Telecommunications in Australia

Telecommunications in Australia refers to communication in Australia through electronic means, using devices such as telephone, radio or computer, services such as the telephony and broadband networks. Telecommunications have always been important in Australia given the'tyranny of distance' with a dispersed population. Governments have a key role in its regulation. Prior to Federation of Australia in 1901, each of the six Australian colonies had its own telephony communications network; the Australian networks were government assets operating under colonial legislation modelled on that of Britain. The UK Telegraph Act 1868 for example empowered the Postmaster-General to'acquire and work electric telegraphs' and foreshadowed the 1870 nationalisation of competing British telegraph companies. Australia's first telephone service was launched in 1879; the private Melbourne Telephone Exchange Company opened Australia's first telephone exchange in August 1880. Around 7,757 calls were handled in 1884.

The nature of the networks meant that regulation in Australia was undemanding: network personnel were government employees or agents, legislation was enhanced on an incremental basis and restrictions could be achieved through infrastructure. All the colonies ran their telegraph networks at a deficit through investment in infrastructure and subsidisation of regional access with bipartisan support. Government-operated post office and telegraph networks - the largest parts of the bureaucracy - were combined into a single department in each colony on the model of the UK Post Office: South Australia in 1869, Victoria in 1870, Queensland in 1880 and New South Wales in 1893. At Federation, the colonial networks were transferred to the Commonwealth Postmaster-General's Department responsible for domestic postal, telephone and, telegraph services becoming the responsibility of the first Postmaster-General, a federal. With 16,000 staff the PMG accounted for 80% of the new federal bureaucracy. Public phones were available in a handful of post offices.

Subscriber telephones were restricted to major businesses, government agencies and wealthier residences. Eight million telegrams were sent that year over 43,000 miles of line. There were around 33,000 phones across Australia, with 7,502 telephone subscribers in inner Sydney and 4,800 in the Melbourne central business district. Overseas cable links to Australia remained in private hands, reflecting the realities of imperial politics, demands on the new government's resources, perceptions of its responsibilities. A trunk line between Melbourne and Sydney was established in 1907, with extension to Adelaide in 1914, Brisbane in 1923, Perth in 1930 and Hobart in 1935. On 12 July 1906 the first Australian wireless overseas messages were sent between Point Lonsdale and Devonport, Tasmania. Australia and New Zealand ratified the 1906 Berlin Radio-telegraph Convention in 1907; the PMG department became responsible for some international shortwave services - from the 1920s - and for a new Coastal Radio Service in 1911, with the first of a network of stations operational in February 1912.

The Sydney–Melbourne co-axial cable was opened on 9 April 1962. The coaxial cable infrastructure supported the introduction of subscriber trunk dialling between the cities and live television link-ups. After its commissioning in April 1962 the cable carried telephone traffic, it provided the first inter-city television transmission in Australia, allowing simultaneous television broadcasting in Melbourne and Sydney for the first time. Optus was formed as AUSSAT a government owned on 1981, it was privatised under the Bob hawke 1980s government. Telstra another government owned asset was privatised in 1997 under the John Howard liberal government. Australia developed its own radio broadcasting system, through its own engineers, retailers, entertainment services, news agencies. Hobbyists and amateurs were dominant, however with the Commonwealth Government setting up the first radio system, business interests becoming involved and amateurs were marginalised; the Australian Labor Party was interested in radio because it allowed them to bypass the newspapers, which were controlled by their opposition.

Both parties agreed on the need for a national system, in 1932 set up the Australian Broadcasting Commission was set up as a government agency separate from political interference. The first commercial broadcasters known as'B' class stations were on the air as early as 1925. Many were sponsored by newspapers in Australia, by theatrical interests, by amateur radio enthusiasts and radio retailers, by retailers generally. All Australians were within reach of a station by the 1930s, the number of stations remained stable through the post-war era. However, in the 1970s, the Labor government under Prime Minister Gough Whitlam commenced a broadcasting renaissance so that by the 1990s there were 50 different radio services available for groups based on tastes, religion, or geography; the broadcasting system was deregulated in 1992, except that there were limits on foreign ownership and on monopolistic control. By 2000, 99 percent of Australians owned at least one television set, averaged 20 hours a week watching it.

As early as 1929, two Melbourne commercial radio stations, 3UZ and 3DB were conducting experimental mechanical television broadcasts – these were conducted in the

Mogens Winkel Holm

Mogens Winkel Holm was a Danish composer. Holm was born in Copenhagen, he studied orchestration with Jørgen Jersild at the Royal Danish Academy of Music and oboe with Mogens Steen Andreassen for some years was assistant oboist with the Royal Danish Orchestra and worked in the music department at Danmarks Radio. From 1965 to 1971, he was the music reviewer for Politiken and Ekstra Bladet, he held a number of posts in music organisations, including president of Det Unge Tonekunstnerselskab and for 20 years, of Dansk Komponist Forening. In 1999 he was elected to membership of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. Holm was a prolific composer in a wide range of genres. In collaboration with, among others, his brother the dancer and choreographer Eske Holm, he originated a long series of ballets, both at the Royal Danish Theater and on Danish and Swedish television between 1964 and 1984, his music has been described as dramatic and very gestural. Paradoxically enough, it is experienced as a record of improvisation.

At the same time, it is constructed in a pre-established format. "The framework protects me from being absorbed by the material, but it protects the material from being absorbed by me," the composer himself said. But he said: "You see with your ears, you hear with your eyes. A spring day, a vision, a sound: A lark singing high in the dazzling sky, a dot. Hold on! If you look away for just a moment, you will never find it again." Op. 3 string quartet Op. 5 chamber concerto Chamber Concerto Abracadabra Momento a ballata Kleine Hotel Suite op. 12 Concerto piccolo St. Annaland Composition for soloist and school orchestra op. 13 Aslak op. 14 Tropismer op. 17 choral fragment op. 19 Brev til stilheden Cumulus op. 25 sonata op. 26 Ricercare Oktobermorgen Kontradans op. 29 Sonata for 4 operasangere Cradle song op. 31 Fordi jeg er ensom Galgarien Overtoninger Annonce Transitions II Musik for 2 lurer Tarantel Feens slott for 6 lige stemmer Aarhus Med næb og kløer Tarantel Eurydike Tøver Gærdesanger under kunstig stjernehimmel Aiolos Til Blåskæg Adieu Note-book Cries Wie kann man den Gesang unserer Waldfögel verschönern?

Concerto for 10 ensembles Fiat Lux Hellig tre konger Zwei Stimmen für einen cellospielenden Sänger Scars Aeneas alene 7 Breve til Stilheden Prison Music III: To Eros Piping Down Syster, min Syster Prison Music IV: The King's Sorrow Aria 4 songs Troglodyte Prison Music IIIb Glasbjerget List of Danish composers Mogens Winkel Holm, Samfundet til Udgivelse af Dansk Musik About Holm's operas Erland Rasmussen, "Højt at flyve vidt at skue", Dansk Musik Tidsskrift 66 38–44 Sven Erik Werner, "Omkring Mogens Winkel Holms sonate for fire operasangere", Dansk Musik Tidsskrift 43 63–66 Mogens Winkel Holm, "Balletopskrift", Dansk Musik Tidsskrift 52 106–07 Svend Aaquist Johansen, "Mellem lammeskyer og lidenskab—Mogens Winkel Holm, bogholder", Dansk Musik Tidsskrift 57 171–74

Ōura Kanetake

Ōura Kanetake was a politician and bureaucrat in late Meiji and early Taishō period Empire of Japan. In 1907, he was raised to the title of danshaku under the kazoku peerage system; the Ōura family was hereditary retainers to a branch of the Shimazu clan of Satsuma Domain. As a Satsuma samurai, Ōura Kanetaka participated in the Boshin War and the suppression of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei during the Meiji Restoration. Under the new Meiji government, he joined the fledgling Japanese police force, working his way up through the ranks until he became Assistant Police Inspector of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department. In this capacity, he was field commander of the police forces sent to assist the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army in suppressing his fellow Satsuma countrymen in the Satsuma Rebellion. After serving as appointed governor of Shimane Prefecture, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Kumamoto Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture, Ōura was appointed Superintendent General of the Police, was given a seat in the House of Peers of the Diet of Japan.

One of his proposals while in charge of the police was to relocate impoverished residents of central Osaka to a new planned town in the outskirts, on the theory that poverty was the cause of disease and crime. The plan failed due to strong local opposition. In 1903, under the 1st Katsura administration, Ōura became Minister of Communications, he served as Minister of Agriculture and Commerce under the 2nd Katsura cabinet and was chairman of the Japanese committee organizing the Japan–British Exhibition. He subsequently served as Home Minister under the 3rd Katsura cabinet and as both Minister of Agriculture and Trade and Home Minister under the 2nd Ōkuma administration. In December 1914, while in the Ōkuma administration, Ōura was accused of perpetrating voting fraud in the Diet by bribing minor political party and undecided members to influence passage of a military spending bill introduced by Ōkuma to fund two new infantry divisions for the Imperial Japanese Army. A long-time associate of Katsura, Ōura was one of the founding members and leaders of the Rikken Dōshikai political party, used his position as Home Minister to influence the 1915 General Election in favor the party.

Both issues resulted in an upsurge in public criticism from the press and opposition parties, leading to his resignation from the Cabinet in 1915. This incident came to be known as the Ōura scandal. In his final years, Ōura served as chairman of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. Ōura died in 1918 at the age of 68. Dickenson, Frederick R. War and National Reinvention: Japan in the Great War, 1914-1919. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0674005074. Lebra-Chapman, Joyce. Okuma Shigenobu: statesman of Meiji Japan. Australian National University Press. ISBN 0-7081-0400-2 Mitchell, Richard. Political History Bribery in Japan. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824818199. Mochizuki, Kotarō. Japan To-day. A Souvenir of the Anglo-Japanese Exhibition held in London, 1910. Tokyo: Liberal News Agency. OCLC 5327867 Oka Yoshitake, et al. Five Political Leaders of Modern Japan: Ito Hirobumi, Okuma Shigenobu, Hara Takashi, Inukai Tsuyoshi, Saionji Kimmochi. University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 0-86008-379-9 Sims, Richard. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000.

Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23915-7. National Diet Library Bio and Photo