The Plain Dealer
The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, United States. It has the largest circulation of any Ohio newspaper and was a top 20 newspaper for Sunday circulation in the United States as of March 2013; as of December 2015, The Plain Dealer had more than 250,000 daily readers and 790,000 readers on Sunday. The Plain Dealer's media market, the Cleveland-Akron DMA, is one of the Top 20 markets in the United States. With a population of 3.8 million people, it is the fourth-largest market in the Midwest, Ohio's largest media market. In April 2013 The Plain Dealer announced it would reduce home delivery to four days a week, including Sunday; this went into effect on August 5, 2013. A daily version of The Plain Dealer is available electronically as well as in print at stores and newsstands; the newspaper was established in 1842, less than 50 years after Moses Cleaveland landed on the banks of the Cuyahoga River in The Flats, is owned by Advance Publications. The Plain Dealer Publishing Company is under the direction of George Rodrigue.
The paper employs over 700 people. The newspaper was sold on March 1, 1967, to S. I. Newhouse's newspaper chain, has been under the control of the Newhouse family since; the paper was held by the trusts of the Holden estate, operated as The Plain Dealer Publishing Company, part of the Forest City Publishing Company, which published the Cleveland News until its purchase and subsequent closing by its major competitor, the Cleveland Press, owned by the E. W. Scripps Company, in 1960. On December 18, 2005, The Plain Dealer ceased publication of its weekly Sunday Magazine, published uninterrupted for over 85 years; the demise of the paper's Sunday Magazine was attributed to the high cost of newsprint and declining revenue, the PD reassigned the editors and reporters to other areas of the newspaper. It assured readers that the stories that would have appeared in the Sunday Magazine would be integrated into other areas of the paper. On the morning of Wednesday, July 31, 2013, nearly a third of the newsroom staff was eliminated through layoffs and voluntary resignations.
The Plain Dealer's corporate owner, New York-based Advance Publications Inc. a private company run by the heirs of S. I. Newhouse, under a strategy to focus more on online news delivery, had been cutting staff and publication schedules. In December 2012, under an agreement with the Newspaper Guild, nearly two dozen union newsroom staff voluntarily accepted severance packages; the July round of layoffs led to accusations by the Guild that management had misled the union by cutting more employees than had been agreed upon. On August 5, 2013, the Northeast Ohio Media Group launched and The Plain Dealer Publishing Company was formed. Northeast Ohio Media Group operates cleveland.com and Sun Newspapers and is responsible for all multimedia ad sales and marketing for The Plain Dealer, Sun News and cleveland.com. It provides content to The Plain Dealer, cleveland.com and Sun News. The Plain Dealer Publishing Company publishes in print seven days a week; the company provides production, finance, information technology and other support services for the Plain Dealer Publishing Co. and Northeast Ohio Media Group.
2006 Missouri Lifestyle Journalism Award 1953 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning. 2005 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary. 2003 Editor & Publisher Editor of the Year Award 12-time Ohio News Photographer's Association Award recipient. Nine-time Ohio Associated Press General Excellence Award winner: 1994 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012 Two-time Ohio Associated Press First Amendment Award recipient Numerous other AP Awards in various individual and specific categories The daily paper costs $1.50 and the Sunday/Thanksgiving Day edition is $2.25 at newsstands/newsracks. The full subscription weekly price is $4.65. These prices only apply to The Plain Dealer's home delivery area, which are the Northeast Ohio counties of Cuyahoga, Geauga, Erie, Summit, Ashtabula and Lorain; the Plain Dealer is available all over the state at select newsstands, including in the state capital and anywhere in the US or world via US mail service, in which prices are higher. The newspaper reported daily readership of 543,110 and Sunday readership of 858,376 as of October, 2013.
Effective August 5, 2013, home delivery was reduced to four days a week. Subscribers to the three premium editions have access to a digital version seven days a week, an exact replica of the morning's paper. A print edition is still available daily at stores and newsstands; the Plain Dealer operated a variety of news bureaus. By the middle of 2014, both the state capital bureau in Columbus and the Washington bureau were shifted to the Northeast Ohio Media Group, as shown by the affiliations of their bureau chiefs; the Plain Dealer is organized depending on the day of the week. The Sunday edition is, as with any major U. S. daily newspaper, the largest edition of the week. The current organization took effect August 5, 2013. Major sections printed in most editions include: News Local, state and international news, editorial/op-ed page, weather Business Local and national business news, bonds. Sports Cleveland and national sports commentary; the sports section focuses its beat reporters on the Browns, Indian
Condé Nast Inc. is an American mass media company founded in 1909 by Condé Montrose Nast, based at One World Trade Center and owned by Advance Publications. The company attracts more than 164 million consumers across its 19 brands and media: Allure, Architectural Digest, Ars Technica, Bon Appétit, Condé Nast Traveler, Glamour, Golf Digest, GQ, Self, Teen Vogue, The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, Vogue, W and Wired. Robert A. Sauerberg Jr. is Condé Nast's current chief president. US Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour serves as the current artistic director of Condé Nast; the company launched Condé Nast Entertainment in 2011 to develop film and digital video programming. Condé Montrose Nast, a New York City-born publisher, launched his magazine empire in 1909 with the purchase of Vogue, first created in 1892 as a New York weekly journal of society and fashion news. At first, Nast published the magazine under Vogue Company and did not incorporate Condé Nast until 1923, he had a flair for nurturing elite readers as well as advertisers and upgraded Vogue, sending the magazine on its path of becoming a top fashion authority.
Nast's portfolio expanded to include House & Garden, Vanity Fair and American Golfer. The company introduced British Vogue in 1916, Condé Nast became the first publisher of an overseas edition of an existing magazine. Condé Nast is considered to be the originator of the "class publication," a type of magazine focused on a particular social group or interest instead of targeting the largest possible readership, its magazines focus on a wide range of subjects, including travel, home and other interests, with fashion the larger portion of the company's focus. Nast opened a printing press in 1924, which closed in 1964 to make way for more centrally located sites capable of producing higher volumes. During the Great Depression, Condé Nast introduced innovative typography and color. Vogue's first full color photograph was featured on the cover in 1932, marking the year when Condé Nast began replacing fashion drawings on covers with photo illustrations―an innovative move at the time. Glamour, launched in 1939, was the last magazine introduced to the company by Nast, who died in 1942.
In 1959, Samuel I. Newhouse bought Condé Nast for US$5 million as an anniversary gift for his wife Mitzi, who loved Vogue, he merged it with the held holding company Advance Publications. His son, S. I. Newhouse, Jr. known as "Si," became chairman of Condé Nast in 1975. The Newhouse era at Condé Nast launched a period of acquisitions, overhauls of existing magazines and the founding of new publications. In January 2000, Condé Nast moved from 350 Madison Avenue to 4 Times Square, which at the time was the first skyscraper built in New York City since 1992 and boasted a Frank Gehry cafeteria; the move was viewed as contributing to the transformation of Times Square. In the same year, Condé Nast purchased Fairchild Publications, home to W and WWD, from the Walt Disney Company. In 2001, Condé Nast bought Golf Digest and Golf World from The New York Times Company for US$435 million. On October 5, 2009, Condé Nast announced the closure of three of its publications: Cookie, Modern Bride, Elegant Bride.
Gourmet ceased monthly publication with its November 2009 issue. In print, Gourmet continues in the form of special editions on cookbooks. Other Condé Nast titles were shut down as well; the company folded the women's magazine Jane with its August issue in 2007 and shut down its website. One of Condé Nast's oldest titles, the American edition of House and Garden, ceased publication after the December 2007 issue. Portfolio and Domino were folded as well. Condé Nast has made some notable acquisitions. On October 31, 2006, Condé Nast acquired the content aggregation site Reddit, spun off as a wholly owned subsidiary in September 2011. On May 20, 2008, the company announced its acquisition of a popular technology-oriented website, Ars Technica. In July 2010, Robert Sauerberg became Condé Nast's president. In May 2011, Condé Nast was the first major publisher to deliver subscriptions for the iPad, starting with The New Yorker. In the same month, Next Issue Media, a joint venture formed by five U. S. publishers including Condé Nast, announced subscriptions for Android devices available for the Samsung Galaxy Tab.
In June 2011, Condé Nast announced that it would relocate its headquarters to One World Trade Center in 2015. In September 2011, Condé Nast said; the company launched Conde Nast Entertainment in 2011 to develop film and digital video programming. In May 2013, CNÉ's Digital Video Network debuted, featuring web series for such publications as Glamour and GQ. Wired joined the Digital Video Network with the announcement of five original web series including the National Security Agency satire Codefellas and the animated advice series Mister Know-It-All. In late October 2013, the company ceased its unpaid internship program. In November 2014, Condé Nast moved into One World Trade Center, where its new headquarters is located. On September 14, 2015, the company announced Robert A. Sauerberg Jr. was appointed as its chief executive officer and will remain its president.
Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine covering many topics including fashion, culture and runway. Vogue began as a weekly newspaper in 1892 in the United States, before becoming a monthly publication years later; the British Vogue was the first international edition launched in 1916, while the Italian version has been called the top fashion magazine in the world. As of today, there are 23 international editions. In 1892, Arthur Baldwin Turnure, an American business man, founded Vogue as a weekly newspaper in the United States, sponsored by Kristoffer Wright. Turnure's intention was to create a publication that celebrated the "ceremonial side of life". From its inception, the magazine targeted the new New York upper class. Vogue glamorously "recount their habits, their leisure activities, their social gatherings, the places they frequented, the clothing they wore...and everyone who wanted to look like them and enter their exclusive circle." The magazine at this time was concerned with fashion, with coverage of sports and social affairs included for its male readership.
Despite the magazine's content, it grew slowly during this period. Condé Montrose Nast purchased Vogue in 1905 one year before Turnure's death and grew the publication, he started Vogue overseas in the 1910s. Under Nast, the magazine soon shifted its focus to women, in turn the price was soon raised; the magazine's number of publications and profit increased under Nast's management. By 1911, the Vogue brand had garnered a reputation that it continues to maintain, targeting an elite audience and expanding into the coverage of weddings. According to Condé Nast Russia, after the First World War made deliveries in the Old World impossible, printing began in England; the decision to print in England proved to be successful causing Nast to release the first issue of French Vogue in 1920. The magazine's number of subscriptions surged during the Great Depression, again during World War II. During this time, noted critic and former Vanity Fair editor Frank Crowninshield served as its editor, having been moved over from Vanity Fair by publisher Condé Nast.
In July 1932, American Vogue placed its first color photograph on the cover of the magazine. The photograph was taken by photographer Edward Steichen and portrays a woman swimmer holding a beach ball in the air. Laird Borrelli notes that Vogue led the decline of fashion illustration in the late 1930s, when they began to replace their celebrated illustrated covers, by artists such as Dagmar Freuchen, with photographic images. Nast was responsible for introducing color printing and the "two-page spread." He impacted the magazine and turned it into a "successful business" and the "women's magazine we recognize today" and increased the sales volumes until his death in 1942. In the 1960s, with Diana Vreeland as editor-in-chief and personality, the magazine began to appeal to the youth of the sexual revolution by focusing more on contemporary fashion and editorial features that discussed sexuality. Toward this end, Vogue extended coverage to include East Village boutiques such as Limbo on St. Mark's Place, as well as including features of "downtown" personalities such as Andy Warhol's "Superstar" Jane Holzer's favorite haunts.
Vogue continued making household names out of models, a practice that continued with Suzy Parker, Jean Shrimpton, Lauren Hutton, Marisa Berenson, Penelope Tree, others. In 1973, Vogue became a monthly publication. Under editor-in-chief Grace Mirabella, the magazine underwent extensive editorial and stylistic changes to respond to changes in the lifestyles of its target audience. Mirabella states that she was chosen to change Vogue because "women weren't interested in reading about or buying clothes that served no purpose in their changing lives." She was selected to make the magazine appeal to "the free, working, "liberated" woman of the seventies. She changed the magazine by adding text with interviews, arts coverage, serious health pieces; when that type of stylistic change fell out of favor in the 1980s, Mirabella was brutally fired. Her take on it: "For a magazine devoted to style, this was not a stylish way of telling me." In July 1988, after Vogue had begun to lose ground to three-year-old upstart Elle, Anna Wintour was named editor-in-chief.
Noted for her trademark bob cut and sunglasses, Wintour sought to revitalize the brand by making it younger and more approachable. Wintour's influence allowed the magazine to maintain its high circulation, while staff discovered new trends that a broader audience could conceivably afford. For example, the inaugural cover of the magazine under Wintour's editorship featured a three-quarter-length photograph of Michaela Bercu, an Israeli model, wearing a bejeweled Christian Lacroix jacket and a pair of jeans, a departure from her predecessors' tendency to portray a woman's face alone; as fashion editor Grace Coddington wrote in her memoirs, the cover "endorsed a democratic new high/low attitude to dressing, added some youthful but sophisticated raciness, garnished it with a dash of confident energy and drive that implied getting somewhere fast. It was quintessential Anna." Throughout her reign at Vogue, Wintour accomplished her goals to revitalize the magazine and managed to produce some large editions of the magazine.
In fact, the "September 2004 edition c
The Express-Times is a daily newspaper based in Easton, with an emphasis on local news in the Lehigh Valley. The paper has won awards in Pennsylvania. Thomson Newspapers bought The Express of Easton in 1983; the paper took on its current name when the Globe-Times of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania merged with The Express. MediaNews Group bought The Express-Times from Thomson in 1994. Current owner Advance Publications bought MediaNews' New Jersey and Pennsylvania newspapers in 2000. Express-Times content can be found online at lehighvalleylive.com. Lily Kirov, Sales Director Jim Deegan and Vice President of News The Express-Times publishes zoned editions and delivers to Lehigh and Northampton counties in Pennsylvania and Hunterdon counties in New Jersey. First printed 1855 as The Easton Daily Express, the name changed to The Easton Express in 1917 and was abbreviated to The Express in 1973. In 1991, The Express merged with The Globe-Times of Bethlehem to become The Express-Times; the Express-Times has four editorial sections: Front: Local and world news Valley: Local news and obituaries from the Lehigh Valley Sports: Local and national sports Today: Local and national arts & entertainment Editorials, comics and puzzles appear each day.
The following are inserted into The Express-Times during the week. Friday: Exposed, an entertainment tabloid Saturday: Real Estate, a real estate guide Sunday: Sunday Morning, a features section, news from The Wall Street Journal and full color comics; the Express-Times publishes a weekly, The US, based in Nazareth, Pennsylvania. Media in the Lehigh Valley Express-Times online site, LehighValleyLive.com
The Star-Ledger is the largest circulated newspaper in the U. S. is based in Newark. It is a sister paper to The Jersey Journal of Jersey City, The Times of Trenton and the Staten Island Advance, all of which are owned by Advance Publications. In 2007, The Star-Ledger's daily circulation was more than the next two largest New Jersey newspapers combined and its Sunday circulation larger than the next three papers combined, it has suffered great declines in print circulation in recent years, to 180,000 daily in 2013 and 114,000 "individually paid print circulation,", the number of copies being bought by subscription or at newsstands, in 2015. In July 2013, The Ledger announced. In 2013, Advance Publications announced it was exploring cost-saving changes among its New Jersey properties, but was not considering mergers or changes in publication frequency at any of the newspapers, nor the elimination of home delivery; the Newark Daily Advertiser, founded in 1832, was Newark's first daily newspaper.
It subsequently evolved into the Newark Star-Eagle, owned by what became Block Communications. S. I. Newhouse bought the Star-Eagle from Block in 1939 and merged it with the Newark Ledger to become the Newark Star-Ledger; the paper dropped Newark from its masthead sometime in the 1970s, but is still popularly called the Newark Star-Ledger by many New Jersey residents. During the 1960s The Star-Ledger's chief competitor was the Newark Evening News, once the most popular newspaper in New Jersey. In March 1971, the Star-Ledger surpassed the Evening News in daily circulation, because the Newark News was on strike; the Evening News shut down in 1972. After the Newark Evening News moved to a high-traffic area the Star-Ledger opened a satellite plant in Piscataway; the Piscataway location offered quick access to Union, Monmouth and Middlesex counties. The Star-Ledger was the recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting in 2005 for its comprehensive and clear-headed coverage of the resignation of New Jersey Governor Jim McGreevey, after he confessed to adultery with a male lover.
The paper awards the Star-Ledger Trophy each year to the number one high school teams in their respective sport in New Jersey. In 2005, George Arwady became the publisher of The Star-Ledger. A graduate of Columbia University, Arwady had been the publisher of the Kalamazoo Gazette in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Having worked with the Newhouse family for years, Arwady was asked to move to Newark to financially revamp the paper. Due to financial losses, the paper's parent company Advance Publications announced on July 31, 2008, that it would sell the Star-Ledger unless 200 non-union staff voluntarily left under a buyout offer, its unionized truck drivers and mailers agreed to concessions. On September 16, publisher George Arwady sent employees an email saying that management felt progress had been made on the buyout and concessions from the mailers, but that management is "far from an agreement with the Drivers' union.". The email continued: Since it is doubtful that the Drivers will ratify an agreement by October 8, 2008, we will be sending formal notices to all employees this week, as required by both federal and New Jersey law, advising you that the Company will be sold, or, failing that, that it will close operations on January 5, 2009.
On October 24, 2008, the newspaper announced that 168 newsroom employees had offered to take the company's buyout offer, that the company had accepted 151 of them, which resulted in a 40% reduction in newsroom staff. On January 16, 2013, the newspaper announced the layoffs of 34 employees including 18 newsroom staff; the Newark headquarters of the Star-Ledger, home to the state's largest newspaper for nearly 50 years, was sold to a New York developer in July 2014, according to a news article released by the paper. The Star-Ledger, which Vezza said will continue to be published seven days a week, will retain a presence in Newark in leased office space located within the downtown Gateway Center complex, where the publisher, the newspaper's editorial board, its columnists, its magazine staff and a handful of other jobs will be based. Advance Publications, the owner of the newspaper, launched a new media company — NJ Advance Media — in 2014 to provide content and marketing services for its online presence at NJ.com, many of its New Jersey newspapers out of the offices in Woodbridge.
The sales and marketing staffs moved to Woodbridge in June 2014. Amzi Armstrong William Burnet Kinney Thomas T. Kinney James Smith, Jr. Paul Block Samuel Irving Newhouse, Sr. Donald Newhouse Richard Vezza After Kevin Whitmer left in September 2015, Richard Vezza assumed the position as editor. Prior to Whitmer, James Willse manned the helm from 1995, he was appointed following the retirement of 32-year veteran editor Mort Pye. Willse was the former publisher of the New York Daily News. Prior to accepting the Ledger's editorship, Willse headed the review of electronic information options for all Newhouse newspapers, he expanded the Ledger' use of color and encouraged a more aggressive editorial team. The National Press Foundation named Willse its 1999 recipient of the George Beveridge Editor of the Year Award in recognition of Ledger's coverage of racial profiling by the New Jersey State Police; the Star-Ledger was featured prominently various times in the television series The Sopranos, an HBO drama series set in New Jersey.
Tony Soprano received home delivery of the paper, several episodes opened with him picking it up at the end of his driveway. The Sopranos creator David Chase credited a
Seventeen (American magazine)
Seventeen is an American teen magazine. The magazine's reader-base is 13-to-19-year-old females, it began as a publication geared toward inspiring teen girls to become model citizens. Soon after its debut, Seventeen took a more fashion- and romance-oriented approach in presenting its material while promoting self-confidence in young women, it was first published in September 1944 by Walter Annenberg's Triangle Publications. The first editor of Seventeen, Helen Valentine, provided teenage girls with working woman role models and information about their development. Seventeen enhanced the role of teenagers as consumers of popular culture; the concept of "teenager" as a distinct demographic originated in that era. In July 1944, King Features Syndicate began running the comic strip Teena, created by cartoonist Hilda Terry, in which a typical teenager's life was examined. Teena ran internationally in newspapers for twenty years. After Seventeen was launched in September 1944, Estelle Ellis Rubenstein, the magazine's promotion director, introduced advertisers to the life of teenage girls through Teena, selling advertising in Seventeen at the same time.
From 1945 to 1946, the magazine surveyed teen girls in order to better understand the magazine's audience. The magazine became an important source of information to manufacturers seeking guidance on how to satisfy consumer demand among teenagers. Today, the magazine entertains as well as promotes self-confidence in young women. Sylvia Plath submitted nearly fifty pieces to Seventeen before her first short story, "And Summer Will Not Come Again", was accepted and published in the August 1950 issue. Joyce Walker became the first black model to be featured on the cover of Seventeen magazine in July 1971. In the early 1980s, Whitney Houston was featured on the cover of the magazine. News Corporation bought Triangle in 1988 and sold Seventeen to K-III Communications in 1991. Primedia sold the magazine to Hearst in 2003. Seventeen remains popular on newsstands today despite greater competition. In 2010, writer Jamie Keiles conducted "The Seventeen Magazine Project", an experiment in which she followed the advice of Seventeen magazine for thirty days.
In 2012, in response to reader protests against the magazine's airbrushing its models' photos, Seventeen ended its practice of using digital photo manipulation to enhance published photographs.. In August 2016, Michelle Tan was fired from her position as Editor in Chief while she was on maternity leave, it was announced shortly thereafter that Michele Promaulayko, appointed Editor in Chief of Cosmopolitan, would serve as Seventeen's editorial director. Starting with their Dec/Jan 2017 issue, the magazine was to start publishing only six issues a year instead of ten, to focus on their online presence to appeal to the Generation Z market. In October 2018, it was announced that Jessica Pels would take over from Promaulayko as Editor in Chief of Cosmopolitan, that Kristin Koch was appointed Seventeen's new Executive Director, overseeing all its content. In November 2018, it was announced that Seventeen's print edition would be reduced to special stand-alone issues; the South African edition of Seventeen magazine is published by 8 Ink Media based in Cape Town.
The editor is Janine Jellars. The Philippine version is published by Summit Media, but it ceased publication in April 2009; the Hispanic American edition is published by Editorial Televisa. The Indian edition is published by Apricot Publications Pvt. Ltd in Mumbai; the Malaysian version of Seventeen is published by Bluinc. Seventeen Singapore is published by SPH Magazines; the Thai edition of Seventeen is published by Media Transasia Limited in Bangkok. In the United Kingdom there is no Seventeen magazine, but there is a similar magazine touted as a fresher and edgier competition to Teen Vogue called Company; the Japanese version of Seventeen is published by Shueisha Publishing Co. Ltd. Seventeen has published books for teens, addressing such topics as beauty, college and fitness. Seventeen was a sponsor of America's Next Top Model; the winners of America's Next Top Model from seasons 7 through 14 have each graced a cover of Seventeen magazine, including CariDee English, Jaslene Gonzalez, Sal Stowers, Whitney Thompson, McKey Sullivan, Teyona Anderson, Nicole Fox, Krista White.
The magazine only planned on sponsoring the show from cycles 7 through 10. In 2011, Seventeen worked together with ABC Family to make a film about a girl who gets bullied online called Cyberbu//y; the point was to raise awareness of cyber bullying and to "delete digital drama". The film premiered July 2011 on ABC Family. In April 2012, 14-year-old Julia Bluhm from Waterville, Maine created a petition on Change.org titled "Seventeen Magazine: Give Girls Images of Real Girls!' Advocating for the magazine publication to vow to print at least one unaltered and Photoshop-FREE monthly photo spread". As a self-proclaimed "SPARK Summit Activist", Bluhm petitioned for an end to digital photo manipulation. In May 2012 Bluhm, her mother, a group of fellow "SPARK Summit" members were invited to the New York headquarters of Seventeen by editor-in-chief Ann Shoket. On 3 July 2012, Bluhm announced that her petition had "won" after receiving 85,000 signatures online, resulting in Seventeen's editorial staff pledging to always feature one photo spread per month without the use of digital photo manipulation.
Furthermore, Seventeen's editor-in-chief Shoket published an editorial praising The Body Peace Treaty in the August 2012 Seventeen issue, offering the push again
Dame Anna Wintour is a British-American journalist and editor, editor-in-chief of Vogue since 1988 and artistic director for Condé Nast, Vogue's publisher, since 2013. With her trademark pageboy bob haircut and dark sunglasses, Wintour has become an important figure in much of the fashion world praised for her eye for fashion trends and her support for younger designers, her aloof and demanding personality has earned her the nickname "Nuclear Wintour". Her father, Charles Wintour, editor of the London Evening Standard, consulted her on how to make the newspaper relevant to the youth of the era, she became interested in fashion as a teenager. Her career in fashion journalism began at two British magazines, she moved to the US, with stints at New York and House & Garden. She returned to London and was the editor of British Vogue between 1985 and 1987. A year she assumed control of the franchise's magazine in New York, reviving what many saw as a stagnating publication, her use of the magazine to shape the fashion industry has been the subject of debate within it.
Animal rights activists have attacked her for promoting fur, while other critics have charged her with using the magazine to promote elitist views of femininity and beauty. A former personal assistant, Lauren Weisberger, wrote the 2003 bestselling roman à clef The Devil Wears Prada made into a successful film starring Meryl Streep as Miranda Priestly, a fashion editor, believed to be based on Wintour. In 2009, she was the focus of R. J. Cutler's documentary The September Issue. Wintour was born in Hampstead, London in 1949, to Charles Wintour, editor of the Evening Standard, Eleanor "Nonie" Trego Baker, an American, the daughter of a Harvard law professor, her parents married in 1940 and divorced in 1979. Wintour was named after her maternal grandmother, Anna Baker, a merchant's daughter from Pennsylvania. Audrey Slaughter, a magazine editor who founded publications such as Honey and Petticoat, is her stepmother; the late-18th-century novelist Lady Elizabeth Foster, Duchess of Devonshire, was Wintour's great-great-great-grandmother, Sir Augustus Vere Foster, the last Baronet of that name, was a granduncle.
She had four siblings. Her older brother, died in a traffic accident as a child. One of her younger brothers, Patrick, is a journalist diplomatic editor of The Guardian. James and Nora Wintour have worked in London local government and for international non-governmental organisations, respectively, she lives in Greenwich Village. In her youth, Wintour was educated at the independent North London Collegiate School, where she rebelled against the dress code by taking up the hemlines of her skirts. At the age of 14, she began wearing her hair in a bob, she developed an interest in fashion as a regular viewer of Cathy McGowan on Ready Steady Go!, from the issues of Seventeen which her grandmother sent from the United States. "Growing up in London in the'60s, you'd have to have had Irving Penn's sack over your head not to know something extraordinary was happening in fashion," she recalled. Her father consulted her when he was considering ideas for increasing readership in the youth market. At the age of 15, she began dating well-connected older men.
She was involved with Piers Paul Read 24. In her teens and gossip columnist Nigel Dempster became a fixture on the London club circuit. "I think my father decided for me that I should work in fashion," she recalled in The September Issue. He arranged for his daughter's first job, at the influential Biba boutique, when she was 15; the next year, she began a training program at Harrods. At her parents' behest, she took fashion classes at a nearby school. Soon she gave them up, saying, "You either know fashion or you don't." Another older boyfriend, Richard Neville, gave her her first experience of magazine production at his popular and controversial Oz. In 1970, when Harper's Bazaar UK merged with Queen to become Harper's & Queen, Wintour was hired as one of its first editorial assistants, beginning her career in fashion journalism, she told her co-workers. While there, she discovered a former North London classmate, her connections helped her secure locations for innovative shoots by Helmut Newton, Jim Lee and other trend-setting photographers.
One recreated the works of Manet using models in go-go boots. After chronic disagreements with her rival, Min Hogg, she quit and moved to New York with her boyfriend, freelance journalist Jon Bradshaw. In her new home, she became a junior fashion editor at Harper's Bazaar in New York City in 1975. Wintour's innovative shoots led editor Tony Mazzola to fire her after nine months, she was introduced to Bob Marley by one of Bradshaw's friends, disappeared with him for a week. A few months Bradshaw helped her get her first position as a fashion editor, at Viva, a women's adult magazine started by Kathy Keeton wife of Penthouse publisher Bob Guccione, she has discussed working there, due to that connection. This was the first job at which she was able to hire a personal assistant, which began her reputation as a demanding and difficult boss. In late 1978, Guccione shut down the unprofitable magazine. Wintour decided to take some time off from work, she broke up with Bradshaw and began a relationship with French record producer Michel Esteban, for two years dividing her time with him between Paris and New York.
She returned to w