Charles Aznavour was a French-Armenian singer and diplomat. Aznavour was known for his distinctive tenor voice: clear and ringing in its upper reaches, with gravelly and profound low notes. In a composer/singer/songwriter career spanning over 70 years, he recorded more than 1,200 songs interpreted in nine languages. Moreover, he co-wrote more than 1,000 songs for himself and others. Aznavour was one of France's most enduring singers, he sold 180 million records during his lifetime and was dubbed France's Frank Sinatra, while music critic Stephen Holden described Aznavour as a "French pop deity". He was arguably the most famous Armenian of his time. In 1998, Aznavour was named Entertainer of the Century by CNN and users of Time Online from around the globe, he was recognized as the century's outstanding performer, with nearly 18% of the total vote, edging out Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan. Jean Cocteau said: "Before Aznavour, despair was unpopular". Aznavour sang for presidents and royalty, as well as at humanitarian events.
In response to the 1988 Armenian earthquake, he founded the charitable organization Aznavour for Armenia along with his long-time friend impresario Levon Sayan. In 2009, he was appointed ambassador of Armenia to Switzerland, as well as Armenia's permanent delegate to the United Nations at Geneva, he started his last world tour in 2014. On 24 August 2017, Aznavour was awarded the 2,618th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; that year, he and his sister were awarded the Raoul Wallenberg Award for sheltering Jews during World War II. His last concert took place in NHK Hall in Osaka on 19 September 2018. Aznavour was born at the clinic Tarnier at 89, rue d'Assas in Saint-Germain-des-Prés, 6th arrondissement of Paris, into a family of artists living on rue Monsieur-le-Prince, he was named Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, by his parents, Armenian immigrants Michael Aznavourian and Knar Baghdasarian, an Armenian from Smyrna. His father sang in restaurants in France before establishing a Caucasian restaurant called Le Caucase.
Charles's parents introduced him to performing at an early age, he dropped out of school at age nine, took the stage name "Aznavour". During the German occupation of France during World War II, Aznavour and his family hid “a number of people who were persecuted by the Nazis, while Charles and his sister Aida were involved in rescue activities.” Their work was recognized in a statement issued in 2017 by President of Israel. That year and Aida received the Raoul Wallenberg Award for their wartime activities. "The Aznavours were linked to the Missak Manouchian Resistance Group and in this context they have offered shelter to Armenians and others at their own Paris flat, risking their own lives." Aznavour was familiar with performing on stage by the time he began his career as a musician. At the age of nine, he had roles in a play called Un Petit Diable à Paris and a film entitled La Guerre des Gosses. Aznavour turned to professional dancing and performed in several nightclubs. In 1944, he and actor Pierre Roche began a partnership and in collaborative efforts performed in numerous nightclubs.
It was through this partnership that Aznavour began to sing. The partnership's first successes were in Canada in 1948-1950. Meanwhile, Aznavour wrote his first song entitled J'ai Bu in 1950. During the early stages of his career, Aznavour opened for Edith Piaf at the Moulin Rouge. Piaf advised him to pursue a career in singing. Piaf helped Aznavour develop a distinctive voice. Sometimes described as "France's Frank Sinatra", Aznavour sang about love, he wrote or co-wrote musicals, more than one thousand songs, recorded ninety-one studio albums. Aznavour's voice was shaded towards the tenor range, but possessed the low range and coloration more typical of a baritone, contributing to his unique sound. Aznavour spoke and sang in many languages, which helped him perform at Carnegie Hall, in the US, other major venues around the world, he recorded at least one song from the 18th-century Armenian poet Sayat-Nova, a popular song, Im Yare in Armenian. "Que C'est Triste Venise", sung in French, Spanish and German, was successful the mid 1960s.1972 saw the release of his 23rd studio album, "Idiote je t'aime...", which contained among others, two of his classics - Les plaisirs démodés et Comme ils disent, the latter dealing with homosexuality, which at the time, was revolutionary.
In 1974, Aznavour became a major success in the United Kingdom when his song "She" was number 1 on the UK Singles Chart for four weeks during a fourteen-week run. His other well-known song in the UK was the 1973 "The Old Fashioned Way", on UK charts for 15 weeks. Artists who have recorded his songs and collaborated with Aznavour include Édith Piaf, Fred Astaire, Frank Sinatra, Andrea Bocelli, Bing Crosby, Ray Charles, Bob Dylan, Dusty Springfield, Liza Minnelli, Mia Martini, Elton John, Serge Gainsbourg, Josh Groban, Petula Clark, Tom Jones, Shirley Bassey, José Carreras, Laura Pausini, Nana Mouskouri and Julio Iglesias. Fellow French pop singer Mireille Mathieu sang an
Mosfilm is a film studio, among the largest and oldest in the Russian Federation and in Europe. Its output includes most of the more acclaimed Soviet-era films, ranging from works by Andrei Tarkovsky and Sergei Eisenstein, to Red Westerns to the Akira Kurosawa co-production Dersu Uzala and the epic War and Peace; the Moscow film production unit with studio facilities was established in November 1923 by the motion picture mogul Aleksandr Khanzhonkov and I. Ermolev as a unit of the Goskino works; the first movie filmed by Mosfilm was On the Wings Skyward. In 1927 the construction of a new film studio complex began on Mosfilmovskaya Street in Sparrow Hills of Moscow; this film studio was named after the Moscow amalgamated factory Soyuzkino the Tenth Anniversary of the October. In 1934 the film studio was renamed to Moskinokombinat, in 1936 – to Mosfilm. During World War II the film studio personnel were evacuated to Alma-Ata and merged with other Soviet production units into the Central United Film Studio.
The Mosfilm personnel returned to Moscow at the end of 1943. The famous Mosfilm logo, representing the monument "Worker and Kolkhoz Woman" by Vera Mukhina and Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin, was introduced in 1947 in the musical comedy, Spring directed by Grigori Aleksandrov and starring Lyubov Orlova and Nikolai Cherkasov. By the time the Soviet Union was no more, Mosfilm had produced more than 3,000 films. Many film classics were shot at Mosfilm throughout its history and some of these were granted international awards at various film festivals. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Mosfilm continued operations as a quasi-private production company, led by film director Karen Shakhnazarov; as of 2005, the company embraced ten independent studios, located within 13 sound stages occupying an area of 13,000 sq. meters. Tours through this "Russian Hollywood" become popular, as they allow to view Mosfilm's enormous depot with 170 tanks and 50 vintage cars; the biggest sound stage is leased annually to hold the Golden Eagle Awards.
In 2011 Mosfilm released a selection of its classic films online for free viewing. Directed by Sergei Eisenstein1925 The Battleship Potemkin, a historical silent film 1938 Alexander Nevsky, a historical film 1946 Ivan The Terrible, Part II, a historical filmDirected by Andrei Tarkovsky1960 The Steamroller and the Violin, a short film 1962 Ivan's Childhood, a feature film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky, the Golden Lion Award winner at the 1962 Venice Film Festival 1966 Andrei Rublev 1972 Solaris 1975 The Mirror 1979 Stalker 1983 Nostalghia Others1934 Jolly Fellows, a musical comedy 1935 Aerograd, a science fiction film directed by Alexander Dovzhenko 1936 Circus, a musical comedy 1938 Volga-Volga, a musical comedy 1939 Minin and Pozharsky, a historical film directed by Vsevolod Pudovkin and Mikhail Doller 1956 Ilya Muromets, a fantasy film directed by Aleksandr Ptushko 1957 The Cranes Are Flying, a war drama directed by Mikhail Kalatozov, 1958 winner of Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival 1957 Miles of Fire, an ostern film directed by Samson Samsonov 1959 Ballad of a Soldier, a war film directed by Grigori Chukhrai, a 1959 special jury prize winner of Cannes Film Festival and 1961 Academy Award nominant.
1962 Hussar Ballad directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1963 Walking the Streets of Moscow directed by Georgi Daneliya 1964 Welcome, or No Trespassing directed by Elem Klimov 1964 I Am Cuba directed by Mikhail Kalatozov 1965 Adventures of a Dentist directed by Elem Klimov 1966 Watch Out for the Automobile directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1966 Wings directed by Larisa Shepitko 1966 The Elusive Avengers directed by Edmond Keosayan 1967 Viy 1968 War and Peace directed by Sergei Bondarchuk, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1968 winner. 1968 The Diamond Arm directed by Leonid Gaidai 1969 Liberation directed by Yuri Ozerov 1969 The Brothers Karamazov, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1969 nominant. 1969 White Sun of the Desert directed by Vladimir Motyl 1971 Tchaikovsky directed by Igor Talankin, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1971 nominee. 1971 Stariki-razboyniki directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1972 Gentlemen of Fortune 1973 Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future directed by Leonid Gaidai 1974 At Home Among Strangers directed by Nikita Mikhalkov 1974 Unbelievable Adventures of Italians in Russia directed by Franco Prosperi and Eldar Ryazanov 1975 Dersu Uzala directed by Akira Kurosawa, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1975 winner.
1975 Siberiade directed by Andrei Konchalovsky 1975 Afonya directed by Georgi Daneliya 1975 The Irony of Fate directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1976 The Ascent directed by Larisa Shepitko, the Golden Bear Award at the Berlin Film Festival in 1977 winner. 1976 Queen of the Gypsies directed by Emil Loteanu 1977 Mimino directed by Georgi Daneliya 1977 Office Romance directed by Eldar Ryazanov 1979 Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1980 winner. 1981 Private Life directed by Yuli Raizman, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1981 nominant. 1981 Teheran 43 1982 Lenin in Paris 1985 Come and See directed by Elem Klimov 1986
Curd Gustav Andreas Gottlieb Franz Jürgens was a German-Austrian stage and film actor. He was billed in English-speaking films as Curt Jurgens. Jürgens was born on 13 December 1915 in the Munich borough of Solln, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire, his father, was a trader from Hamburg, his mother, Marie-Albertine, was a French teacher. He began his working career as a journalist before becoming an actor at the urging of his actress wife, Louise Basler, he spent much of his early acting career on the stage in Vienna. Jürgens was critical of National Socialism in his native Germany. In 1944, he was sent to an internment camp in Hungary as a "political unreliable". Jürgens became an Austrian citizen after the war. Jürgens went on to play soldiers in many war films. Notable performances in this vein include his breakthrough screen role in Des Teufels General, a fictional portrayal of World War I flying ace and World War II Luftwaffe general Ernst Udet, followed by Roger Vadim's film Et Dieu... créa la femme starring Brigitte Bardot.
Jürgens first Hollywood film was The Enemy Below. In 1962 he played the German general Günther Blumentritt in The Longest Day. In the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me, he played the villain Karl Stromberg, a sociopathic industrialist seeking to transform the world into an ocean paradise, his last film appearance was as Maître Legraine, beside Alain Delon and Claude Jade in the spy-thriller Teheran 43. In English-language television he played Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in several episodes of the BBC series Fall of Eagles and appeared as General Vladimir in the BBC's Smiley's People. Although he appeared in over 100 films, Jürgens considered himself a stage actor, his last stage appearance was with the Vienna State Opera on 9 March 1981 as Bassa Selim in Mozart's opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail. He directed a few films with limited success, wrote screenplays, he titled his 1976 autobiography... und kein bißchen weise. Jürgens maintained a home in France, but returned to Vienna to perform on stage.
He died there from a heart attack on 18 June 1982. Jürgens had suffered a heart attack several years before. During this he had a near-death experience where he claimed he went to Hell. Jürgens was interred in the Vienna Central Cemetery, he was 1.92 metres tall. Brigitte Bardot nicknamed him "the Norman Wardrobe" during their work for Et Dieu... créa la femme. Jürgens was married to: Lulu Basler, actress Judith Holzmeister Eva Bartok Simone Bicheron Margie Schmitz Curd Jürgens on IMDb Curd Jürgens at the Internet Broadway Database Curd Jürgens at Find a Grave Curd Jürgens Estate at Deutsches Filminstitut, Frankfurt am Main
Nikolai Grigoryevich Grinko or Mykola Hryhorovych Hrynko was a Soviet and Ukrainian actor. He is well known for his roles in the films of Andrei Tarkovsky, including: Ivan's Childhood, Andrei Rubliov, Solaris and Stalker, he starred in the 1981 film Teheran 43. His wife is Ayshe Rafetovna Chulak-ogly, a violinist of the State Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra of the Ukrainian SSR, a jazz-symphonic ensemble Dnepr. Nikolai Grinko did not have any children. Peace to Him Who Enters Ivan's Childhood Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors Andrei Rublev War and Peace Dangerous Tour Solaris Adventures in a City that does not Exist A Lover's Romance Afonya Twenty Days Without War The Adventures of Buratino The Bodyguard The Adventures of the Elektronic Stalker The Youth of Peter the Great At the Beginning of Glorious Days Teheran 43 Be my husband Nikolai Grinko on IMDb
The Tehran Conference was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran, it was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Iran. It was the first of the World War II conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders, it followed the Cairo Conference which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany; the conference addressed the'Big Three' Allies' relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three to recognize Iran's independence; as soon as the German-Soviet war broke out in June 1941, Churchill offered assistance to the Soviets, an agreement to this effect was signed on 12 July 1941.
Delegations had traveled between London and Moscow to arrange the implementation of this support and when the United States joined the war in December 1941, the delegations met in Washington as well. A Combined Chiefs of Staff committee was created to coordinate British and American operations as well as their support to the Soviet Union; the consequences of a global war, the absence of a unified Allied strategy and the complexity of allocating resources between Europe and Asia had not yet been sorted out, soon gave rise to mutual suspicions between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. There was the question of opening a second front to alleviate the German pressure on the Soviet Red Army on the Eastern Front, the question of mutual assistance. Neither the United States nor Britain were prepared to give Stalin a free hand in Eastern Europe and, there was no common policy on how to deal with Germany after Hitler. Communications regarding these matters between Churchill and Stalin took place by telegrams and via emissaries—but it was evident that direct negotiations were urgently needed.
Stalin was reluctant to leave Moscow and was unwilling to risk journeys by air, while Roosevelt was physically disabled and found travel difficult. Churchill was an avid traveller and, as part of an ongoing series of wartime conferences, had met with Roosevelt five times in North America and twice in Africa and had held two prior meetings with Stalin in Moscow. In order to arrange this urgently needed meeting, Roosevelt tried to persuade Stalin to travel to Cairo. Stalin turned down this offer and offers to meet in Baghdad or Basra agreeing to meet in Tehran in November 1943; the conference was to convene at 16:00 on 28 November 1943. Stalin arrived well before, followed by Roosevelt, brought in his wheelchair from his accommodation adjacent to the venue. Roosevelt, who had traveled 7,000 miles to attend and whose health was deteriorating, was met by Stalin; this was the first time. Churchill, walking with his general staff from their accommodations nearby, arrived half an hour later. According to Charles Bohlen, translator for FDR, FDR was accompanied by Averell Harriman and Harry Hopkins.
Stalin was accompanied by Kliment Voroshilov. Churchill brought Anthony Eden and Lord Ismay, his translator was Major Arthur Birse; as Stalin had been advocating for a second front since 1941, he was pleased and felt that he had accomplished his principal goal for the meeting. Moving on, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan. Stalin pressed for a revision of Poland’s eastern border with the Soviet Union to match the line set by British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon in 1920. In order to compensate Poland for the resulting loss of territory, the three leaders agreed to move the German-Polish border to the Oder and Neisse rivers; this decision was not formally ratified, until the Potsdam Conference of 1945. The leaders turned to the conditions under which the Western Allies would open a new front by invading northern France, as Stalin had pressed them to do since 1941. Up to this point Churchill had advocated the expansion of joint operations of British and Commonwealth forces in the Mediterranean, as Overlord in 1943 was physically impossible due to a lack of shipping, which left the Mediterranean and Italy as viable goals for 1943.
It was agreed Overlord would occur by May 1944. Iran and Turkey were discussed in detail. Roosevelt and Stalin all agreed to support Iran's government, as addressed in the following declaration: The Three Governments realize that the war has caused special economic difficulties for Iran, they all agreed that they will continue to make available to the Government of Iran such economic assistance as may be possible, having regard to the heavy demands made upon them by their world-wide military operations, to the world-wide shortage of transport, raw materials, supplies for civilian consumption. In addition, the Soviet Union was required to pledge support to Turkey if that country entered the war. Roosevelt and Stalin agreed that it would be most desirable if Turkey entered on the Allies' side before th
Albert Leonidovich Filozov was a Soviet and Russian actor. He was a People's Artist of Russia, he was born on June 1937 in Sverdlovsk. He received the profession of turner, worked at the State Bearing Plant, he graduated from Moscow Art Theater School. In 1991 before 1995 he was a master acting course at VGIK, he taught at GITIS. Albert Filozov on IMDb Альберт Филозов в программе Виктора Шендеровича
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well