Jerusalem is a city located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is considered a city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, the part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent, today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger, Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old Citys boundaries. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, the sobriquet of holy city was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesuss crucifixion there, in Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. As a result, despite having an area of only 0, outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, one of Israels Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the countrys undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israels capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is also home to some non-governmental Israeli institutions of importance, such as the Hebrew University. In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, a city called Rušalim in the Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba, the name Jerusalem is variously etymologized to mean foundation of the god Shalem, the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city. The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua, according to a Midrash, the name is a combination of Yhwh Yireh and the town Shalem. The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states, I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem, or as other scholars suggest, the mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of Jerusalem
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians, Maronites and Samaritans. Israel also hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it also requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area. Seating capacity of venues also plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must also be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is also an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat. Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
Beitar Jerusalem F.C.
Beitar Jerusalem Football club is an Israeli professional football club from Jerusalem, Israel. Founded in 1936 and plays in the Israeli Premier League, Beitar were the 1986–87, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1997–98 and 2006–07, 2007–08 champions of the Israeli Premier League and the winners of Israeli Cup, and Israeli Supercup. The club is based at the Teddy Stadium in the Malha neighborhood, Beitar Jerusalem was founded in 1936 by David Horn as a youth team. The first games were held against Armenian and Arab teams in Jerusalem, the club was dismantled in 1938 after one of its managers was arrested by the British Mandate authorities and another was shot and injured in another incident. Beitars troubles were linked to its connections with the Irgun underground with which David Horn. In 1942, the club was reestablished, this time as a club for adults rather than just a youth team, politics again became a problem, with British soldiers and policemen often attending Beitar games to spy and identify the faces of the players. 15 April 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Plebis 1–1,22 April 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Plebis 2–2. 13 May 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Plebis 3–2,20 May 1944, Beitar Jerusalem – Allwain 1–3. Later, Beitar Jerusalem qualified for the final, which was to be held against the team of the Paymasters of the British mandate, on 19 October 1944, several club players were among 251 persons who were deported to Eritrea, Kenya and Sudan by the British Mandate Authorities. Among the deportees were David Horn and Rabinovich and some members of Beitar Jerusalems First team of 1936, a Beitar Jerusalem team was set up in Gilgil where many deportees played in city-of-origin based teams. A big running away plan was made involving a tunnel dug from the centre of a pitch in old Gilgil detention camp in Kenya. Two of the deportees were murdered by Sudanese guards for an alleged escaping attempt, all living deportees reached Israel in July 1948. With Shmuel Kirshtein left in Jerusalem, Beitar continued to exist in Jerusalem in its name, both games were held in Beirut. The British ambassador intervened, suggesting that the Union Jack is raised instead of the Eretz Yisrael flag, simon Alfasi, Shimon Stern, Yisrael Yehezqel and goalkeeper Yosef Meyuhas were the Beitar Jerusalem players in the trip. In 1946, Beitar Jerusalem qualified to the 2nd round of the Cup Games against Maccabi Tel Aviv, the scores were a 3–3 and a loss 3–2 in game 2. Simon Alfasi scored all five goals for the club, three in the first and two in the second, on 8 August 1947, all Beitar clubs were banned by the British mandate authorities. The club name was changed to Nordiah Jerusalem, before a league was set up in Jerusalem district in November 1947. During the war, Beitar Jerusalem player Asher Benjamin was killed by the British when he entered to a British camp in Jerusalem, in 1951–52 season, the club integrated into Liga Bet southern part, then the second tier
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club is an Israeli football club in Liga Leumit. Hapoel plays at Teddy Stadium in Malha, Jerusalem, Hapoel Jerusalem Club was established in 1926 and played in the inaugural season of the EIFA league, playing the leagues first match against local rivals Maccabi Hasmonean Jerusalem. The club played in the league for its first three seasons, however, the club was restricted to playing mainly in the Jerusalem area due to travelling difficulties. The club participated occasionally in the Palestine Cup, reaching the cup final in 1943, after the establishment of Israel, the club registered to play in the makeshift second tier league, Liga Meuhedet, in the Jerusalem-Central division, which the club won. The club continued to play in the division, until it was promoted to the top division at the end of the 1956–57 season. Following the promotion, the club stayed in the top division for 21 seasons, achieving its best position, 3rd, in 1971–72 the club reached the State Cup final, losing to Hapoel Tel Aviv 0–1. A season later, the reached the cup final again. The club was relegated to the division in 1979. The club continued to yo-yo between the two top divisions in the seasons, playing his last season at the top division in 1999–2000. In 1998, the club reached its fourth cup final, in the early 1990s, the club was transferred to businessmen Yossi Sassi and Victor Yona. The two ran the team together until falling out, leading to a business and legal dispute which lasted until 2009. The fan-based club was established in 2009 and progressed to the Liga Leumit in 2013–14, the club currently plays in second tier Liga Leumit, to which it promoted from Liga Alef in 2010–11. Katamon Stadium was razed in 1982, with the intention to build a modern stadium in its place. The new stadium in Katamon was never built, and instead Teddy Stadium was built in the Malha neighborhood, during the early years, support of the club came mostly from the labour organizations in Israel. City rivals Beitar were identified with the right-wing nationalist organizations, all this played out to create the Jerusalem derby. To this day the rivalry exists, though it is not nearly as heated as both clubs played in the top division of Israeli football. In 2007 a large majority of fans, unhappy with the management of the club, as to 11 February 2017 Club website Hapoel Jerusalem Israel Football Association
Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem F. C. is an Israeli fan-owned association football club in Jerusalem, Israel. It was conceived and founded in 2007 by Hapoel Jerusalem fans unhappy with the teams management, the club currently plays in Liga Leumit and is based at Teddy Stadium. At its founding, Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem became the first fan-owned football club in Israel, football club Hapoel Jerusalem was founded in 1926. The team belonged to the Histadrut, Israels organization of workers unions, in 1957, the team advanced for the first time to the top Israeli league. The most important achievement in the history of the club was winning the Israel State Cup in 1973, since the 1980s, Hapoel has lost its lead to Beitar Jerusalem. The team spent the 1980s and 1990s swinging between the 1st and 2nd leagues, eventually, it was purchased by businessman Yosi Sassi in 1993, who appointed his friend, Victor Yona, as chairman. Since the late 1990s, the two got into disputes and legal proceedings, and the team changed hands back and forth between the two. When it became evident that such a deal was impossible. The group, led by journalist Uri Sheradski and supported by future mayor Nir Barkat, bought Hapoel Mevasseret Zion/Abu Ghosh. The new name was taken from Katamon, a neighborhood of Jerusalem where Hapoel Jerusalem played from 1954 until moving to the YMCA Stadium, the first game was played October 19,2007, to a crowd of 3,000, Hapoel Katamon won Hapoel Nahalat Yehuda 2–1. Not all of Hapoel Jerusalem fans supported this move, some believed that creating Katamon was betraying the team, a popular slogan among the critics was love cant be bought for a 1,000 Shekels, a reference to the membership price. However, the number of spectators at Katamon matches has steadily outnumbered that of Hapoel Jerusalem, the club survived for 2 years in this form. In the 2008–09 season the team finished 7th place, during this second season, efforts to merge between Hapoel Katamon and Hapoel Jerusalem resumed, but to no success. Eventually, it was decided by a vote of member-fans to end the cooperation with Hapoel Mevasseret, the main disadvantage was that a newly created team must start out at Liga Gimel, the 5th division. The new club, named Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem, started playing in late September 2009 at the Hebrew University Stadium at Givat Ram, the new management form consists of 3 representatives elected by the fans. Amir Gola, an icon, returned from retirement as a former captain of Hapoel Jerusalem to be captain of the new team. Throughout the 2008/2009 season Hapoel Katamon had a lead, and it finished first in the league. The final home-match was played to a crowd of 4,000
Israel national football team
The Israel national football team is the national football team of Israel, governed by the Israel Football Association. Israels national team is the successor of the Mandatory Palestine/Eretz Israel national team. The Israeli side qualified for their only FIFA World Cup to date in 1970, Israel also hosted and won the AFC Asian Cup in 1964, and was finalist in 1956 and in 1960. Football has a tradition in Israel. The game was introduced during the time of the Ottoman Empire. The British Mandate of Palestine national team made its debut against Egypt in 1934 FIFA World Cup qualification, the team played five international matches, including a friendly match against Lebanon, until the British Mandate for Palestine was dissolved. Upon the creation of the State of Israel in May 1948, the Israel national teams first match as an independent nation was on 26 September 1948, against the USA Olympic Team. The game was won by the USA 1–3, and in the 20th minute of the game Shmuel Ben-Dror scored the first goal after the creation of the State of Israel, Israel competed in the Asian Football Confederation between 1954 and 1974. Due to the Arab–Israeli conflict, several Muslim states refused to compete against Israel, Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup. In 1968, Israel went to their first Olympic Games and lost to Bulgaria in the quarterfinals. In 1969, Israel qualified for its first and only FIFA World Cup, via Asia/Oceania, in 1976, Israel went to its second Olympic Games and lost in the quarterfinals again, this time against Brazil. In 1972 and 1977, it attempted World Cup qualification as part of Asia, in 1974, Israel was excluded from AFC competitions, as a result of a proposal by Kuwait which was adopted by a vote of 17 to 13 with 6 abstentions. The vote coincided with the 1974 Asian Games, where the competition was marred by the refusal of both North Korea and Kuwait to play second-round matches against Israel. During the 1980s, it played the majority of its matches against European teams, for the next two tournaments, it entered Oceanias qualification stage. In 1989, Israel made it to the CONMEBOL–OFC play-offs for the 1990 World Cup to play against Colombia, which qualified from the South American group, but lost. In 1991, Israeli clubs began participating in European club competitions, in 1994, Israel received full UEFA membership,20 years after it had left Asia. Within Europe, Israel has been a minor nation, though with some successes, notably winning 3–2 in Paris against France in 1993. That year, Israel made it to the playoffs of UEFA Euro 2000, the Swiss had a better goal difference, though, and advanced to the qualification play-off
Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word stadium originated. In modern times, a stadium is officially a stadium when at least 50% of the capacity is an actual building. If the majority of the capacity is formed by grasshills, the venue is not officially considered a stadium. Most of the stadiums with a capacity of at least 10,000 are used for football, or soccer. A large amount of sports venues are also used for concerts. Stadium is the Latin form of the Greek word stadion, a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet, as feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion =600 ft, in a historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller. The equivalent Roman measure, the stadium, had a similar length — about 185 m -, the English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length. Most dictionaries provide for both stadiums and stadia as valid English plurals, although etymological purists sometimes apply stadia only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium. The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, Greece, initially the Games consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. The stadion, a measure of length, may be related to the Stadium, Greek and Roman stadiums have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium of Domitian, in Rome. The excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium hosted a version of the Olympic Games in 1870,1875,1896 and 1906. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas, the first stadiums to be built in the modern era were basic facilities, designed for the single purpose of fitting as many spectators in as possible. One such early stadium was the Lansdowne Road Stadium, the brainchild of Henry Dunlop, banned from locating sporting events at Trinity College, Dunlop built the stadium in 1872. Some 300 cartloads of soil from a trench beneath the railway were used to raise the ground, other early stadiums from this period in the UK include the Stamford Bridge stadium and Anfield stadium. In the U. S. However, many of these caught fire. All of the 19th-century wooden parks were replaced, some only a few years. Goodison Park was the first purpose-built football stadium in the world, walton-based building firm Kelly brothers were instructed to erect two uncovered stands that could each accommodate 4,000 spectators
Theodor Teddy Kollek was an Israeli politician who served as the mayor of Jerusalem from 1965 to 1993, and founder of the Jerusalem Foundation. Kollek was re-elected five times, in 1969,1973,1978,1983 and 1989, after reluctantly running for a seventh term in 1993 at the age of 82, he lost to Likud candidate and future Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Olmert. During his tenure, Jerusalem developed into a city, especially after its reunification in 1967. He was once called the greatest builder of Jerusalem since Herod, theodore Kollek was born in Nagyvázsony,120 km from Budapest, Hungary as Kollek Tivadar. His parents named him after Theodor Herzl, the family moved to Vienna in 1918. Growing up in the Austrian capital city, Kollek came to share his father Alfréds Zionist convictions, in 1935, three years before the Nazis seized power in Austria, the Kollek family immigrated to British-controlled Mandatory Palestine. In 1937, he was one of the founders of Kibbutz Ein Gev and that same year he married Tamar Schwarz. They had two children, a son, the film director Amos Kollek, and a daughter, Osnat and he succeeded Reuven Zaslani and preceded Zeev Sherf in this function, and was carrying out the Jewish Agencys policy of assisting the British in fighting these groups. In 1942 Kolleck was appointed the Jewish Agencys deputy head of intelligence, between January 1945 and May 1946 he was the Agencys chief external liaison officer in Jerusalem and was in contact with MI5s main representative as well as members of British Military Intelligence. On 10 August 1945 he revealed to MI5 the location of a secret Irgun training camp near Binyamina, twenty-seven Irgun members were arrested in the raid that followed. During World War II, Kollek tried to represent Jewish interests in Europe on behalf of the Jewish Agency, in 1947–48, he represented the Haganah in Washington, where he assisted in acquiring ammunition for Israel’s then-fledgling army. Kollek became an ally of David Ben-Gurion, serving in the latter’s governments from 1952 as the director general of the prime minister’s office. In 1965 Teddy Kollek succeeded Mordechai Ish-Shalom as Mayor of Jerusalem, on his motivations for seeking the mayor’s office in Jerusalem, Kollek once recalled, I got into this by accident I was bored. When the city was united, I saw this as an historic occasion, to take care of it and show better care than anyone else ever has is a full life purpose. I think Jerusalem is the one element in Jewish history. A body can live without an arm or a leg, not without the heart and this is the heart and soul of it. During his tenure Jerusalem developed into a city, especially after its reunification in 1967 He was often called “the greatest builder of Jerusalem since Herod. ”Kollek was re-elected five times, in 1969,1973,1978,1983. In a reluctant seventh bid for mayor in 1993, Kollek, aged 82, in the Six-Day War of 1967, East Jerusalem, which had been under Jordanian control since 1948, was taken over by Israel