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Tektronix, Inc. widely known as Tek, is an American company best known for manufacturing test and measurement devices such as oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, video and mobile test protocol equipment. An independent company, it is now a subsidiary of Fortive, a spinoff from Danaher Corporation. Several charities are, or were, associated with Tektronix, including the Tektronix Foundation and the M. J. Murdock Charitable Trust in Vancouver, Washington; the company traces its roots to the electronics revolution that followed World War II, was first founded in December 1945, as Tekrad. However, the name was similar to that of a California company, so, in 1946, the four partners, Howard Vollum, along with Jack Murdock and Miles Tippery, who had both served in the Coast Guard, accountant Glenn McDowell, formed Tektronix, Inc. with each contributing an initial $2,600 for equal shares. Howard Vollum had graduated in 1936 from Reed College with a degree in physics and a keen interest in oscilloscopes worked as a radio technician out of Jack Murdock's Murdock Radio and Appliance Company prior to the outbreak of war, during which he served in the Signal Corps.

Following the founding of Tektronix, Vollum invented the world’s first triggered oscilloscope in 1946, a significant technological breakthrough. This oscilloscope and developed by Tektronix, was the model 511; the model 511 was a triggering with sweep oscilloscope. The first oscilloscope with a true time-base was the Tektronix Model 513; the leading oscilloscope manufacturer at the time was DuMont Laboratories. DuMont pioneered the frequency-synch sweep. Allen DuMont tried the 511 at an electronics show and was impressed, but when he saw the price of $795, about twice as much as his equivalent model, he told Howard Vollum at the show that they would have a hard time selling many. Tektronix was incorporated in 1946 with its headquarters at SE Foster Road and SE 59th Avenue in Portland, just six blocks from Murdock's first family home. In 1947 there were 12 employees. Four years in 1951, Tektronix had 250 employees. Murdock and Vollum were known humanitarians and sought to operate their business as one might run a large and caring family.

In 1978, Tektronix was named by authors Robert Levering and Milton Moskowitz, et al, as among The 100 best companies to work for in America in their book of the same name. By 1950 the company began building a manufacturing facility in Washington County, Oregon, at Barnes Road and the Sunset Highway and, by 1956, had expanded the facility to 80,000 square feet; the company moved its headquarters to this site, following an employee vote. A detailed story of Howard Vollum and Jack Murdock along with the products that made Tektronix a leading maker of oscilloscopes can be found at the Museum of Vintage Tektronix Equipment. In 1956, a large piece of property in nearby Beaverton became available, the company’s employee retirement trust purchased the land and leased it back to the company. Construction began in 1957 and on May 1, 1959 Tektronix moved into its new Beaverton headquarters campus, on a 313-acre site which came to be called the Tektronix Industrial Park. In the late 1950s, Tektronix set a new trend in oscilloscope applications that would continue into the 1980s.

This was the introduction of the plug-in oscilloscope. Started with the 530 and 540 series oscilloscopes, the operator could switch in different horizontal sweep or vertical input plug-ins; this allowed the oscilloscope to be a adaptable test instrument. Tektronix would add in plug-ins to have the scope operate as a spectrum analyzer, waveform sampler, cable tester and transistor curve tracer; the 530 and 540 series ushered in the delayed trigger, allowing to trigger between a sweep rather than at the beginning. This allows better waveform reproduction. In 1961, Tektronix sold its first portable oscilloscope, the model 321; this oscilloscope could run on rechargeable batteries. It brought the oscilloscope into the transistor age. A year and a half the model 321A came out and, all transistors; the 560 series introduced the rectangular CRT to oscilloscopes. In 1964 Tektronix made an oscilloscope breakthrough, the world's first mass-produced analog storage oscilloscope the model 564. Hughes Aircraft Company is credited with the first working storage oscilloscope but it was made in small numbers and is rare today.

In 1966, Tektronix brought out a line of high frequency full function oscilloscopes called the 400 series. The oscilloscopes were packed with features for field work applications; these scopes were outstanding performers preferred over their laboratory bench models. The first models were a 16 MHz bandwidth and the 453, a 50 MHz bandwidth model; the following year the 454, a 150 MHz portable. These models put Tektronix well ahead of their competitors for years; the US Military contracted with Tektronix for a model 453 "ruggedized" for field servicing. The 400 series models would continue to be popular choices in the'80s. In addition the styling of the 400 series would be copied by Tektronix's competitors. 400 series oscilloscopes were still being used as of 2013. The company's IPO, when it publicly sold its first shares of stock, was on September 11, 1963. In 1974, the company acquired 256 acres in Wilsonville, Oregon where it built a facility for its imaging group. By 1976, the company employed nearly 10,000, was the state’s largest employer.

Tektronix's 1956 expansion and, in 1962

List of planar symmetry groups

This article summarizes the classes of discrete symmetry groups of the Euclidean plane. The symmetry groups are named here by three naming schemes: International notation, orbifold notation, Coxeter notation. There are three kinds of symmetry groups of the plane: 2 families of rosette groups – 2D point groups 7 frieze groups – 2D line groups 17 wallpaper groups – 2D space groups. There are two families of discrete two-dimensional point groups, they are specified with parameter n, the order of the group of the rotations in the group; the 7 frieze groups, the two-dimensional line groups, with a direction of periodicity are given with five notational names. The Schönflies notation is given as infinite limits of 7 dihedral groups; the yellow regions represent the infinite fundamental domain in each. The 17 wallpaper groups, with finite fundamental domains, are given by International notation, orbifold notation, Coxeter notation, classified by the 5 Bravais lattices in the plane: square, hexagonal and rhombic.

The p1 and p2 groups, with no reflectional symmetry, are repeated in all classes. The related pure reflectional Coxeter group are given with all classes except oblique. List of spherical symmetry groups Orbifold notation#Hyperbolic plane - Hyperbolic symmetry groups The Symmetries of Things 2008, John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 On Quaternions and Octonions, 2003, John Horton Conway and Derek A. Smith ISBN 978-1-56881-134-5 Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H. S. M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi Regular Polytopes I, H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, Coxeter, H. S. M. & Moser, W. O. J.. Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-09212-9. N. W. Johnson: Geometries and Transformations, ISBN 978-1-107-10340-5 Chapter 12: Euclidean Symmetry Groups "Conway's manuscript" on Orbifold notation The 17 Wallpaper Groups

Kells (County Kilkenny barony)

Kells is a barony in the south-west of County Kilkenny, Ireland. It is one of 12 baronies in County Kilkenny; the size of the barony is 155.6 square kilometres. There are 10 civil parishes in Kells, made up of 167 townlands; the chief town is Kells. Kells lies to the south-west of the county, with the baronies of Callan and Shillelogher to the north, the baronies of Iverk and Knocktopher to the south, it has a border with County Tipperary on the west. The barony was part of the territory of the Ua Glóiairn clan of Callann, in the historic kingdom of Osraige. Kells Priory is located in the barony. Today it is part of the Roman Catholic Church diocese of Ossory and the Church of Ireland diocese of Cashel and Ossory. Kells is administered by Kilkenny County Council; the name "Kells" developed from the ancient Irish: Ceanannas. Still today Ceanannas is used by Irish speakers. After the Norman Invasion "Ceanannas" was corrupted into "Kenelis", into "Kells". From the 12th century onward, the settlement was referred to in English and Anglo-Norman as Kenelis, Kenlis, Kenllis, Kyllis, it has been Kells since the 1655.

Carrigan 1905 says that there is no mention of Kells in Ossory in Gaelic records, but agrees with John O'Donovan who suggests the name signifies "the head seat or residence". And that this is of similar origin to Kells in County Meath. Kells is located in the historic Gaelic kingdom of Ossory. According to O'Heerin's Topographical Poem in the 1170s at the time of the Norman invasion the area was the territory of the clan called the Ua Glóiairn of Callann; the "cantred of O'Glóiairn" was located on both sides of the river Callann, now the King's River and included the present day barony of Callan. The territory of Callan was part of the early "cantred of Kells". In 1358 the "Barony of Kenlys" was small and located in the eastern portion of the present barony. In the western part of the modern barony was the "cantred of Erley"; the barony of Erley and the barony of Kells have been merged for many centuries. The barony of Erley must have included the parish of Earlstown or Erley, now in the barony of Shillelogher, the townland of Frankford belonged to Erley.

On the 14 January 1387 William, son of Richard Tobin granted to James Butler, 2nd Earl of Ormond, one messuage, with two carucates, 20 acres of arable land in Moyclere in the Barony of Erley. Baron of Kells, Geoffrey FitzRobert de Monte Marisco, Richard de Clare's Constable of Leinster, built a castle by the banks of the Kings River and founded a town in c.1192. He married the illegitimate half-sister of Isabel de Clare, Basile de Clare, the widow of Raymond FitzGerald and grand-daughter to Gilbert de Clare. In the late 12th century, Huolyn served as Lords of Kilree. By the end of the 14th century the Sweetmans had succeeded the D'Erleys in their property of Earlstown and title Baron of Erley, they were based at Castleeve Castle. Kells was recorded in the Down Survey, the 1840 Ordnance Survey map, on Griffith's Valuation. Contains the King's River or River Glory, which had a ford at Aughatarry and a bridge called Kyleadohir Bridge; the King’s River originates in the Slieveardagh Hills, it flows 25 kilometres northwest to Kells village and it flows 6 kilometres east where it feeds into the River Nore.

The surrounding landscape is undulating, with a mix of grazing lands. The Walsh Mountains are in the barony and they stretch into the barony of barony of Knocktopher. Kells barony contains the towns of Kells and Kilmaganny, the settlements of Baurscoob, Dunnamaggan; the village of Kells is situated on the south side of the King’s River on its floodplain. Kells contais the civil parishes of Ballytobin, Dunnamaggan, Dunnamaggan, Kilree, Mallardstown and Tullahought. Kells contains parts of the Roman Catholic parishes of Callan and Windgap. Parts of the barony were in the Poor law unions of Callan, Carrick on Suir, Thomastown. Barony Barony List of baronies of Ireland List of townlands of County Kilkenny List of Irish Local Government Areas 1900 - 1921 Walsh, Dennis. "Barony of Kells". Walsh, Dennis. "The Baronies of Ireland". Walsh, Dennis. "Barony Map of the Leinster Region". "Barony of Kells, Co. Kilkenny".

Wharton Reef Light

Wharton Reef Light is an inactive lighthouse which used to be located on Wharton Reef in Princess Charlotte Bay off the Cape York Peninsula, Australia. When it was deactivated in 1990 it was donated to the Townsville Maritime Museum and it is now on display near the museum, it is the only survivor of a series of twenty automatic lighthouses installed in Queensland during the "Golden Age of Australian Lighthouses" from 1913 to the early 1920s. With the Federation of Australia in 1901, responsibility over coastal lighthouses was to be transferred to the commonwealth. In 1911, the Lighthouses Act was passed, giving the Commonwealth the power to take responsibility over navigational aids as required; the actual transfer of responsibility took place with the formation of the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service on 1 July 1915, during a period, termed "the Golden Age of Australian lighthouses", from 1913 to the early 1920s. The CLS took over a group of 18 unmanned lighthouses. Lighting the northern Inside Passage, the shipping route inside the Great Barrier Reef, was one of the urgent tasks taken by the CLS.

At the time, only four lights were present between the Torres Strait and Cooktown, namely Grassy Hill Light, Pipon Island Light, Goods Island Light and Booby Island Light. The CLS tackled this task with the installation of twenty new automatic unattended lights, a decision motivated by the shortage of manpower and funding caused by World War I; the structures were identical, differing in height. The structures were installed on coral reefs or sandbars, with little natural support; the foundation was a flat concrete base with concrete piers supporting the structure. The structure was a simple four-legged steel frame, manufactured in Brisbane, topped with simple lantern with a small balcony; the apparatus was a automatic Dalén light consisting of a carbide lamp feeding on compressed acetylene gas, controlled by a sun valve. Wharton Reef Light, established 1915, was one of the first such lights to be constructed; the lighthouse was located on Wharton Reef in Princess Charlotte Bay, west of Pipon Island, about 350 kilometres north of Cairns, replacing an earlier beacon on the reef.

It was about 50 feet high. The construction of Wharton Reef Light was difficult due to bad weather. Instability of the surface required deep excavation of the foundations. Wharton Reef Light was described in 1959 as showing a white flash every three seconds; the light was visible for 13 nautical miles. The light was displayed at an elevation of 56 feet; the lighthouse operated until 1990, when the structure was replaced by a fibreglass hut and the light was replaced by an automatic ML-300 beacon. By it was the last of its kind to remain operative; the tower was donated by the federal Department of Transport to the Townsville Maritime Museum. It was shipped to Townsville. In 1996 it was erected in the middle of a traffic turnabout near the museum, where it stands on display as of 2011; the Fresnel lens from the light is on display inside the museum, along with other lenses used in the area. It is now the only survivor of the series of twenty lighthouses; the current structure, installed on 26 March 1990, is a white fibre glass hut, mounted on a small stainless steel structure, on concrete piles.

It is 6 metres tall, from seabed to the deck, the light is displayed at 14 metres, with a daymark at 12 metres. The current light characteristic is a flash every five seconds, red or green, depending on direction. Green is displayed at 84°-97°, visible for 7 nautical miles, white is displayed at 97°-126° and 229°-84°, visible for 10 nautical miles, red is displayed at 126°-229°, visible for 7 nautical miles; the light source is a solar powered ML-300 beacon with a 12 Volt 35 Watt Halogen lamp, showing an intensity of 2,100 cd for the white light and 420 cd for the red and green ones. It is operated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority; the original tower is owned by the Townsville Maritime Museum. Both the site and lighthouse are managed by the Townsville City Council. Although the site is accessible, the tower itself is closed to the public. List of lighthouses in Australia

Katerina Batzeli

Aikaterini Batzeli is a Greek politician, Member of Parliament in Greece and a former Member of the European Parliament for the Panhellenic Socialist Movement, part of the Party of European Socialists. She served as the Minister for Rural Development and Food from 7 October 2009 to 7 September 2010, as part of the First Cabinet of George Papandreou; as MEP, Batzeli advocated for the retention of the European Union's subsidy program for vineyards One of her last acts as MEP, she co-sponsored the 2009 declaration in support of the Special Olympics Personal profile of Katerina Batzeli in the European Parliament's database of members


Comhar is a prominent literary journal in the Irish language, published by the company Comhar Teoranta. It was founded in 1942, has published work by some of the most notable writers in Irish, including Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Seán Ó Ríordáin, Máirtín Ó Direáin, Máire Mhac an tSaoi and Brendan Behan. Comhar publishes books in Irish. Comhar has as its stated aims to be a journal of first choice for writers, scholars and readers of Irish, to publish the best of new writing in Irish, to be a high-quality forum for analysis and discussion of current affairs, to provide intellectual stimulation and be a platform for debate. Comhar has had a number of editors, including the well-known journalist and novelist Breandán Ó hEithir, it was clear by the beginning of 2008, that its readership was declining steeply, the funding body Foras na Gaeilge decided to give no more money to the journal as it stood. This led to the appointment of a new editor. Selections from Comhar are now available on-line, it continues to fulfil its traditional function of publishing new writing and providing cultural and social commentary.

Seán Ó Buachalla, Máirtín Ó Flathartaigh, Tomás Ó Floinn, Tomás de Bhaldraithe, Séamus Ó Néill, Dáithí Ó hUaithne, Seán Mac Réamoinn, Proinsias Mac Cana, Caoimhín Ó Góilidhe, Helen Beaumont, Mícheál Ó Cíosóig Riobard Mac Góráin, Gearóid Mac Niocaill, Mícheál Ó Riain, Eibhlín Ní Bhriain, Breandán Ó hEithir Breandán Ó hEithir, Caoimhín Ó Marcaigh, Eoghan Ó hAnluain, Mícheál Ó hUanacháin, Piaras Ó Gaora Seán Ó hÉalaithe, Dáithí Ó hÓgain, Cathal Mac Giolla Coille, Treasa Ní Ógáin, Rhoda Uí Chonaire, Proinnseas Ní Dhorcaí, Anna Heussaff Caoilfhionn Nic Pháidín, Mícheál Ó Cearúil, Seosamh Ó Murchú, Éamonn Ó Dónaill Editor: Tomás Mac Síomóin Sub-editor: Vivian Uíbh Eachach Literary Editor: Siobhán Ní Fhoghlú. This publishing company aims to nurture new writers. To date, LeabhairCOMHAR has published more than 45 books, its range includes history books, academic biographies and novels for adults, with the following six series in development: Guth Nua. Books published by LeabhairCOMHAR can be found on its online bookshop:

Gaeilgeoir Grámhar by Alan Desmond, 2011. Samhradh an Chéasta by Catherine Foley, 2010. An Foghlaimeoir Fásta by Alan Desmond, 2006. Croí na Ceiste by Pól Ó Muirí, 2007. Gaeilge agus Grá by Alan Desmond, 2007. Míle Murdar! by Mícheál Ó Ruairc, 2005.. Paloma by Pól Ó Muirí, 2000. Sorcha sa Ghailearaí by Catherine Foley, 2005. Teach na gColúr by Aisling Ní Leidhin and Liam Mac Amhlaigh, 2006. Teifeach by Pól Ó Muirí, 2002. Codladh Céad Bliain: Cnuasach Aistí ar Litríocht na nÓg by Ríona Nic Congáil, from the series An Saol Óg, 2012. An Ghaeilge i gCéin: Pobal agus Féiniúlacht Idirnáisiúnta, edited by Siún Ní Dhuinn, from the series Guth Nua, 2011. Annála by Gréagóir Ó Dúill, from the series Téad na Filíochta, 2011. Saol an Mhadra Bháin by Ríona Nic Congáil, from the series An Saol Óg, 2011. Rún an Bhonnáin by Proinsias Mac a’ Bhaird, from the series Guth Nua, 2010. Uachtaráin na hÉireann by Eithne Nic Eoin, 2010. An bhfaca tú Dracula? Dialann Thrasalvánach by Aodh Ó Canainn, 1997. An Cailín Rua by Catherine Foley, 2004.

An Chaint sa tSráidbhaile and short stories by Breandán Ó hEithir, edited by Caoilfhionn Nic Pháidín, 1991. An Dá Mháirtín by Diarmaid Ó Gráinne, 1990. An Deoir sa Bhuidéal by S. E. Ó Cearbhaill, 1998. An Ród seo Romham by Liam Mac Uistín, 2006. An Spealadóir Polannach by Peter Huchel, translated from the German, 1994. An Stad – Croí na hAthbheochana by Seán Ó Cearnaigh, 1993. Ar Bhruach na Laoi by Liam Ó Muirthile, 1995. Bás i mBaile an Ghorta by Mícheál Ó Ruairc, 2003. Bás san Oirthear by Lorcán S. Ó Treasaigh, 1992. Brocairí Bhedlington agus Scéalta Eile by Gearailt Mac Eoin, 1996. Caithfear Éisteacht!, collected articles of Máirtín Ó Cadhain, edited by Liam Prút, 1999. Cion Fir: Aistí Thomáis Uí Fhloinn, edited by Lia