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Telecommunications in China

The People's Republic of China possesses a diversified communications system that links all parts of the country by Internet, telegraph and television. The country is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic satellite system. Fiber to the x infrastructure has been expanded in recent years; when the People's Republic was founded in 1949, the telecommunication systems and facilities in China first established by the Qing and Republican ITA and Ministry of Posts and Communications had been damaged from over thirty years of on and off war between warlords and the two sides of the Chinese Civil War. What little remained was outdated and rudimentary and limited to the eastern coastal cities, the Nanjing-Shanghai region, a few interior cities. In the 1950s existing facilities were repaired, with Soviet assistance, considerable progress was made toward establishing a long-distance telephone wire network connecting Beijing to provincial-level capitals.

Communications in China were established in the early 1950s. By 1952 the principal telecommunications network centered on Beijing, links to all large cities had been established. Work got under way to repair and expand the system, from 1956 telecommunications routes were extended more rapidly. To increase the efficiency of the communications system, the same lines were used for both telegraphic and telephone service, while Teletype and television services were added. In addition, conference telephone service was initiated, radio communications were improved, the production of telecommunications equipment was accelerated. Growth in telecommunications halted with the general economic collapse after the Great Leap Forward but revived in the 1960s after the telephone network was expanded and improved equipment was introduced, including imports of Western plants and equipment. By 1963 telephone wire had been laid from Beijing to the capitals of all provinces, autonomous regions, large cities, while in turn, provincial capitals and autonomous regions were connected to the administrative seats of the counties, smaller municipalities and larger market towns.

In the years following 1949, telecommunications — by telegraph or telephone — used wire. Microwave and satellite transmissions have now become common. In 1956 the first automatic speed Teletype was installed on the Beijing-Lhasa line. By 1964 such machines had been installed in most of China's major cities. Radio-television service was installed in major cities, radio teleprinters became used. An important component of the Fourth Five-Year Plan was a major development program for the telecommunications system; the program allotted top priority to scarce electronics and construction resources and improved all aspects of China's telecommunications capabilities. Microwave radio relay lines and buried cable lines were constructed to create a network of wideband carrier trunk lines, which covered the entire country. China was linked to the international telecommunications network by the installation of communications satellite ground stations and the construction of coaxial cables linking Guangdong Province with Hong Kong and Macau.

Provincial-level units and municipalities expanded local telephone and wire broadcasting networks. Expansion and modernization of the telecommunications system continued throughout the late-1970s and early 1980s, giving particular emphasis to the production of radio and television sets and expanded broadcasting capabilities. Marked improvements occurred by the mid-1980s with an influx of foreign technology and increased domestic production capabilities. International and long-distance telephone links by satellite of high quality multiplied. Telegraph and telex were all in use. International satellite ground stations in Beijing and Shanghai were built and a domestic satellite communication network was operational in 1986. Over 160 radio stations existed by the mid-1980s, transistorized radio receivers were common. A vast wired broadcasting system included over 2,600 stations carrying radio transmissions into all rural units and many urban areas; the television system grew in 1980s, with 90 television stations and 80 million sets by 1987.

By 1987 China possessed a diversified telecommunications system that linked all parts of the country by telephone, telegraph and television. None of the telecommunications forms were as prevalent or as advanced as those in modern Western countries, but the system included some of the most sophisticated technology in the world and constituted a foundation for further development of a modern network. Overall, China's telecommunications services improved enormously during the 1980s, the pace of telecommunications growth and technology upgrading increased more after 1990 as fiber-optic systems and digital technology were installed. After 1997, China's telecommunications services were enhanced further with the acquisition of Hong Kong's advanced systems. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, foreign investment in the country's telecommunications sector further encouraged growth. Notable has been the tremendous increase in Internet and cellular phone usage. China became the world leader in the early 21st century, in terms of number

Livanjsko Polje

Livanjsko polje, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is the largest polje in the world. A typical example of karst polje encircled by tall peaks and mountain ranges, the field is characterized by many unique natural phenomenons and karstic features; the field has an area of 45,868 hectare 458.7 km², an average width of 6 km. It is located at an average height of 720 m above sea level; the field is located in region of Tropolje, in the southwest of Bosnia and Herzegovina, lies between the karstic mountains of Dinara and Kamešnica on the south, Tušnica mountain on the east and Golija mountain on the north and Šator and Staretina mountain on the west. Buško Blato lies to the southeast, Ždralovac to the northwest. Ždralovac is a narrow corridor by which the Livno field is connected to the Grahovsko field, between the slopes of mountains Dinara, Kamešnica and Šator. In the Neolithic age, the field was underwater. On the field itself there remains several lakes, of which Buško Blato has the largest accumulation in the region.

Brežinsko jezero is another lake of note. When the Orlovac Hydroelectric power-plant was built in the 1960s, it altered the climate of the entire Livno region. Long, cold winter months with large snowfalls with the characteristic bura wind, were replaced by rainy winters and long, warm summers. Across the Livanjsko field flow several rivers, which belong to the Adriatic watershed; the most important of these are the Žabljak, the Sturba, the Bistrica, the Brina, the Plovuča, the Jaruga and the Ričina which are all rich in trout and crab. An artificial lake, Buško Blato, was dammed in the polje in the 1970s for electric power generation. Additional projects are in planning which could compromise the delicate hydrological balance of the Dinaric karst, criss-crossed by underground rivers; the largest town on the field is Livno. The town of Livno has 12,000 inhabitants, it is located beneath mount Bašajkovac. The largest villages on the field are Guber, Podhum, Prolog, Čuklić, Zabrišće, Bila, Čelebić, Lusnić, Strupnić, Kovačić, Vrbica and Bojmunte.

Old Livno fortress, the historic site The field is home to continental vegetable culture such as potatoes and cabbage. Livestock raising cattle and sheep, as well as the production of milk and two famous brand of delicacy cheese known as Livanjski cheese and Cincar cheese, employs a good deal of the inhabitants of the field. Popovo Polje Livanjski cheese Cincar cheese REC Transboundary Cooperation Through the Management of Shared Natural Resources INWEB Internationally Shared Surface Water Bodies in the Balkan Region Ramsar Convention on Wetlands Bosnia and Herzegovina Commission for Preservation of National Monuments Wine route Herzegovina Hutovo Blato Nature Park Hutovo Blato Nature Park — Network of Adriatic Parks

Lock and Dam No. 5A

Lock and Dam No. 5A is a lock and dam located near Fountain City and Goodview, Minnesota on the Upper Mississippi River around river mile 728.5. It was constructed in 1932, placed in operation in 1936, its last major rehabilitation was from 1989 through 2000. The dam consists of a concrete structure 682 feet long with five roller gates and five tainter gates with an earth embankment 22,000 feet long, its concrete overflow spillway is 1,000 feet long and its lock is 110 feet wide by 600 feet long. The lock and dam are owned and operated by the St. Paul District of the United States Army Corps of Engineers-Mississippi Valley Division. Public Works Administration Dams list Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District: Lock and Dam 5A U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District: Lock and Dam 5A brochure Survey number HAER MN-23 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5A, Winona vicinity, Winona County, MN

List of United States Bureau of Reclamation dams

Following is a complete list of the 340 dams owned by the United States Bureau of Reclamation as of 2008. The Bureau was established in July 1902 as the "United States Reclamation Service" and was renamed in 1923; the agency has operated in the 17 western states of the continental U. S. divided into five administrative regions. Within the United States Department of the Interior, it oversees water resource management the oversight and/or operation of numerous diversion and storage projects it built throughout the western United States for irrigation, flood control, water supply, attendant hydroelectric power generation. USBR is the largest wholesaler of water in the country, bringing water to more than 31 million people, providing one in five Western farmers with irrigation water for 10 million acres of farmland, which produce 60% of the nation's vegetables and 25% of its fruits and nuts. USBR is the second-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the western United States. All major dams are linked below.

The National Inventory of Dams defines any "major dam" as being 50 feet tall with a storage capacity of at least 5,000 acre feet, or of any height with a storage capacity of 25,000 acre feet. Anchor Dam, South Fork Owl Creek, Wyoming Teton Dam, Teton River, Idaho Mansfield Dam, Colorado River, Texas Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Colorado River, Colorado These projects have been abandoned, with the exception of the Temperance Flat Dam. Ah Pah Dam Auburn Dam Bridge Canyon Dam Echo Park Dam Hooker Dam Marble Canyon Dam Temperance Flat Dam


FADE is digital rights management software developed by Codemasters. It operates by detecting if a game has been pirated, allows the player to use the game normally, it gradually degrades certain game features over a time rendering it unplayable. FADE introduces deliberate errors in some of the sectors of the disc; when the disc is copied, the error-correction mechanism will notice the errors and automatically correct them. When the game is launched, the game's executable looks for these errors, if they are present it is an original. If they are not available it knows it is a fake. There is no notification or error message that tells the player that a fake disk image has been detected, which makes it difficult for software crackers to determine if their crack has succeeded in defeating FADE. FADE will introduce many issues in the game, rendering it unplayable, giving the impression that the game is "buggy". For example, in ARMA 2, FADE will begin by decreasing the accuracy of the player's weapons, making it difficult to hit a target.

FADE might make them randomly start and stop moving. It will turn the player into a bird and display a message saying "Good birds do not fly away from this game, you have only yourself to blame". Bohemia Interactive has used DEGRADE in all their releases after Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis, in which FADE was used; the software is present in Overlord. ARMA 3 released on September, 2013 uses FADE as piracy protection. Serious Sam 3 uses FADE by introducing overpowered or indestructible enemies in the zone

Waltrip brothers

Jason Waltrip and John Waltrip are identical twins who comprise a comic book art and writing team, known for their work on Robotech comics and in webcomics. The Waltrips were discovered by a talent scout in 1987, sent a copy of their amateur comic called CyberKnights, they first became publicly known for their work on Robotech II: The Sentinels, for Eternity Comics in 1988, despite earlier efforts for Steve Jackson Games on the Car Wars game line. They soon followed up with other spin-off comic series such as Robotech Genesis: The Legend of Zor along with work on occasional swimsuit issues, their work on the comic adaptation of The Sentinels spanned two publishers and Academy Comics through 1996, longer than any other Robotech creative team. However, The Sentinels comic series ended prematurely after four of five planned parts had been published. A purported follow up series by Antarctic Press, Robotech: Sentinels Rubicon, bore no resemblance to any previous Robotech material, was itself cancelled after only two issues.

In 2005, the Waltrips picked up from where they left off with Robotech: Prelude to the Shadow Chronicles, a 5-part comic book miniseries which bridged their work on The Sentinels with the new animated film Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles. The Waltrips inked Sokora Refugees for Tokyopop. Jason alone drew some stories for Djustine and other adult comics created and written by Italian author Enrico Teodorani, published in Italy and the United States; the two have had a lengthy career in webcomics. Jason has drawn Fans since 1999, John drew the complete Rip and Teri. Jason replaced Gisele Lagace as the artist for the webcomic Penny and Aggie in 2008 and remained through the run of its spinoff, QUILTBAG; the two have reteamed to take over the art on the ongoing feature, Guilded Age, from 2010 to the present. Amazon Gazonga CyberKnights BoHoS Calavera Djustine Metal Bikini.