The Hershey Company
The Hershey Company called Hershey's, is an American company and one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world. It manufactures baked products, such as cookies, milk shake and many more, which increase its variety of range, its headquarters are in Hershey, home to Hersheypark and Hershey's Chocolate World. It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the Hershey Chocolate Company, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company; the Hershey Trust Company owns a minority stake, but retains a majority of the voting power within the company. Hershey's chocolate is available across the United States, in over 60 countries worldwide, they have three mega distribution centers, with modern labor management systems. In addition, Hershey is a member of the World Cocoa Foundation, it is associated with the Hersheypark Stadium and the Giant Center. After an apprenticeship to a confectioner in 1873, Milton S. Hershey founded a candy shop in Philadelphia; this candy shop was only open for six years, after which Hershey apprenticed with another confectioner in Denver, where he learned to make caramel.
After another failed business attempt in New York, Hershey returned to Pennsylvania, where in 1886 he founded the Lancaster Caramel Company. The use of fresh milk in caramels proved successful, in 1900, after seeing chocolate-making machines for the first time at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Hershey sold his caramel company for $1,000,000, began to concentrate on chocolate manufacturing, stating to people who questioned him, "Caramels are just a fad, but chocolate is a permanent thing." In 1896, Milton built a milk-processing plant so he could create and refine a recipe for milk chocolate candies. In 1899, he developed the Hershey process, less sensitive to milk quality than traditional methods. In 1900, he began manufacturing Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bars called Hershey's Bars or Hershey Bars. In 1903, Hershey began construction of a chocolate plant in his hometown of Derry Church, which came to be known as Hershey, Pennsylvania; the town was an inexpensive place for their families to live.
To increase employee morale, Milton provided leisure activities and created what would become Hersheypark to make sure the citizens enjoyed themselves. The milk chocolate bars manufactured at this plant proved popular, the company grew rapidly. In 1907, he introduced a new candy, bite-sized, flat-bottomed, conical-shaped pieces of chocolate that he named "Hershey's Kiss", they were individually wrapped by hand in squares of aluminum foil, the introduction of machine wrapping in 1921 simplified the process while adding the small paper ribbon to the top of the package to indicate that it was a genuine Hershey product. Today, 80 million of the candies are produced each day. Other products introduced included Mr. Goodbar, containing peanuts in milk chocolate, Hershey's Syrup, semisweet chocolate chips, the Krackel bar containing crisped rice. Labor unrest came to Hershey in the late 1930s as a Congress of Industrial Organizations-backed union attempted to organize the factory workers. A failed sit-down strike in 1937 ended in violence, as loyalist workers and local dairy farmers beat many of the strikers as they attempted to leave the plant.
By 1940, an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor had organized Hershey's workers under the leadership of John Shearer, who became the first president of Local Chapter Number 464 of the Bakery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers' International Union. Local 464 still represents the Hershey workforce. Shortly before World War II, Bruce Murrie, son of long-time Hershey's president William F. R. Murrie, struck a deal with Forrest Mars to create a hard sugar-coated chocolate that would be called M&M's. Murrie had 20% interest in the confection, which used Hershey chocolate during the rationing era during World War II. In 1948, Mars became one of Hershey's main competitors. In June 2006, Philadelphia city councilman Juan Ramos called for Hershey's to stop marketing "Ice Breakers Pacs", a kind of mint, due to the resemblance of its packaging to a kind, used for illegal street drugs. In September 2006, ABC News reported that several Hershey chocolate products were reformulated to replace cocoa butter with vegetable oil as an emulsifier.
According to the company, this change was made to reduce the costs of producing the products instead of raising their prices or decreasing the sizes. Some consumers complained that the taste was different, but the company stated that in the company-sponsored blind taste tests, about half of consumers preferred the new versions; as the new versions no longer met the Food and Drug Administration's official definition of "milk chocolate", the changed items were relabeled from stating they were "milk chocolate" and "made with chocolate" to "chocolate candy" and "chocolaty."In April 2014, the Hershey chocolate plant on East Chocolate Avenue in Hershey Pennsylvania was demolished to make way for mixed-use development. A 2016 attempt to sell Hershey to Mondelez International was scuttled because of objections by the Hershey Trust. Harry Burnett Reese invented Reese's Peanut Butter Cups after founding the H. B. Reese Candy Company in 1923. Reese died on May 1956 in West Palm Beach, Florida leaving the company to his six sons.
On July 2, 1963 the H. B. Reese Candy Company was acquired by the Hershey Chocolate Corporation in a tax free stock-for-stock merger
Mohair is a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. Both durable and resilient, mohair is notable for its high luster and sheen, which has helped gain it the nickname the "Diamond Fiber", is used in fiber blends to add these qualities to a textile. Mohair takes dye exceptionally well. Mohair is warm in winter as it has excellent insulating properties, while remaining cool in summer due to its moisture wicking properties, it is durable elastic, flame resistant and crease resistant. It is considered to be a luxury fiber, like cashmere and silk, is more expensive than most wool, produced by sheep. Mohair is composed of keratin, a protein found in the hair, wool and skin of all mammals, but its special properties are unique to the Angora goat. While it has scales like wool, the scales are not developed indicated. Thus, mohair does not felt as wool does. Mohair fiber is 25–45 microns in diameter, it increases in diameter with the age of the goat, growing along with the animal.
Fine hair from younger animals is used for finer applications such as clothing, the thicker hair from older animals is more used for carpets and heavy fabrics intended for outerwear. The term mohair is sometimes used to describe a type of material used for the folding roof on convertible cars. In this instance, mohair refers to a form of denim-like canvas. Shearing is done twice a year, in the spring and in the fall. One goat will produce 11 to 17 pounds of mohair a year. Shearing is done on a cleanly swept floor and extra care is taken to keep the hair clean and free of debris; the hair is processed to remove natural grease and vegetable matter. Mohair grows in uniform locks; the Angora goat is a single-coat breed, unlike pygora or cashmere, there is no need to dehair a mohair fleece to separate the coarse hair from the down hair. South Africa is the world's largest mohair producer, producing around 50% of the total world production. Due to animal cruelty in the South African farms, Zara, H&M, Topshop and many more will no longer sell Mohair clothing.
Mohair is one of the oldest textile fibers in use. The Angora goat is thought to originate from the mountains of Tibet, reaching Turkey in the 16th century. However, fabric made of mohair was known in England as early as the 8th century; the word "mohair" was adopted into English sometime before 1570 from the Arabic: mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally'choice', from khayyara,'he chose'. In about 1820, raw mohair was first exported from Turkey to England, which became the leading manufacturer of mohair products; the Yorkshire mills spun yarn, exported to Russia, Austria, etc. as well as woven directly in Yorkshire. Until 1849, the Turkish province of Ankara was the sole producer of Angora goats. Charles V is believed to be the first to bring Angora goats to Europe. Due to the great demand for mohair fiber, throughout the 1800s there was a great deal of crossbreeding between Angora goats and common goats; the growing demand for mohair further resulted in attempts on a commercial scale to introduce the goat into South Africa in 1838, the United States in 1849, Australia from 1856–1875, still New Zealand.
In 1849, Angora goats made their way to America as a gift from Turkey. During the 1960s, a blend of mohair and wool suiting fabric known as Tonik or Tonic was developed in England; this had a shiny, color changing appearance and was popular among rude boys and the mod subculture. Similar suits were worn by mod revivalists and fans of ska punk and Two Tone music during the early to mid-1980s. Today, South Africa is the largest mohair producer in the world, with the majority of South African mohair being produced in the Eastern Cape; the United States is the second-largest producer, with the majority of American mohair being produced in Texas. Turkey produces good-quality mohair; because the goats are sheared once a year, Turkey produces the longest mohair of the world. In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres, so as to raise the profile of mohair and other natural fibers. Mohair is used in scarves, winter hats, sweaters, coats and home furnishing.
Mohair fiber is found in carpets, wall fabrics, craft yarns, many other fabrics, may be used as a substitute for fur. Because its texture resembles fine human hair, mohair is used in making high grade doll wigs or in rooting customized dolls. Mohair is a soft yarn when compared with other natural and synthetic fibers. Due to mohair lacking prominent, protruding scales along the hair's surface, it is blended with wool or alpaca. Blending the scaled wool helps the smooth mohair fibers hold their shape and stick together when spun into yarn. Mohair is valued for certain other unique characteristics: it is warmer than other fibers when used to make a light-weight garment, is blended with wool for this reason. Combined with mohair's ability to absorb dyes exceptionally well, pure mohair yarns are recognizable for their vivid saturated colours. Fibers from young goats are softest and are used to manufacture yarn for clothing. Fibers from mature goats are used to produce such things as rugs and carpets.
Mohair is used in'climbing skins' for randonnee skiing and ski touring. The mohair is used in a carpet allowing the skier an appropriate ascension method without sliding downhill; as of 2009, world output of mohair was estima
Crochet is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook. The name is derived from the French term crochet, meaning'small hook'; these are made of materials such as metal, wood, or plastic and are manufactured commercially and produced in artisan workshops. The salient difference between crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before the next one is begun, while knitting keeps a large number of stitches open at a time; the word crochet is derived from the Old French crochet, a diminutive of croche, in turn from the Germanic croc, both meaning "hook". It was used in 17th-century French lace making, crochetage designating a stitch used to join separate pieces of lace, crochet subsequently designating both a specific type of fabric and the hooked needle used to produce it. Although the fabric is not known to be crochet in the present sense, a genealogical relationship between the techniques sharing that name appears likely.
Knitted textiles survive from early periods, but the first substantive evidence of crocheted fabric relates to its appearance in Europe during the 19th century. Earlier work identified as crochet was made by nålebinding, a different looped yarn technique; the first known published instructions for crochet explicitly using that term to designate the craft in its present sense appeared in the Dutch magazine Penélopé in 1823. This includes a color plate showing five styles of purse of which three were intended to be crocheted with silk thread; the first is "simple open crochet". The second starts in a semi-open form, where chain-stitch arches alternate with long segments of slip-stitch crochet, closes with a star made with "double-crochet stitches"; the third purse is made in double-crochet. The instructions prescribe the use of a tambour needle and introduce a number of decorative techniques; the earliest dated English reference to garments made of cloth produced by looping yarn with a hook—shepherd's knitting—is in The Memoirs of a Highland Lady by Elizabeth Grant.
The journal entry, itself, is dated 1812 but was not recorded in its subsequently published form until some time between 1845 and 1867, the actual date of publication was first in 1898. Nonetheless, the 1833 volume of Penélopé describes and illustrates a shepherd's hook, recommends its use for crochet with coarser yarn. In 1842, one of the numerous books discussing crochet that began to appear in the 1840s states: "Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds' hooks, are made of steel, ivory, or box-wood, they have a hook at one end similar in shape to a fish-hook, by which the wool or silk is caught and drawn through the work. These instruments are to be procured of various sizes..."Two years the same author, writes: "Crochet, — a species of knitting practised by the peasants in Scotland, with a small hooked needle called a shepherd’s hook, — has, within the last seven years, aided by taste and fashion, obtained the preference over all other ornamental works of a similar nature. It derives its present name from the French.
This art has attained its highest degree of perfection in England, whence it has been transplanted to France and Germany, both countries, although unjustifiably, have claimed the invention."An instruction book from 1846 describes Shepherd or Single Crochet as what in current British usage is either called single crochet or slip-stitch crochet, with U. S. American terminology always using the latter, it equates "Double" and "French crochet". Notwithstanding the categorical assertion of a purely British origin, there is solid evidence of a connection between French tambour embroidery and crochet; the former method of production was illustrated in detail in 1763 in Diderot's Encyclopedia. The tip of the needle shown there is indistinguishable from that of a present-day inline crochet hook and the chain stitch separated from a cloth support is a fundamental element of the latter technique; the 1823 Penélopé instructions unequivocally state that the tambour tool was used for crochet and the first of the 1840s instruction books uses the terms tambour and crochet as synonyms.
This equivalence is retained in the 4th edition of that work, 1847. The strong taper of the shepherd's hook eases the production of slip-stitch crochet but is less amenable to stitches that require multiple loops on the hook at the same time. Early yarn hooks were continuously tapered but enough to accommodate multiple loops; the design with a cylindrical shaft, commonplace today was reserved for tambour-style steel needles. Both types merged into the modern form that appeared toward the end of the 19th century, including both tapered and cylindrical segments, the continuously tapered bone hook remained in industrial production until World War II; the early instruction books make frequent reference to the alternative use of'ivory, bone, or wooden hooks' and'steel needles in a handle', as appropriate to the stitch being made. Taken with the synonymous labeling of shepherd's- and single crochet, the similar equivalence of French- and double crochet, there is a strong suggestion that crochet is rooted both in tambour embroidery and shepherd's knitting, leading to thread and yarn crochet
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water. Shipwrecking may be accidental. In January 1999, Angela Croome estimated that there have been about three million shipwrecks worldwide. Historic wrecks are attractive to maritime archaeologists because they preserve historical information: for example, studying the wreck of Mary Rose revealed information about seafaring and life in the 16th century. Military wrecks, caused by a skirmish at sea, are studied to find details about the historic event. Discoveries of treasure ships from the period of European colonisation, which sank in remote locations leaving few living witnesses, such as Batavia, do occur as well; some contemporary wrecks, such as the oil tankers Prestige or Erika, are of interest because of their potential harm to the environment. Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur reef growth, such as Adolphus Busch and Ocean Freeze. Wrecks like Adolphus Busch and historic wrecks such as Thistlegorm are of interest to recreational divers that dive to shipwrecks because they are interesting to explore, provide large habitats for many types of marine life, have an interesting history.
Well known shipwrecks include the catastrophic Titanic, Lusitania, Empress of Ireland, Andrea Doria, or Costa Concordia. There are thousands of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk; these abandoned, or derelict ships are smaller craft, such as fishing vessels. They may be removed by port authorities. Poor design, improperly stowed cargo and other human errors leading to collisions, bad weather and other causes can lead to accidental sinkings. Intentional reasons for sinking a ship include forming an artificial reef. A ship can be used as breakwater structure. Many factors determine the state of preservation of a wreck: the ship's construction materials the wreck becoming covered in sand or silt the salinity of the water the wreck is in the level of destruction involved in the ship's loss whether the components or cargo of the wreck were salvaged whether the wreck was demolished to clear a navigable channel the depth of water at the wreck site the strength of tidal currents or wave action at the wreck site the exposure to surface weather conditions at the wreck site the presence of marine animals that consume the ship's fabric temperature the acidity, other chemical characteristics of the water at the siteThe above - the stratification and the damages caused by marine creatures - is better described as "stratification and contamination" of shipwrecks.
The stratification not only creates another challenge for marine archaeology, but a challenge to determine its primary state, i.e. the state that it was in when it sank. Stratification includes several different types of sand and silt, as well as tumulus and encrustations; these "sediments" are linked to the type of currents and the type of water, which implies any chemical reactions that would affect potential cargo. Besides this geological phenomenon, wrecks face the damage of marine creatures that create a home out of them octopuses and crustaceans; these creatures affect the primary state because they move, or break, any parts of the shipwreck that are in their way, thereby affecting the original condition of amphorae, for example, or any other hollow places. In addition to the slight or severe destruction marine animals can create, there are "external" contaminants, such as the artifacts on and around the wreck at Pickles Reef and the over-lapping wrecks at the Molasses Reef Wreck, or contemporary pollution in bodies of water, that affect shipwrecks by changing the chemical structures, or further damaging what is left of a specific ship.
Despite these challenges, if the information retrieved does not appear to be sufficient, or a poor preservation is achieved, authors like J. A. Parker claim that it is the historical value of the shipwreck that counts as well as any slight piece of information or evidence, acquired. Exposed wooden components decay quickly; the only wooden parts of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is Mary Rose. Steel and iron, depending on their thickness, may retain the ship's structure for decades; as corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by tides and weather, the structure collapses. Thick ferrous objects such as cannons, steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine survive well underwater in spite of corrosion. Propellers, condensers and port holes were made from non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze, which do not corrode easily. Shipwrecks in some freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North America, have remained intact with little degradation.
In some sea areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, salinity is low, centuries-old wrecks have been preserved in reasonable condition. However, bacteria found in fresh water cause the wood on ships to rot more than in seawater unless it is deprived of oxygen. Two shipwrecks, USS Hamilton and USS Scourge, have been at the bottom of Lake Ontario since they sunk during a violent storm on August 8, 1813, during the War of 1812, they are
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Merrythought is a toy manufacturing company established in 1930 in the United Kingdom. The company specialises in soft toys teddy bears, it is the last remaining British teddy bear factory to still make its products in Britain and is located at Ironbridge in Shropshire. The company's site in Ironbridge has a small museum and shop open to the public, is where the toys are made; the site is a former iron foundry building on the banks of the River Severn, less than half a mile upstream from the world-famous Iron Bridge itself. The vicinity is known as Dale End, lying at the bottom of the Coalbrookdale valley, falls within the wider Ironbridge Gorge World Heritage Site; the origin of the firm's name is uncertain but derives from an archaic word for "wishbone" – the company has used a wishbone as an emblem since 1992. Merrythought was founded in 1930 by Gordon Holmes and George H. Laxton, with the first catalogue in 1931; the company hired AC Janisch, in charge of sales at J. K. Farnell as well as two former employees of Chad Valley, Clifton James Rendle and Florence May Attwood, with Attwood producing the company’s first catalogue – an imaginative range of 32 toys including the first Merrythought teddy bear ‘Magnet’.
Merrythought's most famous individual bear was "Mr Whoppit", the mascot of land and water speed record breaker Donald Campbell. The company first produced teddy bears based on the "Woppit" character from the Robin comic in 1956; the company at first rented rooms at the Station Hotel in Wellington before moving to a building in Coalbrookdale. Business grew despite the Great Depression, with the Ironbridge site becoming the largest soft toy factory in Britain in 1935 and by 1939 over 200 people worked for Merrythought; the company's site was rented at first, but was purchased from the Coalbrookdale Company in 1956. Merrythought has operated from the same site, situated between The Wharfage and the Severn, since 1931, with the exception of during World War II when the site was requisitioned by the Admiralty from the outbreak of war in September 1939. During the War, the company produced equipment for war use; the oldest of the factory buildings were constructed in 1898 with further buildings added to the site during the 20th century as the business grew.
Trayton Holmes, son of founder Gordon Holmes, joined the company in 1949. In 1949 notable designer Clifton Rendle died, while Florence Attwood lived until 1952. After the war new buildings were built on the site and an automatic stuffing machine was bought from the United States in 1955. In 1957 the "Cheeky" bear was first introduced to the Merrythought range, a design which continues to be produced to the present day. In 1996 the Farnell brand name was bought by Merrythought. In 2001 a special Hope Bear was produced; the company altered during the 2000s' due to "the ongoing effects of external economics" cheap foreign-produced goods with which Merrythought could not compete due to the high production costs associated with manufacturing in the UK. Merrythought's extensive range of plush animals was no longer competitive against products from overseas so production of these products ceased. In 2007 a catalogue was revealed, with a "much sharper, collector-focused group of products", focusing on the traditional mohair teddy bears that Merrythought had become most famous for since the 1930s.
From 2007 to 2010 an independent company took on production of the teddy bears in the original factory at the Ironbridge site, with Merrythought Ltd purely managing product development and sales. This was a short-lived partnership and Merrythought ended up bringing production back in-house in early 2010 and have since continued to manage all elements of the business from Ironbridge, Shropshire. All Merrythought teddy bears are still 100% handmade in England. Oliver Holmes died from cancer, aged 60, on 30 April 2011; the eldest of his three daughters, was working at Merrythought at the time so took over the running of the company. Sarah and Hannah Holmes are now joint Managing Directors. Merrythought was awarded the 2011 Supplier Award by the famous, luxury London department store Fortnum & Mason, with limited edition bears for the store being made. In 2011 Merrythought won the prestigious, Red Ribbon Family Business Award for Innovation and Sarah Holmes won the Midlands Family Business Award for an'Outstanding Contribution' to her business.
The company still uses traditional methods and materials to produce a limited range of hand-crafted toys, appealing to the high end of the market. The founder's grandson, Oliver Holmes, ran the business as managing director until his death in 2011; as of 2011, all four shareholders are members of the Holmes family. The present range includes for the most part traditional and collectable teddy bears, some other soft toy animals. Since the relaunch in 2007 the collectable part of the range consists of numerous spe
An editorial cartoon known as a political cartoon, is a drawing containing a commentary expressing the artist's opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist, they combine artistic skill and satire in order to question authority and draw attention to corruption, political violence and other social ills. Developed in England in the latter part of the 18th century, James Gillray was a pioneer of the political cartoon. Founded in 1841, the British periodical Punch appropriated the term cartoon to refer to its political cartoons, which led to the term's widespread use; the pictorial satire has been credited as the precursor to the political cartoons in England: John J. Richetti, in The Cambridge history of English literature, 1660–1780, states that "English graphic satire begins with Hogarth's Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme". William Hogarth’s pictures combined social criticism with sequential artistic scenes. A frequent target of his satire was the corruption of early 18thcentury British politics.
An early satirical work was an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme, about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. His art had a strong moralizing element to it, such as in his masterpiece of 1732–33, A Rake's Progress, engraved in 1734, it consisted of eight pictures that depicted the reckless life of Tom Rakewell, the son of a rich merchant, who spends all of his money on luxurious living, services from sex workers, gambling—the character's life ends in Bethlem Royal Hospital. However, his work was only tangentially politicized and was regarded on its artistic merits. George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend produced some of the first overtly political cartoons and caricatures in the 1750s; the medium began to develop in England in the latter part of the 18th century—especially around the time of the French Revolution—under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London.
Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon. Calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of Revolutionary France and Napoleon; the times in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favourable to the growth of a great school of caricature. Party warfare was carried on with not a little bitterness. Gillray's incomparable wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, beauty of execution, at once gave him the first place among caricaturists. George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, his early career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. He gained notoriety with his political prints that attacked the royal family and leading politicians and was bribed in 1820 "not to caricature His Majesty" "in any immoral situation".
His work included a personification of England named John Bull, developed from about 1790 in conjunction with other British satirical artists such as Gillray and Rowlandson. The art of the editorial cartoon was further developed with the publication of the British periodical Punch in 1841, founded by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells, it was bought by Bradbury and Evans in 1842, who capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies to turn the magazine into a preeminent national institution. The term "cartoon" to refer to comic drawings was coined by the magazine in 1843. Punch humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, the popularity of the Punch cartoons led to the term's widespread use. Artists who published in Punch during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene; this group became known as "The Punch Brotherhood", which included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman and Hall in 1843.
Punch authors and artists contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called Once A Week, created in response to Dickens' departure from Household Words. The most prolific and influential cartoonist of the 1850s and 60s was John Tenniel, chief cartoon artist for Punch, who perfected the art of physical caricature and representation to a point that has changed little up to the present day. For over five decades he was a steadfast social witness to the sweeping national changes that occurred during this period alongside his fellow cartoonist John Leech; the magazine loyally captured the general public mood. By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many countries featured cartoons designed to express the publisher's opinion on the politics of the day. One of the most successful was Thomas Nast in New York City, who imported realistic German drawing techniques to major political issues in the era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Nast was most famous for his 160