Jacques Lipchitz was a Cubist sculptor. Lipchitz retained figurative and legible components in his work leading up to 1915–16, after which naturalist and descriptive elements were muted, dominated by a synthetic style of Crystal Cubism. In 1920 Lipchitz held his first solo exhibition, at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie L'Effort Moderne in Paris. Fleeing the Nazis he moved to the US and settled in New York City and Hastings-on-Hudson. Jacques Lipchitz was born Chaim Jacob Lipschitz, in a Litvak family, son of a building contractor in Druskininkai, Lithuania within the Russian Empire. At first, under the influence of his father, he studied engineering, but soon after, supported by his mother he moved to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian, it was there, in the artistic communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse, that he joined a group of artists that included Juan Gris and Pablo Picasso as well as where his friend, Amedeo Modigliani, painted Jacques and Berthe Lipchitz.
Living in this environment, Lipchitz soon began to create Cubist sculpture. In 1912 he exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon d'Automne with his first solo show held at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie L'Effort Moderne in Paris in 1920. In 1922 he was commissioned by the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Pennsylvania to execute seven bas-reliefs and two sculptures. With artistic innovation at its height, in the 1920s he experimented with abstract forms he called transparent sculptures, he developed a more dynamic style, which he applied with telling effect to bronze compositions of figures and animals. In 1924-25 Lipchitz married Berthe Kirosser. With the German occupation of France during World War II, the deportation of Jews to the Nazi death camps, Lipchitz had to flee France. With the assistance of the American journalist Varian Fry in Marseille, he escaped the Nazi regime and went to the United States. There, he settled in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, he was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the Third Sculpture International Exhibition held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of 1949.
He has been identified among seventy of those sculptors in a photograph Life magazine published, taken at the exhibition. In 1954 a Lipchitz retrospective traveled from The Museum of Modern Art in New York to the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis and The Cleveland Museum of Art. In 1959, his series of small bronzes To the Limit of the Possible was shown at Fine Arts Associates in New York. In his years Lipchitz became more involved in his Jewish faith referring to himself as a "religious Jew" in an interview in 1970, he began abstaining from work on Shabbat and put on Tefillin daily, at the urging of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Schneerson. Beginning in 1963 he returned to Europe for several months of each year and worked in Pietrasanta, Italy, he developed a close friendship with Fiore de Henriquez. In 1972 his autobiography, co-authored with H. Harvard Arnason, was published on the occasion of an exhibition of his sculpture at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Jacques Lipchitz died in Italy.
His body was flown to Jerusalem for burial. His Tuscan Villa Bozio was donated to Chabad-Lubavitch in Italy and hosts an annual Jewish summer camp in its premises. "Sailor with Guitar" – 1914 "Drawing of a sculpture" – 1916 "Bather" – "Woman with Book" – at Carleton College "Bather, bronze" – 1923–25 "Reclining Nude with Guitar" –, a prime example of Cubism "Dancer with Veil" – "Dancer" – "The Song of the Vowels" –, – cast bronze sculptures at Cornell University, Princeton University, UCLA, Stanford University, Kykuit Estate Gardens, Paris "Bull and Condor" – "Bust of a Woman" – "David and Goliath" – "Embracing Figures" – "Prometheus Strangling the Vulture" – "Rescue II"- "Mother and Child" – at the Honolulu Museum of Art "Bellerophon Taming Pegasus: Large Version" –, begun in 1966 and arrived at Columbia Law School in pieces for assembly in 1977 "Peace on Earth" – "Government of the People" – Crystal Cubism Arnason H. Harvard and Jacques Lipchitz. My Life in Sculpture. New York: Viking Press, 1972.
Hammacher, Abraham Marie, Jacques Lipchitz, His Sculpture, New York, H. N. Abrams, 1961. Hope, Henry Radford, The Sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz, New York, Plantin press, printed for the trustees of the Museum of Modern Art, 1954. Lipchitz, Jacques, My Life in Sculpture, New York, Viking Press, 1972. Stott, Deborah A. Jacques Lipchitz and Cubism, New York, Garland Pub. 1978. Van Bork, Jacques Lipchitz, The Artist at Work, New York, Crown Publishers, 1966. Wilkinson, Alan G. Jacques Lipchitz, A Life in Sculpture, Canada, Art Gallery of Ontario, 1989. Works by or about Jacques Lipchitz at Internet Archive Jacques Lipchitz, Agence Photographique de la Réunion des musées nationaux et du Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées Bruce Bassett papers relating to Jacques Lipchitz, circa 1961–2001 from the Smithsonian Archives of American Art "Ask Jacques Lipchitz a Question: Jacques Lipchitz interviews during the summers of 1970–1972", Bruce W. Bassett and video producer; the Israel Museum, Jerusalem donated by Mr. Hanno D. Mott, New York for the family of Jacques Lipchitz.
Interactive online version published 2010 Lipchitz, Encyclopedia Treccani.it Jacques Lipchitz in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
William Baziotes was an American painter influenced by Surrealism and was a contributor to Abstract Expressionism. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Greek parents Angelos and Stella, Baziotes began his formal art training in 1933 at the National Academy of Design in New York City where he graduated in 1936, he studied with Charles Curran, Ivan Olinsky, Gifford Beal, Leon Kroll. Baziotes taught through the Federal Art Project in from 1936-1938 and worked on their WPA Easel Project from 1938-1940. In the 1940s he became friends with many artists in the emerging Abstract Expressionist group. Although he shared the groups' interest in primitive art and automatism, his work was more in line with European surrealism. In his career he taught extensively, his first solo exhibition was at Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century Gallery in 1944. With David Hare, Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, Baziotes founded the Subjects of the Artist School in New York in 1948, he taught at the Brooklyn Museum Art School, People's Art Center, the Museum of Modern Art, at the City University of New York, Hunter College and New York University in Manhattan during the last ten years of his life.
Baziotes and his wife Ethel, whom he married in 1941, lived in the Morningside Heights area of northern Manhattan until his death from lung cancer in June 1963, aged 50. During his lifetime, he and his wife shared a love of ancient Greek art and sculpture as well as the poetry of Charles Baudelaire. Many of his paintings are inspired by the latter's poetry as well as by ancient art; some of his famous works are Aquatic and The Room, all of which are in the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Art Institute of Chicago William Baziotes and Drawings, 1934-1962. Guggenheim Collection Venice, 2003-2004. Curated by Michael Preble, William Baziotes Catalogue Raisonne. William Baziotes, A Retrospective. Newport Harbor Art Museum/Orange County Museum of Art. 1978. Curated by Michael Preble. Guggenheim Museum Metropolitan Museum of Art Museum of Modern Art Smithsonian American Art Museum Whitney Museum of American Art Reading Public Museum Michael Preble 2005: William Baziotes. Skira Publishing. Mona Hadler:2013 "Baziotes and Boxing:'Life in a Squared Ring,'" The Space Between: Literature and Culture, 1914-1945, IX,1, pp. 119–138 A list of works by Baziotes at the Smithsonian American Art Museum Sketchbooks of William Baziotes, ca. 1933 from the Smithsonian Archives of American Art William Baziotes Biography, Hollis Taggart Galleries William Baziotes Biography, Guggenheim Museum
Meir Dizengoff was a Zionist politician and the first mayor of Tel Aviv. Meir Dizengoff was born in 1861 in the village of Ekimovtsy near Bessarabia. In 1878, his family moved to Kishinev, where he graduated from high school and studied at the polytechnic school. In 1882, he volunteered in the Imperial Russian Army, serving in Zhitomir until 1884. There he first met Zina Brenner. After his military service, Dizengoff remained in Odessa, where he became involved in the Narodnaya Volya underground. In 1885, he was arrested for insurgency. In Odessa, he met Leon Pinsker, Ahad Ha’am and others, joined the Hovevei Zion movement. Upon his release from prison, Dizengoff returned to Kishinev and founded the Bessarabian branch of Hovevei Zion, which he represented at the 1887 conference, he left Kishinev in 1889 to study in Paris. While studying chemical engineering at the University of Paris, he met Edmond James de Rothschild, who sent him to Ottoman-ruled Palestine to establish a glass factory which would supply bottles for Rothschild's wineries.
Dizengoff opened the factory in Tantura in 1892, but it proved unsuccessful due to impurities in the sand, Dizengoff soon returned to Kishinev. There he met Theodor Herzl and became his ardent follower, despite having been opposed to the British Uganda Scheme promoted by Herzl at the Sixth Zionist Congress. In 1905, spurred by his Zionist beliefs, Dizengoff settled in Jaffa, he established the Geulah company, which bought up land in Palestine from Arabs, became involved in the import business machinery and automobiles to replace the horse-drawn carriages that had served as the primary transportation from Jaffa port to Jerusalem and other towns. He co-founded a boat company that bore his name, served as the Belgian consul; when Dizengoff learned that residents were organizing to build a new neighborhood, Tel Aviv, he formed a partnership with the Ahuzat Bayit company and bought land on the outskirts of Jaffa, parceled out to the early settlers by lot. Dizengoff became head of the town planning in 1911, a position that he held until 1922.
When Tel Aviv was recognized as a city, Dizengoff was elected mayor. He remained in office until his death, apart from a three-year hiatus in 1925-1928. During World War I, the Ottomans drove out a large part of the population and Dizengoff was the liaison between the exiles and the Ottoman authorities. In this position he dealt with aid sent to the exiles of Tel Aviv and received the nickname Reish Galuta, he circulated and publicised the plight of the exiles via newspapers, succeeded in convincing the rulers to agree to a regular supply of food and provisions to the exiles. In 1917, after having received funding from Nili, Dizengoff refused not only to provide funds to free Nili member Yosef Lishansky, but funds to provide the succor that Dizengoff provided other prisoners and anti-Zionists, despite having received the money from Nili. Many committees and associations came into being during Dizengoff's term as mayor. One was the Levant Fair committee, founded in 1932; the fair was held in the south of the city, but after its great success, a fairground with designated buildings was built in north Tel Aviv.
A large international fair was held followed by a second fair two years later. Dizengoff was involved with the development of the city, encouraged its rapid expansion—carrying out daily inspections, paying attention to details such as entertainment, he was always present at the head of the annual Purim carnival. After his wife's death, he donated his house to the city of Tel Aviv, for use as an art museum, he influenced many important artists to donate their work to improve the museum. In 1936, with the outbreak of the Arab revolt, the Arabs closed the port of Jaffa with the intention of halting the rapid expansion of Jewish settlements in Palestine. Dizengoff pressured the government to give him permission to open a port in his new city of Tel Aviv, before his death he managed to dedicate the first pier of Tel Aviv's new port, his dedication began with the words: "Ladies and gentlemen, I can still remember the day when Tel Aviv had no port". He died on September 23, 1936. In 1930, after the death of his wife, Dizengoff donated his house to his beloved city of Tel Aviv and requested that it be turned into a museum.
The house underwent extensive renovations and became the Tel Aviv Museum of Art in 1932. The museum moved to its current location in 1971. On 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion declared the independence of the State of Israel at the Dizengoff residence; the building known as Independence Hall. Meir Park and Dizengoff Street are named after him, his name lives on in Israeli slang: It was used as a verb—lehizdangeff—which means "to walk down Dizengoff," i.e. go out on the town. Dizengoff Square, featuring a sculpture by Yaacov Agam, is named after Zina. Media related to Meir Dizengoff at Wikimedia Commons Virtual tour of the square
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was a Russian painter and art theorist. Kandinsky is credited as the pioneer of abstract art. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated at Grekov Odessa Art school, he enrolled at the University of Moscow. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship at the University of Dorpat—Kandinsky began painting studies at the age of 30. In 1896, Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe's private school and at the Academy of Fine Arts, he returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Following the Russian Revolution, Kandinsky "became an insider in the cultural administration of Anatoly Lunacharsky" and helped establish the Museum of the Culture of Painting. However, by "his spiritual outlook... was foreign to the argumentative materialism of Soviet society", opportunities beckoned in Germany, to which he returned in 1920. There he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933.
He moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and producing some of his most prominent art. He died in Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944. Kandinsky's creation of abstract work followed a long period of development and maturation of intense thought based on his artistic experiences, he called this devotion to inner beauty, fervor of spirit, spiritual desire inner necessity. Kandinsky was born in Moscow, the son of Lidia Ticheeva and Vasily Silvestrovich Kandinsky, a tea merchant. One of his great grandmothers was a Princess Gantimurova explaining the "slight Mongolian trait in his features". Kandinsky learned from a variety of sources while in Moscow, he studied many fields while including law and economics. In life, he would recall being fascinated and stimulated by colour as a child, his fascination with colour symbolism and psychology continued. In 1889, he was part of an ethnographic research group which travelled to the Vologda region north of Moscow.
In Looks on the Past, he relates that the houses and churches were decorated with such shimmering colours that upon entering them, he felt that he was moving into a painting. This experience, his study of the region's folk art, was reflected in much of his early work. A few years he first likened painting to composing music in the manner for which he would become noted, writing, "Colour is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings; the artist is the hand which plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul". Kandinsky was the uncle of Russian-French philosopher Alexandre Kojève. In 1896, at the age of 30, Kandinsky gave up a promising career teaching law and economics to enroll in the Munich Academy where his teachers would include Franz von Stuck, he was not granted admission, began learning art on his own. That same year, before leaving Moscow, he saw an exhibit of paintings by Monet, he was taken with the impressionistic style of Haystacks.
He would write about this experience: That it was a haystack the catalogue informed me. I could not recognise it; this non-recognition was painful to me. I considered. I dully felt, and I noticed with surprise and confusion that the picture not only gripped me, but impressed itself ineradicably on my memory. Painting took on splendour. Kandinsky was influenced during this period by Richard Wagner's Lohengrin which, he felt, pushed the limits of music and melody beyond standard lyricism, he was spiritually influenced by Madame Blavatsky, the best-known exponent of theosophy. Theosophical theory postulates that creation is a geometrical progression, beginning with a single point; the creative aspect of the form is expressed by a descending series of circles and squares. Kandinsky's book Concerning the Spiritual In Art and Point and Line to Plane echoed this theosophical tenet. Illustrations by John Varley in Thought Forms influenced him visually. In the summer of 1902, Kandinsky invited Gabriele Münter to join him at his summer painting classes just south of Munich in the Alps.
She accepted, their relationship became more personal than professional. Art school considered difficult, was easy for Kandinsky, it was during this time. The number of his existing paintings increased in the beginning of the 20th century. For the most part, Kandinsky's paintings did not feature any human figures. Riding Couple depicts a man on horseback, holding a woman with tenderness and care as they ride past a Russian town with luminous walls across a river; the horse is muted while the leaves in the trees, the town, the reflections in the river glisten with spots of colour and brightness. This work demonstrates the influence of pointillism in the way the depth of field is collapsed into a flat, luminescent s
De Stijl, Dutch for "The Style" known as Neoplasticism, was a Dutch art movement founded in 1917 in Leiden. De Stijl consisted of architects. In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands. Proponents of De Stijl advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour. De Stijl is the name of a journal, published by the Dutch painter, designer and critic Theo van Doesburg that served to propagate the group's theories. Along with van Doesburg, the group's principal members were the painters Piet Mondrian, Vilmos Huszár, Bart van der Leck, the architects Gerrit Rietveld, Robert van't Hoff, J. J. P. Oud; the artistic philosophy that formed a basis for the group's work is known as Neoplasticism—the new plastic art. According to Theo van Doesburg in the introduction of the magazine "De Stijl" 1917 no.1, the "De Stijl"-movement was a reaction to the "Modern Baroque" of the Amsterdam School movement with the magazine "Wendingen".
Mondrian sets forth the delimitations of Neoplasticism in his essay "Neo-Plasticism in Pictorial Art". He writes, "this new plastic idea will ignore the particulars of appearance, to say, natural form and colour. On the contrary, it should find its expression in the abstraction of form and colour, to say, in the straight line and the defined primary colour". With these constraints, his art allows only primary colours and non-colours, only squares and rectangles, only straight and horizontal or vertical lines; the De Stijl movement posited the fundamental principle of the geometry of the straight line, the square, the rectangle, combined with a strong asymmetricality. The name De Stijl is derived from Gottfried Semper's Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder Praktische Ästhetik, which Curl suggests was mistakenly believed to advocate materialism and functionalism; the "plastic vision" of De Stijl artists called Neo-Plasticism, saw itself as reaching beyond the changing appearance of natural things to bring an audience into intimate contact with an immutable core of reality, a reality, not so much a visible fact as an underlying spiritual vision.
In general, De Stijl proposed ultimate simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red and blue, the three primary values, black and grey; the works attained aesthetic balance by the use of opposition. This element of the movement embodies the second meaning of stijl: "a post, jamb or support". In many of the group's three-dimensional works and horizontal lines are positioned in layers or planes that do not intersect, thereby allowing each element to exist independently and unobstructed by other elements; this feature can be found in the Red and Blue Chair. De Stijl was influenced by Cubist painting as well as by the mysticism and the ideas about "ideal" geometric forms in the neoplatonic philosophy of mathematician M. H. J. Schoenmaekers; the De Stijl movement was influenced by Neopositivism. The works of De Stijl would influence the Bauhaus style and the international style of architecture as well as clothing and interior design.
However, it did not follow the general guidelines of an "-ism", nor did it adhere to the principles of art schools like the Bauhaus. In music, De Stijl was an influence only on the work of composer Jakob van Domselaer, a close friend of Mondrian. Between 1913 and 1916, he composed his Proeven van Stijlkunst, inspired by Mondrian's paintings; this minimalistic—and, at the time, revolutionary—music defined "horizontal" and "vertical" musical elements and aimed at balancing those two principles. Van Domselaer was unknown in his lifetime, did not play a significant role within De Stijl. From the flurry of new art movements that followed the Impressionist revolutionary new perception of painting, Cubism arose in the early 20th century as an important and influential new direction. In the Netherlands, there was interest in this "new art". However, because the Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, Dutch artists were not able to leave the country after 1914 and were thus isolated from the international art world—and in particular, from Paris, its centre then.
During that period, Theo van Doesburg started looking for other artists to set up a journal and start an art movement. Van Doesburg was a writer and critic, more successful writing about art than working as an independent artist. Quite adept at making new contacts due to his flamboyant personality and outgoing nature, he had many useful connections in the art world. Around 1915, Van Doesburg started meeting the artists who would become the founders of the journal, he first met Piet Mondrian at an exhibition in Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. Mondrian, who had moved to Paris in 1912, had be
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasised speed, youth and objects such as the car, the airplane, the industrial city, its key figures were the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Luigi Russolo. It aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past. Cubism contributed to the formation of Italian Futurism's artistic style. Important Futurist works included Marinetti's Manifesto of Futurism, Boccioni's sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Balla's painting Abstract Speed + Sound, Russolo's The Art of Noises. Although it was an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere; the Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, film, textiles, music and cooking. To some extent Futurism influenced the art movements Art Deco, Surrealism, to a greater degree Precisionism and Vorticism.
Futurism is an avant-garde movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Marinetti launched the movement in his Manifesto of Futurism, which he published for the first time on 5 February 1909 in La gazzetta dell'Emilia, an article reproduced in the French daily newspaper Le Figaro on Saturday 20 February 1909, he was soon joined by the painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini and the composer Luigi Russolo. Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old political and artistic tradition. "We want no part of it, the past", he wrote, "we the young and strong Futurists!" The Futurists admired speed, technology and violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over nature, they were passionate nationalists. They repudiated the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, "however daring, however violent", bore proudly "the smear of madness", dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, gloried in science.
Publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, the Futurists wrote them on many topics, including painting, religion and cooking. The founding manifesto did not contain a positive artistic programme, which the Futurists attempted to create in their subsequent Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting; this committed them to a "universal dynamism", to be directly represented in painting. Objects in reality were not separate from one another or from their surroundings: "The sixteen people around you in a rolling motor bus are in turn and at the same time one, ten four three; the motor bus rushes into the houses which it passes, in their turn the houses throw themselves upon the motor bus and are blended with it."The Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of Divisionism, breaking light and color down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, adopted from Divisionism by Giovanni Segantini and others. Severini, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art.
Severini was the first to come into contact with Cubism and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists. Cubism offered them a means of expressing dynamism, they painted modern urban scenes. Carrà's Funeral of the Anarchist Galli is a large canvas representing events that the artist had himself been involved in, in 1904; the action of a police attack and riot is rendered energetically with broken planes. His Leaving the Theatre uses a Divisionist technique to render isolated and faceless figures trudging home at night under street lights. Boccioni's The City Rises represents scenes of construction and manual labour with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground, which workmen struggle to control, his States of Mind, in three large panels, The Farewell, Those who Go, Those Who Stay, "made his first great statement of Futurist painting, bringing his interests in Bergson and the individual's complex experience of the modern world together in what has been described as one of the'minor masterpieces' of early twentieth century painting."
The work attempts to convey feelings and sensations experienced in time, using new means of expression, including "lines of force", which were intended to convey the directional tendencies of objects through space, "simultaneity", which combined memories, present impressions and anticipation of future events, "emotional ambience" in which the artist seeks by intuition to link sympathies between the exterior scene and interior emotion. Boccioni's intentions in art were influenced by the ideas of Bergson, including the idea of intuition, which Bergson defined as a simple, indivisible experience of sympathy through which one is moved into the inner being of an object to grasp what is unique and ineffable within it; the Futurists aimed through their art thus to enable the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted. Boccioni developed these ideas at length in his book, Pittura scultura Futuriste: Dinamismo plastico. Balla's Dynamism of a Do
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients and dishes, associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu and Jewish dietary laws, can exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region; some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish; the area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon, cardamom and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 4,000 years ago. Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried. Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity.
As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture. Cuisines evolve continually, new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s. Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine, popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines; the term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine, introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.
It is named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes; the introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end of the 17th century influencing Sichuan cuisine, which combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent. A global cuisine is a cuisine, practiced around the world, can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains and cooking fats. Regional cuisines can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall cultural differences; such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and South America, both fresh and dried, is a staple food, is used in many different ways.
In northern Europe, wheat and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe olive oil is ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by noodles and bread. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include lamb, olive oil, lemons and rice; the vegetarianism practiced in much of India has made pulses such as chickpeas and lentils as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extenive use of spices is characteristic. African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally; the continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include rice, garlic, sesame seeds, dried onions and tofu. Stir frying, steaming