SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tegucigalpa

Tegucigalpa, formally Tegucigalpa, Municipality of the Central District, colloquially referred to as Tegus or Teguz, is the capital and largest city of Honduras along with its twin sister, Comayagüela. Claimed on 29 September 1578 by the Spaniards, Tegucigalpa became the country's capital on October 30, 1880, under President Marco Aurelio Soto, when he moved the capital from Comayagua; the current Constitution of Honduras, enacted in 1982, names the sister cities of Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela as a Central District to serve as the permanent national capital, under articles 8 and 295. After the dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1841, Honduras became an individual sovereign nation with Comayagua as its capital; the capital was moved to Tegucigalpa in 1880. On January 30, 1937, Article 179 of the 1936 Honduran Constitution was changed under Decree 53 to establish Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela as a Central District. Tegucigalpa is located in the southern-central highland region known as the department of Francisco Morazán of which it is the departmental capital.

It is situated in a valley, surrounded by mountains. Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela, being sister cities, are physically separated by the Choluteca River; the Central District is the largest of the 28 municipalities in the Francisco Morazán department. Tegucigalpa is Honduras' largest and most populous city as well as the nation's political and administrative center. Tegucigalpa is host to 16 consulates, it is the home base of several state-owned entities such as ENEE and Hondutel, the national energy and telecommunications companies, respectively. The city is home to the country's most important public university, the National Autonomous University of Honduras, as well as the national soccer team; the capital's international airport, Toncontín, is known for its short runway and the unusual maneuvers pilots must undertake upon landing or taking off to avoid the nearby mountains. The Central District Mayor's Office is the city's governing body, headed by a mayor and 10 aldermen forming the Municipal Corporation.

Being the department's seat as well, the governor's office of Francisco Morazán is located in the capital. In 2008, the city operated on an approved budget of 1.555 billion lempiras. In 2009, the city government reported a revenue of 1.955 billion lempiras, more than any other capital city in Central America except Panama City. Tegucigalpa's infrastructure has not kept up with its population growth. Deficient urban planning, densely condensed urbanization, poverty are ongoing problems. Congested roadways where current road infrastructure is unable to efficiently handle over 400,000 vehicles create havoc on a daily basis. Both current national and local governments have taken steps to improve and expand infrastructure as well as to reduce poverty in the city. Most sources indicate the origin and meaning of the word Tegucigalpa is derived from the Nahuatl language; the most accepted version suggests that it comes from the Nahuatl word Taguz-galpa, which means "hills of silver", but this interpretation is uncertain since the natives who occupied the region at time were unaware of the existence of mineral deposits in the area.

Another source suggests that Tegucigalpa derives from another language in which it means painted rocks, as explained by Leticia Oyuela in her book Minimum History of Tegucigalpa. Other theories indicate it may derive from the term Togogalpa, which refers to tototi and Toncontín, a small town near Tegucigalpa. In Mexico, it is believed the word Tegucigalpa is from the Nahuatl word Tecuztlicallipan, meaning "place of residence of the noble" or Tecuhtzincalpan, meaning "place on the home of the beloved master". Honduran philologist Alberto de Jesús Membreño, in his book Indigenous Toponymies of Central America, states that Tegucigalpa is a Nahuatl word meaning "in the homes of the sharp stones" and rules out the traditional meaning "hills of silver" arguing that Taguzgalpa was the name of the ancient eastern zone of Honduras. Tegucigalpa was founded by Spanish settlers as Real de Minas de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa on September 29, 1578 on the site of an existing native settlement of the Pech and the Twahkas.

The first mayor of Tegucigalpa was Juan de la Cueva, who took office in 1579. The Dolores Church, the San Miguel Cathedral, the Casa de la Moneda, the Immaculate Conception Church were some of the first important buildings constructed. 200 years on June 10, 1762, this mining town became Real Villa de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa y Heredia under the rule of Alonso Fernández de Heredia, then-acting governor of Honduras. The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw disruption in Tegucigalpa's local government, from being extinguished in 1788 to becoming part of Comayagua in 1791 to returning to self-city governance in 1817. In 1817, then-mayor Narciso Mallol started the construction of the first bridge, a ten-arch masonry, connecting both sides of the Choluteca River. Upon completion four years it linked Tegucigalpa with her neighbor city of Comayagüela. In 1821, Tegucigalpa became a city. In 1824, the first Congress of the Republic of Honduras declared Tegucigalpa and Comayagua the two most important cities in the country, to alternate as capital of the country.

After October 1838, following Honduras' independence as a single republic, the capital continued to switch back and forth between Tegucigalpa and Comayagua until October 30, 1880, wh

Joe Reiff

Joseph "Joe" Reiff was an American basketball player and referee. He was a three-time All-American center at Northwestern University. Reiff, a 6'3 center from Crane Technical High School in Chicago, chose to attend nearby Northwestern University and play for Hall of Fame coach Dutch Lonborg. Reiff led the Wildcats to a Western Conference championship in his sophomore year. Reiff led the league in scoring with a 10.0 average. Northwestern finished 13-1 and would be retroactively named 1931 National Champions by the Helms Athletic Foundation and Reiff was named a consensus All-American. In his junior year, Reiff finished second in the conference in scoring to Purdue senior John Wooden. In his senior year, Reiff again led Northwestern to a conference title and led the league in scoring for a second time at 14.0 points per game. He was once again named a consensus All-AmericanAfter graduating from Northwestern, Reiff played for Rosenberg-Avery of Chicago in the Amateur Athletic Union and was named to the All-AAU team.

He became a basketball referee in the Western Conference from 1937-1947. Joe Reiff was a charter inductee into the Northwestern athletics Hall of Fame, elected in 1984

Article XV squadrons

Article XV squadrons were Australian and New Zealand air force squadrons formed from graduates of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during World War II. These units complemented another feature of the BCATP, under which personnel from the Royal Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force were placed in a common pool, assigned to Article XV and RAF squadrons – in Europe, the Mediterranean Theatre and South-East Asia – according to operational needs; the RAAF, RCAF and RNZAF formed non-Article XV squadrons, which performed home defence duties and saw active service in various parts of the Pacific Theatre. Negotiations regarding the BCATP, between the four governments concerned, took place in Ottawa, Canada during late 1939; the Air Training Agreement was signed on 17 December 1939. Under Article XV of the Agreement, graduates from Dominion air forces were to be assigned to squadrons either formed by their own air forces, or with a specific national designation, under the operational control of a local air force, in most cases the RAF.

These became known as "Article XV squadrons." In addition, Articles XVI and XVII stipulated that the UK government would be responsible for the pay and entitlements of aircrews trained under the BCATP. These personnel and any squadrons formed for service with the RAF, under Article XV, would belong to the three Dominion air forces; this was an initiative of the Canadian Prime Minister, Mackenzie King, during the negotiations with Riverdale. During the war, 44 Canadian, 17 Australian and six New Zealand Article XV squadrons were formed. In practice – and technically in contravention of Article XV – most personnel from Dominion air forces, while they were under RAF operational control, were assigned to British units; this was due to practical staffing considerations. Many of the Article XV squadrons contained few airmen from their nominal air force when they were first formed. However, by the end of the war this had been rectified. Canada made a greater insistence on its airmen going to RCAF operational units overseas, ensuring that the identity of its national squadrons was preserved.

In January 1943 Canada was able to form their bomber squadrons into a separate wholly RCAF formation within Bomber Command, commanded by a Canadian air vice-marshal. This was something. Several other RAAF and RCAF units, which were not covered by Article XV, were under RAF operational control. There was no cross-posting of personnel to or from these squadrons by the RAF and other Dominion air forces, although this requirement was relaxed in the war; the remaining dominion, South Africa, was not a signatory to the BCATP and the South African Air Force did not form any Article XV squadrons. However, South Africa provided training facilities for some Article XV personnel, many SAAF units took part in the East African, North African and Italian Campaigns. Furthermore, as the war progressed, personnel from other Dominion air forces were transferred to SAAF units and vice versa, in North Africa, the Mediterranean and Italy. Southern Rhodesia was not technically a Dominion and was therefore not a signatory to the BCATP, although aircrews from other dominions were trained there.

In 1940, the small Southern Rhodesia Air Force was designated No. 237 Squadron RAF. Two other RAF squadrons, No. 44 Squadron RAF and No. 266 Squadron RAF were formed. No. 75 Squadron RAF had a status similar to the Rhodesian squadrons, was not an Article XV squadron, although it was staffed by RNZAF aircrew during the war and was transferred to the RNZAF in late 1945. While RAF units were not covered by Article XV, three British squadrons had a similar status: they were stationed in Australia, under RAAF operational control, for part of the war; these units were: No. 54 Squadron RAF, No. 548 Squadron RAF, No. 549 Squadron RAF and No. 618 Squadron RAF. A further four squadrons served outside North America during the war: No. 162 Squadron RCAF, which in 1944 was transferred from RCAF Eastern Air Command to RAF Coastal Command, from airfields in Iceland and Scotland and. Some non-Article XV RCAF squadrons were re-numbered to become Article XV squadrons when they were transferred from North America to Europe.

These were: No. 1 Squadron. However, most of the RCAF Article XV squadrons were formed overseas. Domestically the Home War Establishment of the RCAF, which consisted of Eastern and Western Air Commands, had at its peak 37 squadrons. Following the end of the war and termination of the BCATP, the RCAF squadrons covered by Article XV retained their numbers. Furthermore, home-ba