Teen pop is a subgenre of pop music, created and oriented towards preteens and teenagers. Teen pop incorporates different genres such as pop, R&B, electronic, hip hop, country and rock. Typical characteristics of teen pop music include autotuned vocals, choreographed dancing, emphasis on visual appeal, lyrics focused on teenage issues such as love/relationships, finding oneself, teenage angst, teen rebellion, coming of age, fitting in and growing up and repeated chorus lines. Teen pop singers cultivate an image of a girl next door/boy next door. According to AllMusic, teen pop "is dance-pop and urban ballads" that are marketed to teens, was conceived in its contemporary form during the late 1980s and 1990s, pointing out the late 1990s as "arguably the style's golden era." About.com's Bill Lamb described teen pop sound as "a simple, ultra-catchy melody line The songs may incorporate elements of other pop music genres, but they will never be mistaken for anything but mainstream pop. The music is designed for maximum focus on the performer and a direct appeal to listeners."
Some authors deemed teen pop music as "more disposable, less intellectually challenging, more feminine and more commercially focused than other musical forms." Author Melanie Lowe wrote that teen pop "is marked by a clash of presumed innocence and overt sexuality, a conflict that mirrors the physical and emotional turmoil of its primary target audience and vital fan base: early-adolescent middle-and upper middle-class suburban girls." Teen-oriented popular music had become common by the end of the swing era, in the late 1940s, with Frank Sinatra being an early teen idol. However, it was the early 1960s that became known as the "golden age" for pop teen idols, who included Paul Anka, Frankie Avalon, Fabian and Ricky Nelson. During the 1970s, one of the most popular preteen and teen-oriented acts was the Osmonds, where family members Donny and Marie both enjoyed individual success as well as success as a duo apart from the main family. Other successful singers and bands appealing to tweens and teens were Leif Garrett, Bobby Sherman, the DeFranco Family, David Cassidy and the Partridge Family, Shaun Cassidy, the Bay City Rollers and the Jackson 5 to name a few.
The first major wave of teen pop after the counter-culture of the 1960s and 1970s occurred in the mid to late 1980s, with artists such as Menudo, New Edition, the Jets, Debbie Gibson, Martika, New Kids on the Block and Kylie Minogue. In the early 1990s, teen pop dominated the charts until grunge and gangsta rap crossed over into the mainstream in North America by late 1991. Teen pop remained popular in the United Kingdom with the boy band Take That during this period, until the mid-1990s when Britpop became the next major wave in the UK, eclipsing the style similar to how grunge did in North America. In 1996, the girl group Spice Girls released their debut single "Wannabe", which made them major pop stars in the UK, as well as in the US the following year. In their wake, other teen pop groups and singers came to prominence, including Hanson, the Backstreet Boys, *NSYNC, All Saints, S Club, Five, B*Witched, Destiny's Child. In 1999, the success of teenaged pop singers Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Jessica Simpson, Mandy Moore marked the development of what AllMusic refers to as the "pop Lolita" trend, sparking the short careers of future pop singers such as Willa Ford, Brooke Allison, Samantha Mumba, Jamie-Lynn Sigler, Amanda, Nikki Cleary and Kaci Battaglia.
In 2001, artists like Aaron Carter, Swedish group A-Teens, girl groups 3LW, Eden's Crush and Dream and boy bands O-Town, B2K and Dream Street were teen pop artists who achieved success. Alternate "looks" for teen pop stars include Hoku, girl group No Secrets, as well as the CCM group Jump5. In the UK, teen pop continued to surge with Atomic Kitten and Billie Piper. In Latin America, successful singers and bands appealing to tweens and teens were Sandy & Junior, RBD and Rouge. According to Gayle Ward, the demise of this late 1990's teen pop was due to: promotional oversaturation of teen pop music in the early 2000s. Many teen artists starting incorporating genres such as pop rock, contemporary R&B and hip-hop. B2K, a hip hop/pop/R&B group, was made up of teenage boys, so they were considered a boy band and was popular across the world, though they were only active from 2001 to 2004, their style of music was different than other teenage artists, sounding more mature than the typical boy band, though the members were all in their mid-teenage years as well.
Other teenage artists who sounded more mature in this way were Mario. In the early and mid-2000s, teenage singers such as Michelle Branch, Avril Lavigne, Hilary Duff, Lindsay Lohan, Ashlee Simpson, JoJo, Aly & AJ, Jesse McCartney, Skye Sweetnam, Hope Partlow, Jordan Pruitt, Fefe Dobson, Taylor Swift, Stacie Orrico
Bulbophyllum schillerianum known as the red rope orchid, is a species of epiphytic or lithophytic orchid. It has well-spaced pseudobulbs each with a single grooved leaf and cluster of small, red or orange flowers with a hairy labellum, it grows on trees and rocks sometimes in rainforest but on trees in cleared paddocks, is endemic to eastern Australia. Bulbophyllum schillerianum is an epiphytic or lithophytic herb with stems 100–300 mm long hanging for most of their length and covered with greyish bracts; the pseudobulbs are 8 -- about 3 mm wide and spaced 15 -- 25 mm apart along the stems. Each pseudobulb has a thick, narrow oblong to lance-shaped leaf 200–800 mm long and 6–15 mm wide with a channelled upper surface. Red or orange flowers 4–7 mm long and 2–3 mm wide are arranged in groups of up to ten on a flowering stem 3–4 mm long; the sepals and petals are fleshy, the sepals 4–7 mm long, 1–2 mm wide and the petals about 2 mm long and 1.5 mm wide. The labellum is brown, about 2 mm long and 1 mm wide with hairy edges and a sharp bend near the middle.
Flowering occurs from March to August. Bulbophyllum schillerianum was first formally described in 1993 by Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach who published the description in Hamburg Garten- und Blumenzeitung; the type specimen was grown in "Herrn Consul Schiller's" garden, grown by "Herrn Stange". The red rope orchid grows on rainforest trees and mangroves, on boulders, near stream banks, on rocks and sometimes on trees remaining in cleared paddocks, it is found between the Cedar Bay National Park in Queensland and the Hunter River in New South Wales
Mythical Beasties is an anthology of themed fantasy and science fiction short stories on the subject of legendary creatures edited by Isaac Asimov, Martin H. Greenberg and Charles G. Waugh as the sixth volume in their Isaac Asimov's Magical Worlds of Fantasy series, it was first published in paperback by Signet/New American Library in May 1986. The first British edition was issued under the alternate title Mythic Beasts in trade paperback by Robinson in 1988; the book collects thirteen novellas and short stories by various fantasy and science fiction authors. "Centaur Fielder for the Yankees" "The Ice Dragon" "Prince Prigio" "The Gorgon" "The Griffin and the Minor Canon" "The Kragen" "The Little Mermaid" "Letters from Laura" "The Triumph of Pegasus" "Caution! Inflammable!" "The Pyramid Project" "The Silken-Swift" "Mood Wendigo"
Attempted murder is a crime of attempt in various jurisdictions. Section 239 of the Criminal Code makes attempted murder punishable by a maximum of life imprisonment. If a gun is used, the minimum sentence is four, five or seven years, dependent on prior convictions and relation to organized crime. In English criminal law, attempted murder is the crime of preparing to commit an unlawful killing and having a specific intention to cause the death of a human being under the Queen's Peace; the phrase "more than preparatory" is specified by the Criminal Attempts Act 1981 to denote the fact that preparation for a crime by itself does not constitute an "attempted crime". In England and Wales, as an "attempt", attempted murder is an offence under section 1 of the Criminal Attempts Act 1981 and is an indictable offence which carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment; the corresponding legislation for Northern Ireland is section 3 of the Criminal Attempts and Conspiracy Order 1983. The mens rea for murder includes an intention to kill or cause grievous bodily harm where there is virtual certainty of death resulting, whereas attempted murder depends on an intention to kill and an overt act towards committing homicide.
Attempted murder is only the planning of a murder and acts taken towards it, not the actual killing, the murder. This makes the offence difficult to prove and it is more common for a lesser charge to be preferred under the Offences against the Person Act 1861. However, in R v Morrison 1 WLR 1859, the Court of Appeal considered the issue of alternative verdicts on an indictment with a single count of attempted murder. Morrison had gone into a shop with two other men on a robbery with a firearm, they demanded one of the men shot at the shopkeeper who suffered only minor injury. The prosecution failed to act. Having heard the case, the judge expressed his view that the jury could consider an attempted grievous bodily harm under section 18 of the 1861 Act and Morrison was duly convicted of attempting to cause grievous bodily harm; the Court of Appeal confirmed that attempting to cause grievous bodily harm is a valid alternative to attempted murder because there can be no intention to kill someone without the intention to cause grievous bodily harm.
This is a practical decision to ensure that the criminal justice system did not allow a guilty person to walk away because only one charge had been preferred. But it is not a good general principle because, in euthanasia for example, a person assisting intends to cause death, but with no suffering; that attempting to cause grievous bodily harm must be an alternative verdict should the intended victim not die would be a strange outcome because there is no intention to cause any long-lasting and serious injury: the two attempted offences have different mens rea requirements so that proof of intent to murder would not meet the requirement for section 18 of the 1861 Act. First, acting deliberately and intentionally or recklessly with extreme disregard for human life, the person attempted to kill someone. There must be more than preparatory acts and, although the defendant may threaten death, this may not provide convincing evidence of an intention to kill unless the words are accompanied by relevant action, e.g. finding and picking up a weapon and making serious use of it, or making a serious and sustained physical attack without a weapon.
The defences of duress and necessity are not available to a person charged with attempted murder. Conversely, the statutory defence of marital coercion is, on the face of the statute, available to a wife charged with attempted murder. Prior to 1967, sections 11 to 15 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 created a number of offences of attempting to commit murder by various specified means, an offence of attempting to commit murder by any means not specified in those offences. After the repeal of these offences by the Criminal Law Act 1967, attempted murder was allowed to subsist at common law until the enactment of the 1981 Act. Attempted murder is a crime at common law in Scotland. Attempted murder is the same as the offence of murder in Scottish law with the only difference being that the victim has not died; the offence of murder was defined in Drury v HM Advocate: Intention can be inferred from the circumstances of the case. Wicked recklessness is determined objectively and is "recklessness so gross that it indicates a state of mind which falls to be treated as wicked and depraved as the state of mind of a deliberate killer."
As with all common law offences in Scotland, the maximum punishment available is life imprisonment. In the United States, attempted murder is an inchoate crime to the U•S. A conviction for attempted murder requires a demonstration of an intent to murder, meaning that the perpetrator either tried to murder and failed or took a substantial step towards committing a murder. Death threat People v. Superior Court State v. Mitchell
The Blackburne Covenant is a four-issue horror fiction comic book limited series published in 2003 by Dark Horse Comics. All four issues are written by Fabian Nicieza with the art by Stefano Raffaele. Horror writer Richard Kaine has just succeeded in writing his first best selling novel, about a medieval nature worshipping cult, destroyed by an organization named the Blackburne Covenant. While celebrating, Richard begins to exhibit the supernatural ability to contact a lifeforce of nature called the Greenway. Over the course of the series Richard discovers, he must discover just what the Greenway is and survive the assassination attempts by agents of the still existing Blackburne Covenant. The series has been collected into a single volume: The Blackburne Covenant Series profile from Dark Horse Comics' official site
The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto encompasses 17 locations in Japan within the city of Kyoto and its immediate vicinity. The locations are in three cities: Uji in Kyoto Prefecture. Of the monuments, 13 are Buddhist temples, three are Shinto shrines, one is a castle; the properties include 38 buildings designated by the Japanese government as National Treasures, 160 properties designated as Important Cultural Properties, eight gardens designated as Special Places of Scenic Beauty, four designated as Places of Scenic Beauty. UNESCO listed the site as World Heritage in 1994. Kyoto has a substantial number of historic buildings, unlike other Japanese cities that lost buildings to foreign invasions and war. Although ravaged by wars and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was spared from much of the destruction and danger of World War II, it was saved from the nearly universal firebombing of large cities in Japan in part to preserve it as the primary atomic bomb target.
It was removed from the atomic bomb target list by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center which he knew from his honeymoon and diplomatic visits; as a result, Nagasaki was added as a target. The 17 properties of the World Heritage Site originate from a period between the 10th century and the 19th century, each is representative of the period in which it was built; the historical importance of the Kyoto region was taken into account by the UNESCO in the selection process. The table lists information about each of the 17 listed properties of the World Heritage Site listing: Name: in English and Japanese Type: Purpose of the site; the list includes 13 Buddhist temples, 3 Shinto shrines, one castle. Period: time period of significance of construction Location: the site's location and by geographic coordinates Description: brief description of the site List of World Heritage Sites in Japan Tourism in Japan Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto - UNESCO World Heritage Centre World Heritage Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto Welcome to Kyoto - World Heritage Map