Vitis californica, with common names California wild grape, Northern California grape, Pacific grape, is a wild grape species widespread across much of California as well as southwestern Oregon. The California wild grape thrives in damp areas, it climbs on other plants or covers the ground with twisted, woody ropes of vine covered in green leaves. In the fall the leaves turn many shades of yellow. Bunches of small and sour but edible purple grapes hang from the vines in autumn, which can be made into excellent jelly or juice; the grapes provide an important food source for a variety of wild animals birds, the foliage provides thick cover. The grapes are a common sight along the banks of the Sacramento River. ViticultureThe wild grape is strong and robust, viticulturists worldwide use it as rootstock for their wine grapes. In some areas where the plant is not native it has the capacity to become a noxious weed. Vitis californica is cultivated as an ornamental plant; the interesting shape and color of the leaves and the lush, trainable vines make this species an attractive garden plant.
This vine is used in native plant gardens, where once established it thrives without summer water. The cultivar'Roger's Red' turns brilliant red in fall and is a hybrid with a wine grape, Vitis vinifera Alicante Bouschet; the cultivar'Walker Ridge' turns yellow in the autumn. CalFlora Database: Vitis californica Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Vitis californica USDA Plants Profile: Vitis californica US Forest Service Fire Ecology U. C. Photos gallery — Vitis californica
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, United States. It covers about 151 sq mi near the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley and the Central Valley region. Bakersfield's population is around 380,000, making it the 9th-most populous city in California and the 52nd-most populous city in the nation; the Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas around the city, such as East Bakersfield and Rosedale, has a population of over 520,000. Bakersfield is a charter city; the city is a significant hub for both oil production. Kern County is the most productive oil-producing county and the fourth-most productive agricultural county in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, mining, petroleum refining, distribution, food processing, corporate regional offices.
The city is the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of Native American settlements dating back thousands of years; the Yokuts lived in lodges along the branches of the Kern River delta and hunted antelope, tule elk, bear and game birds. In 1776, Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés became the first European to explore the area. Owing to the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, the Yokuts remained isolated until after the Mexican War of Independence, when Mexican settlers began to migrate to the area. Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1851, gold was discovered along the Kern River in the southern Sierra Nevada, in 1865, oil was discovered in the valley; the Bakersfield area, once a tule reed-covered marshland, was first known as Kern Island to the handful of pioneers, who built log cabins there in 1860. The area was subject to periodic flooding from the Kern River, which occupied what is now the downtown area, experienced outbreaks of malaria.
In 1862, disastrous floods swept away the original settlement founded in 1860 by the German-born Christian Bohna. Among those attracted to the area by the California gold rush was Thomas Baker, a lawyer and former colonel in the militia of Ohio, his home state. Baker moved to the banks of the Kern River in 1863, at what became known as Baker's Field, which became a stopover for travelers. By 1870, with a population of 600, what is now known as Bakersfield was becoming the principal town in Kern County. In 1873, Bakersfield was incorporated as a city, by 1874, it replaced the dying town of Havilah as the county seat. Alexander Mills was hired as the city marshal, a man one historian would describe as "... an old man by the time he became Marshal of Bakersfield, he walked with a cane. But he was a Kentuckian, a handy man with a gun, not lacking in initiative and resource when the mood moved him." Businessmen and others began to resent Mills, cantankerous and high-handed in his treatment of them.
Wanting to fire him but fearing reprisals, they came up with a scheme to disincorporate leaving him without an employer. According to local historian Gilbert Gia the city was failing to collect the taxes it needed for services. In 1876, the city voted to disincorporate. For the next 22 years, a citizen's council managed the community. By 1880, the town had a population of 801, by 1890, it had a population of 2,626. Migration from Texas, Louisiana and Southern California brought new residents, who were employed by the oil industry; the city reincorporated on January 11, 1898. On July 21, 1952, an earthquake struck at 4:52 am Pacific Daylight Time; the earthquake, which measured 7.5 on the moment magnitude scale and was felt from San Francisco to the Mexican border, destroyed the nearby communities of Tehachapi and Arvin. The earthquake's destructive force bent cotton fields into U shapes, slid a shoulder of the Tehachapi Mountains across all four lanes of the Ridge Route, collapsed a water tower creating a flash flood, destroyed the railroad tunnels in the mountain chain.
Bakersfield was spared. A large aftershock occurred on July 29, did minor architectural damage, but raised fears that the flow of the Friant-Kern Canal could be dangerously altered flooding the city and surrounding areas. Aftershocks, for the next month, had become normal to Bakersfield residents until, on August 22 at 3:42 pm, a 5.8 earthquake struck directly under the town's center in the most densely populated area of the southern San Joaquin Valley. Four people died in the aftershock, some of the town's historic structures sustained heavy damage. Between 1970 and 2010, Bakersfield grew 400%, making it one of the fastest-growing cities in California. Bakersfield's close proximity to mountain passes the Tejon Pass on Interstate 5 between the Los Angeles metropolis and the central San Joaquin Valley, has made the city a regional transportation hub. In 1990, Bakersfield was one of 10 U. S. communities to receive the All-America City Award from the National Civic League. In 2010, the Bakersfield MSA had a gross metropolitan product of $29.466 billion, making it the 73rd-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Bakersfield lies near the southern "horseshoe" end of the San Joaquin Valley, with the southern tip of the Sierra Nevada just to the east. The city limits extend to the Sequoia National Forest, at the foot of the Greenhorn Mountain Range and at the en
The Tejon Pass known as Portezuelo de Cortes, Portezuela de Castac, Fort Tejon Pass, is a mountain pass between the southwest end of the Tehachapi Mountains and northeastern San Emigdio Mountains, linking Southern California north to the Central Valley. It has been traversed by major roads such as the El Camino Viejo, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road, the Ridge Route, U. S. Route 99, now Interstate 5; the highest point of the pass is near the northwestern-most corner of Los Angeles County, north of Gorman. Its highest point is 4,144 feet or 4,160 feet, 70 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles and 46 miles south of Bakersfield; the route of Interstate 5 winds through Tejon Pass, connecting the southern part of the state with the San Joaquin Valley and the north. The pass has a gradual rise from its southern approach of 1,362 feet at Santa Clarita, but a precipitous descent through Grapevine Canyon toward the San Joaquin Valley on the north, where it ends at Grapevine at 1,499 feet. On its northward slope lies Fort Tejon State Historic Park, the site of a former U.
S. Army post, first garrisoned on August 10, 1854. Historians speak of the area around Gorman, California, as "one of the oldest continuously used roadside rest stops in California." This is because pre-Columbian indigenous Californians "would have stopped there when it was the Tataviam village of Kulshra'jek", a trading crossroads for hundreds to thousands of years. In 1772, Lieutenant Pedro Fages crossed the pass in pursuit of military deserters, named it Portezuelo de Cortes. Fages named the canyon beyond the pass leading down into the Tulare Basin, Cañada de las Uvas for all the grape vines growing in it. In the late 18th century, El Camino Viejo, a road between Los Angeles and the Mission Santa Clara de Asis began to be used for travel north and south along the western San Joaquin Valley, it crossed over the pass and turned westward up Cuddy Canyon, descended San Emigdio Creek into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1806, Father Jose Maria Zalvidea, diarist for the expedition of First Lieutenant Francisco Ruiz into the San Joaquin Valley, named the canyon and pass, discovered in 1776 by the explorer priest, Father Francisco Garces.
He recorded the name as "Tejon" —after a dead badger found at the canyon's mouth. This original Tejon Pass, was situated 15 miles to the northeast of; the old pass went through the Tehachapi Mountains, at the top of the divide between Tejon Creek Canyon in the San Joaquin Valley and Cottonwood Creek Canyon in Antelope Valley. Before 1854, the main route of travel into the San Joaquin Valley had come directly north from Elizabeth Lake across the Antelope Valley, over this original Tejon Pass, down into Tejon Canyon, proceeded west along Tejon Creek—into the lands of the Rancho Tejon, granted in 1843; this route to the pass diverted from the El Camino Viejo at Elisabeth Lake, from 1849 to before 1854 it was the main road connecting the southern part of the state to the trail along the eastern side of the San Joaquin Valley to the goldfields to the north. In 1843, Rancho Castac was established in La Cañada de las Uvas. During that same year, the first grant of Rancho Los Alamos y Agua Caliente included the pass, now called Portezuela de Castac.
After the establishment of Fort Tejon and the Stockton - Los Angeles Road, the Portezuela de Castac began to be called the "Fort Tejon Pass." The rather poor wagon route of the old Tejon Pass route was abandoned, the Fort Tejon Pass took the shortened name it has today. In 1858 the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line ran through the pass on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road; the Butterfield Overland was discontinued in 1861 but was replaced by the Telegraph Stage Line, which stopped at all the former stations, including Gorman's, where the horses were changed. Six of them were used for the pull up from Bakersfield to Gorman's; the Ridge Route was the first automobile highway linking the Central Valley with the Los Angeles Basin. It was laid in a sinuous fashion through the ridges and gullies of the Sierra Pelona Mountains to the Tejon Pass around 1910; the northern portion of this highway, which became a part of U. S. Route 99, was known as "The Grapevine." The Ridge Route was replaced by a three-lane alternate highway in 1933, a four-lane expressway in 1947, by the eight-lane Interstate 5 Freeway in 1970.
The pass is sunny in summer and autumn, but is subject to severe weather and closure to traffic in winter. The 40-mile stretch of Interstate 5 between Grapevine and Castaic is sometimes closed by the California Highway Patrol because of the icy conditions combined with the steep grade of the pass, the high traffic during the winter holidays; the Highway Patrol is concerned with the number of big-rigs that pass through, that one accident in the snowy conditions might force traffic to slow down or come to a complete stop, leaving hundreds of vehicles stalled at once. Whenever there is such a closure, traffic must either wait for it to reopen, or endure a multi-hour detour running between Bakersfield and Los Angeles via CA 58; this historic gap has given its name to the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass. Beginning on the south at Santa Clari
California State Water Project
The California State Water Project known as the SWP, is a state water management project in the U. S. state of California under the supervision of the California Department of Water Resources. The SWP is one of the largest public water and power utilities in the world, providing drinking water for more than 23 million people and generating an average of 6,500 GWh of hydroelectricity annually. However, as it is the largest single consumer of power in the state itself, it has a net usage of 5,100 GWh; the SWP collects water from rivers in Northern California and redistributes it to the water-scarce but populous south through a network of aqueducts, pumping stations and power plants. About 70% of the water provided by the project is used for urban areas and industry in Southern California and the San Francisco Bay Area, 30% is used for irrigation in the Central Valley. To reach Southern California, the water must be pumped 2,882 feet over the Tehachapi Mountains, with 1,926 feet at the Edmonston Pumping Plant alone, the highest single water lift in the world.
The SWP shares many facilities with the federal Central Valley Project, which serves agricultural users. Water can be interchanged between SWP and CVP canals as needed to meet peak requirements for project constituents; the SWP provides estimated annual benefits of $400 billion to California's economy. Since its inception in 1960, the SWP has required the construction of 21 dams and more than 700 miles of canals and tunnels, although these constitute only a fraction of the facilities proposed; as a result, the project has only delivered an average of 2.4 million acre feet annually, as compared to total entitlements of 4.23 million acre feet. Environmental concerns caused by the dry-season removal of water from the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, a sensitive estuary region, have led to further reductions in water delivery. Work continues today to expand the SWP's water delivery capacity while finding solutions for the environmental impacts of water diversion; the original purpose of the project was to provide water for arid Southern California, whose local water resources and share of the Colorado River were insufficient to sustain the region's growth.
The SWP was rooted in two proposals. The United Western Investigation of 1951, a study by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, assessed the feasibility of interbasin water transfers in the Western United States. In California, this plan contemplated the construction of dams on rivers draining to California's North Coast – the wild and undammed Klamath, Eel and Smith River systems – and tunnels to carry the impounded water to the Sacramento River system, where it could be diverted southwards. In the same year, State Engineer A. D. Edmonston proposed the Feather River Project, which proposed the damming of the Feather River, a tributary of the Sacramento River, for the same purpose; the Feather River was much more accessible than the North Coast rivers, but did not have nearly as much water. Under both of the plans, a series of canals and pumps would carry the water south through the Central Valley to the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains, where it would pass through the Tehachapi Tunnel to reach Southern California.
Calls for a comprehensive statewide water management system led to the creation of the California Department of Water Resources in 1956. The following year, the preliminary studies were compiled into the extensive California Water Plan, or Bulletin No. 3. The project was intended for "the control, conservation and utilization of the waters of California, to meet present and future needs for all beneficial uses and purposes in all areas of the state to the maximum feasible extent." California governor Pat Brown would say it was to "correct an accident of people and geography". The diversion of the North Coast rivers was abandoned in the plan's early stages after strong opposition from locals and concerns about the potential impact on the salmon in North Coast rivers; the California Water Plan would have to go ahead with the development of the Feather River alone, as proposed by Edmonston. The Burns-Porter Act of 1959 provided $1.75 billion of initial funding through a bond measure. Construction on Stage I of the project, which would deliver the first 2.23 million acre feet of water, began in 1960.
Northern Californians opposed the measure as a boondoggle and an attempt to steal their water resources. In fact, the city of Los Angeles –, to be one of the principal beneficiaries – opposed the project. Historians attribute the success of the Burns-Porter Act and the State Water Project to major agribusiness lobbying by J. G. Boswell II of the J. G. Boswell cotton company; the bond was passed on an narrow margin of 174,000 out of 5.8 million ballots cast. In 1961, ground was broken on Oroville Dam, in 1963, work began on the California Aqueduct and San Luis Reservoir; the first deliveries to the Bay Area were made in 1962, water reached the San Joaquin Valley by 1968. Due to concerns over the fault-ridden geography of the Tehachapi Mountains, the tunnel plan was scrapped. In 1973, the pumps and the East and West branches of the aqueduct were completed, the first water was delivered to Southern California. A Peripheral Canal, which would have carried SWP water around the vulnerable and ecologically sensitive Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, was rejected in 1982 due to environm
Tehachapi Pass wind farm
The Tehachapi Pass wind farm is one of the first large-scale wind farms installed in the U. S. with around 700 MW capacity. Wind development in the Tehachapi Pass began in the early 1980s by James Dehlsen and Zond Corporation; the first set of wind turbines installed were of American-made Storm Master brand, however they proved troublesome and had to be replaced. Dehlsen turned to Danish-built machines which now make up the majority of the turbines at the pass; the area hosts a multitude of wind farms, comprising one of California's largest wind resource areas. The pass is undergoing much repowering activity; the area has multiple generations of wind turbine technology installed, including both single and double-blade turbines, as well as the more modern three-blade horizontal axis design. The older generation turbines generate kilowatts, the modern turbines installed generate up to 3 megawatts, depending on the specific turbine and manufacturer; the Tehachapi wind resource area is a net exporter of generation to other parts of the state of California.
A state initiative to upgrade the transmission out of Tehachapi began in 2008 and was expected to be completed by 2012. This has opened the door to further regional wind power development and multiple projects are expected to be installed to utilize that capacity. A prime location for viewing the turbines is off of State Route 58 and from Tehachapi-Willow Springs Road. One proponent for further regional wind power development is Southern California Edison, which executed power purchase agreements for up to 1,500 megawatts or more of power generated from new projects to be built in the Tehachapi area, of which the Alta Wind Energy Center was developed; the 2006 contract, which more than doubles SCE’s wind energy portfolio, envisions more than 50 square miles of wind parks in the Tehachapi region, triple the size of any existing U. S. wind farm. Other well-known wind turbine locations in California include the adjacent Alta Wind Energy Center, the Altamont Pass Wind Farm and the San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm, near Palm Springs.
Tehachapi Wind Resource Area Wind power in the United States Wind power in California Presscom.com: Wind Farms in Tehachapi, California Renewableenergyworld.com: "Another Wind Farm for Tehachapi Pass"
A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere. A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the Earth's surface, becoming part of the area groundwater; the groundwater travels through a network of cracks and fissures—openings ranging from intergranular spaces to large caves. The water emerges from below the surface, in the form of a karst spring; the forcing of the spring to the surface can be the result of a confined aquifer in which the recharge area of the spring water table rests at a higher elevation than that of the outlet. Spring water forced to the surface by elevated sources are artesian wells; this is possible if the outlet is in the form of a 300-foot-deep cave. In this case the cave is used like a hose by the higher elevated recharge area of groundwater to exit through the lower elevation opening. Non-artesian springs may flow from a higher elevation through the earth to a lower elevation and exit in the form of a spring, using the ground like a drainage pipe.
Still other springs are the result of pressure from an underground source in the earth, in the form of volcanic activity. The result can be water at elevated temperature such as a hot spring; the action of the groundwater continually dissolves permeable bedrock such as limestone and dolomite, creating vast cave systems. Seepage or filtration spring; the term seep refers to springs with small flow rates in which the source water has filtered through permeable earth. Fracture springs, discharge from faults, joints, or fissures in the earth, in which springs have followed a natural course of voids or weaknesses in the bedrock. Tubular springs, in which the water flows from underground caverns. Spring discharge, or resurgence, is determined by the spring's recharge basin. Factors that affect the recharge include the size of the area in which groundwater is captured, the amount of precipitation, the size of capture points, the size of the spring outlet. Water may leak into the underground system from many sources including permeable earth and losing streams.
In some cases entire creeks disappear as the water sinks into the ground via the stream bed. Grand Gulf State Park in Missouri is an example of an entire creek vanishing into the groundwater system; the water emerges 9 miles away. Human activity may affect a spring's discharge—withdrawal of groundwater reduces the water pressure in an aquifer, decreasing the volume of flow. Springs are classified by the volume of the water they discharge; the largest springs are called "first-magnitude", defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 liters or 100 cubic feet of water per second. Some locations contain many first-magnitude springs, such as Florida where there are at least 27 known to be that size; the scale for spring flow is as follows: Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavor and carbon dioxide bubbles, depending on the nature of the geology through which it passes; this is why spring water is bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is the subject of deceptive advertising.
Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts sodium carbonate, are called'soda springs'. Many resorts are known as spa towns. Water from springs is clear; however some springs may be colored by the minerals. For instance, water heavy with iron or tannins will have an orange color. In parts of the United States a stream carrying the outflow of a spring to a nearby primary stream may be called a spring branch or run. Groundwater tends to maintain a long-term average temperature of its aquifer; the cool water of a spring and its branch may harbor species such as certain trout that are otherwise ill-suited to a warmer local climate. Springs have been used for a variety of human needs including drinking water, domestic water supply, mills and electricity generation. Other modern uses include recreational activities such as fishing and floating. A sacred spring, or holy well, is a small body of water emerging from underground and revered either in a Christian, pagan or other religious context, sometimes both.
The lore and mythology of ancient Greece was replete with sacred and storied springs—notably, the Corycian and Castalian. In medieval Europe, holy wells were pagan sacred sites that became Christianized; the term "holy well" is employed to refer to any water source of limited size, which has some significance in local folklore. This can take the form of a particular name, an associated legend, the attribution of healing qualities to the water through the numinous presence of its guardian spirit or Christian saint, or a ceremony or ritual centred on the well site. In Christian legend, the spring water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme in the hagiography of Celtic saints. LaMor
Mojave is a census-designated place in Kern County, United States. Mojave is located 50 miles east at an elevation of 2,762 feet; the town is located in the southwestern region of the Mojave Desert and east of Oak Creek Pass and the Tehachapi Mountains. The population was 4,238 at the 2010 census, up from 3,836 at the 2000 census. Telephone numbers in Mojave follow the format 824-xxxx and the area includes three postal ZIP Codes; the town of Mojave began in 1876 as a construction camp on the Southern Pacific Railroad. From 1884 to 1889, the town was the western terminus of the 165-mile, twenty-mule team borax wagon route originating at Harmony Borax Works in Death Valley, it served as headquarters for construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Located near Edwards Air Force Base, Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, Palmdale Regional Airport, Mojave has a rich aerospace history as well. Besides being a general-use public airport, Mojave has three main areas of activity: flight testing, space industry development, aircraft heavy maintenance and storage.
The closest airfield to the city known as the Mojave Airport, is now part of the Mojave Air and Space Port. In 1935, Kern County established the Mojave Airport 0.5 miles east of town to serve the gold and silver mining industry in the area. The airport consisted of two dirt runways, one of, oiled, but it lacked any fueling or servicing facilities. In 1941, the Civil Aeronautics Board began improvements to the airport for national defense purposes that included two 4,500 by 150 foot asphalt runways and adjacent taxiway. Kern County agreed. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the U. S. Marine Corps took over the airport and expanded it into Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Station Mojave; the two existing runways were extended and a third one added. Barracks were constructed to house 2,734 376 female military personnel. Civilian employment at the base would peak at 176; the Marines would spend more than $7 million on the base, which totaled 2,312 acres. Many of the Corps' World War II aces received their gunnery training at Mojave.
During World War II, Mojave hosted 29 aircraft squadrons, four Carrier Aircraft Service Detachments, three Air Warning Squadrons. At its peak, the air station had other aircraft. Mojave had a 75 by 156 foot swimming pool, used to train aviators in emergency water egress and for recreation; the base's 900-seat auditorium hosted several USO shows that featured Bob Hope, Frances Langford and Marilyn Maxwell. With the end of WWII, MCAAS was dis-established on February 7, 1946. S. Navy Air Station was established the same day; the Navy used the airport for drone operations for less than a year, closing it on January 1, 1947. The base remained closed for four years until the outbreak of the Korean War. Mojave was reactivated as an auxiliary landing field to MCAS El Toro; the airport was recommissioned as a MCAAS on December 31, 1953. Squadrons used Mojave for ordnance training. Marine Corps reserve units were temporarily deployed to Mojave for two week periods. MCAAS Mojave personnel peaked at 200 civilians during this period.
In 1961, after the USMC transferred operations to MCAS El Centro, Kern County obtained title to the airport. In February 1972, the East Kern Airport District was formed to administer the airport. To a great extent EKAD was the brainchild of Dan Sabovich who lobbied the state for the airport district's creation and ran EKAD until 2002. During the 1970s, Mojave Airport was served by commuter air carrier Golden West Airlines with scheduled passenger flights operated with de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprops direct to Los Angeles. On November 20, 2012, the EKAD Board of Directors voted to change the name of the district to the Mojave Air and Space Port. Officials said that the spaceport name is well known around the world; the change took effect on January 1, 2013. The airport is now the home of various aerospace companies and institutions such as Scaled Composites and the civilian National Test Pilot School; the town was home to the Rutan Voyager, the first aircraft to fly around the world nonstop and unrefueled.
The airport is the first inland spaceport in the United States, was the location of the first private spaceflight, the launch of SpaceShipOne on June 21, 2004. Mojave has a Mojave Transportation Museum. Mojave is located at 35°03′09″N 118°10′26″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 58.4 square miles, over 99% of it land. Mojave has a desert climate (Köppen: BWk, cold desert for using an isotherm of mean annual temperature of less than 18 °C or hot desert for using an isotherm of less than 0 °C for the mean temperature of the coldest month, it has cool winters. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 57.8 °F and a minimum of 34.3 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 97.7 °F and a minimum of 69.8 °F. There are an average of 98 days with highs of 90 °F and an average of 45.7 days with lows of 32 °F. The record high temperature was 118 °F on August 5, 1914; the record low temperature was 8 °F on December 23, 1990. Average annual rainfall is 5.96 inches.
There are an average of 22 days with measurable precipitation. The wettest year was 1983 with 15.51 inches and the driest year was 1942 with 0.85 inches. The most rainfall in one month