up and the 2013 honors went instead to Turkey, with the city of Mersin rescuing the 2013 edition of the Games instead; the logo of the games referred to as the "Mediterranean Olympics", is composed of three white rings symbolically representing Africa and Europe — the three continents that border the Mediterranean Sea. This logo has been used since the Split games in 1979, for which it was devised and afterwards accepted for the whole Games. During the closing ceremony, the flag of the games is transferred to the country of the city chosen for the organization of the next Mediterranean Games. At present, 26 countries participate in the games: Africa: Algeria, Libya and Tunisia Asia: Lebanon and Syria. Europe: Albania, Andorra and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Greece, Kosovo, Monaco, North Macedonia, San Marino, Slovenia and Turkey.
Kosovo was accepted as a member of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games in October 2015 and participated for the first time in the 2018 Mediterranean Games in Tarragona, Spain. Of all the National Olympic Committees within the Olympic Movement bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Palestine have not participated in the games, nor has Great Britain who represents the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. In the case of Israel, Allen Guttman in The Games Must Go On argued that Israel's exclusion is both antisemitic and politically motivated due to antagonism towards Israel by the participating Arab nations; the IOC's Avery Brundage was not supportive of Israel's desire to compete, saying: "I cannot understand why anyone wants to go where he is not wanted". The International Amateur Athletics Federation pushed the issue at the 1959 Mediterranean Games in Beirut by refusing to grant permission to hold an athletics competition unless Israel were allowed to compete. Lebanese games organizer Gabriel Gemayel conceded to this, but sidestepped the ruling by holding a parallel Lebanese Games comprising athletics events between the present nations alongside the official Mediterranean Games competitions.
There are countries not bordering the Mediterranean Sea which nonetheless participate: Portugal, Kosovo, San Marino and North Macedonia. The Hellenic Olympic Committee has suggested that nine more countries that do not satisfy geographic criteria could be allowed to participate, such as Bulgaria, some Arab countries such as Jordan and Iraq. Portugal competed in the 2018 Mediterranean Games after a decision which approved Portugal as effective National Olympic Committee; the symbol of the Mediterranean Games consists of three rings representing Asia and Europe, the three continents involved in this competition. The rings dissolve in a wavy line in their lower part, as if they were immersed in the Mediterranean Sea. During the closing ceremony, the flag is transferred to the country of the city chosen to host the next Mediterranean Games. No inland city has hosted the games. All but one of the host cities to date have been situated on the Mediterranean coast; the International Mediterranean Games Committee held a
2014 World Judo Championships
The 2014 World Judo Championships were held in Chelyabinsk, from 25–31 August 2014, in the Traktor Ice Arena. Each participating country was permitted to present a total of 18 men and women judokas to participate in the 14 weight categories, but no more than two judokas from the same country were allowed to fight in the same category. Bids were made by Azerbaijan, South Korea, United Arab Emirates, the United States to the International Judo Federation for the initial staging of the championships. On 2 October 2012, it was announced that Russia would hold the full championships for the first time; the 1983 World Judo Championships had been held in the Soviet Union and the open category of the 2011 Championships were held in Tyumen. One reason for the choice was the successful staging of the 2012 European Judo Championships in Chelyabinsk. On 17 December 2012, at the Ritz-Carlton in Moscow, the President of IJF Marius Wizer, Mikhail Yurevich and Sergey Soloveychik, the vice-president of the Russian Judo Federation and the head of the European Judo Union, signed an agreement to host the championships.
On 2 September 2013, following the 2013 World Judo Championships, the flag of the International Judo Federation was passed to a representative of the Russian Judo Federation. On 19 March 2014, the regulations of the competitions were approved for the competition; the championship took place between 25 and 31 August, with the individual tournament taking place between 25 and 30 August, the team tournament on 31 August. The championships were held with a capacity of 7,500 spectators; the mascot of the championships was a baby tiger named a diminutive form of Georgiy. The mascot was chosen in a unanimous vote held before the 2012 European Judo Championships; the logo of the championships was a blue-white rectangle, augmented at the base by a red belt. The colours of the logo repeat the Russian flag; the logo features a white silhouette of Vladimir Putin taken from a photo on the cover of the book Learn Judo with Vladimir Putin. Total prize money was $300,000; the winner of the individual competition received $6,000, the runner-up $4,000 and the bronze medalist $2,000.
The two best judokas were awarded $2,000. The winners of the team competition received a total of $25,000, the runner-up $15,000 and the bronze medalist $5,000; the rules of competition changed on January 1, 2014. The IJF continued to differentiate judo from other kinds of wrestling from sambo, reverted to classical judo traditions. Activity by the hands below the belt in standing position, limited by 2010 rules, is now forbidden under penalty of disqualification. In the spirit of saving specific characteristics of judo, possibility of fight for hold is limited: wrong methods of protection from holds is prohibited, there is a limit to the number of protections from holds. Other methods of evading fight or blocking of an opponent are forbidden; the criteria of victory by fall is specified: now a throw must have more power and amplitude with the fall of the opponent straight to their back. Rituals about combat were modified: for example, opponents must greet each other only by bows; the Golden score overtime is not limited by time, winning by judge decision is abolished.
A.^ Unlike 2013, Kelmendi did not compete under the Kosovo flag but under the International Judo Federation flag. Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia; the Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 113 out of 193 United Nations member states, 10 of which have subsequently withdrawn recognition. Official website ippon.org - Results ippon.org - Team competition - Results intjudo.eu - Results worldjudoday.com DAY 1 worldjudoday.com DAY 2 worldjudoday.com DAY 7
Kosei Inoue is a Judo practitioner from Japan. He won the gold medal in the under 100 kg class at the 2000 Summer Olympics, he is well known for his specialty throws, Uchi Ōuchi gari. He is considered by the Judo community as one of the best competitive Judokas, his notable accomplishments include three golds at the World Championship and All Japan Championship. His older brother, Tomokazu Inoue is judoka and former Asian champion, he is affiliated with a security firm. Kosei Inoue won the gold medal at the 2000 Sydney Olympics in the -100 kg division, most notably doing so by winning every single match by ippon. At the victory ceremony, he carried a photograph of his recently-deceased mother onto the podium. At the 2004 Athens Olympics, Kosei Inoue was chosen as the captain of the Japanese team, he was favored to win another gold in the u100 kg division. However, he did not place. Elco van der Geest of the Netherlands defeated Inoue at the last minute with a drop seoi nage in the quarter final. Movlud Miraliyev of Azerbaijan countered Inoue's o-uchi gari with a ura nage to win the match during Repechage Round 3.
In 2005 he won the gold at the Jigoro Kano International Cup, an A level contest with many former world and Olympic medalists. He did not compete until 2007 because of a shoulder injury in 2005 and returned at +100 kg At the 2008 All-Japan Judo Championships, Inoue lost to Yohei Takai by ippon, which ended his hopes of joining the Olympic team headed for Beijing, he promptly announced his retirement from international competition. Inoue was replaced by Satoshi Ishii, who defeated Keiji Suzuki in the final bout of the 2008 AJJC and won a gold medal in the 2008 Olympic Games. Inoue married Japanese actress and television personality Aki Higashihara on January 14, 2008. After announcing his retirement from competitive judo, Inoue was selected by the Japan Olympic Committee to travel to the UK in order to learn English. After living in Edinburgh, Scotland for 6 months he moved to London to teach at the Budokwai for 12 months before returning to Japan as the Men's Heavyweight coach for the National team.
Following Japan's least successful Olympics for Judo at the London 2012 Olympic Games, it was announced that Inoue would succeed Shinichi Shinohara as the new head coach of the national team. Judo Legends Competition videos of Kosei Inoue on Judovision.org Kosei Inoue podcast: "My Life in Judo"
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef
2016 Summer Olympics
The 2016 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event, held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games to be held in South America and the second to be held in a developing country, after the 1968 games in Mexico City. More than 11,000 athletes from 205 National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, the Refugee Olympic Team, took part. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009; these sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city, at five separate venues in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Manaus. These were the first Summer Olympic Games to take place under the International Olympic Committee presidency of Thomas Bach; the host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009.
Rio became the first South American city to host the Olympic Games. These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first summer edition to be held in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere; the lead-up to these Games was marked by controversies, including the Brazil's political and economic crisis. However, nobody competing in or attending the Olympics contracted the Zika virus and the Games took place without any major incident; the United States topped the medal table, winning the most gold and overall medals, 46 and 121, as well as its 1,000th Summer Olympic gold medal overall. Great Britain finished second and became the first country of modern Olympics history to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation. China finished third. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place.
Bahrain, Jordan, Puerto Rico, Tajikistan, Ivory Coast and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes. The process for the 2016 Olympic Games was launched on 16 May 2007; the first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020; the IOC did not promote Doha to the candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, because of their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku failed to make the cut. Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids.
The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections. Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media; the final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Madrid and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round; the lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics.
On 26 June 2011, it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes. Pestana withdrew during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was appointed as COO. Events took place at eighteen existing venues, nine new venues constructed for the Games, seven temporary venues; each event was held in one of four geographically segregated Olympic clusters: Barra, Copacabana and Maracanã. The same was done for the 2007 Pan American Games. Several of the venues were located at the Barra Cluster Olympic Park. Athletes could access their venues in shorter than ten minutes and about 75 percent could do so in less than 25 minutes. Of the 34 competition locations, eight of them underwent permanent works, seven were limited, nine were perpetual legacy venues; the largest venue at the games in terms of seating capacity was the 74,738-seat Maracanã Stadium, which served as the ceremonies venue and site of the football finals.
The second largest stadium was the 60,000-seat Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, which hosted track and field events. The athletes' village was said to be the largest in Olympic history. Fittings inc
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated. Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability; the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.
The Games made use of venues that existed before the bid. The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised highly; the opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games.
Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee, nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Leipzig, Madrid, New York City and Rio de Janeiro. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Moscow, New York and Paris. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005; the Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.
Throughout the process, Paris was seen as the favourite as this was its third bid in recent years. London was seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin, its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between Paris. On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities, they did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be close. It will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore.
Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New Madrid. The final two contenders were Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to 50. Tragically, the celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement; the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005. The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure; the latter was established in April 2006. The Government Olympic Executive, a unit within the Department for Culture and Sport, was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics, it focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom.
The organisation was responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding. In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games, in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games; the IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2