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Telecommunications in Mali

Mali, a large, multicultural country in West Africa ranks low in the Human Development Index. The infrastructure of Communications in Mali, while underdeveloped, is crucial to the nation. Prior to the 19th century, the area which became Mali was crisscrossed by trade and communication links, the most important being the Niger River, important southern terminals of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. Only the most basic infrastructure was constructed during the period of French Colonialism. During the first two decades of independence, Mali received major technical and financial support from the former Soviet Union and their allies in the area of radio and television broadcasting. Since the 1980s, the government has instituted major infrastructural drives funded by European government partners, to improve and expand communications. Cellular phone usage, due to the vast and sparsely populated distances in the north and west, has grown tremendously since the 1990s. Internet connectivity low by developed world standards, has been the focus of decentralised commune based development projects since the year 2000, while the government participates in the UN's Global Alliance for ICT and Development and the Connect Africa projects to further computer and internet availability in the country.

There are some 112,000 fixed line telephone lines in Mali, far outstripped by 14.613 million mobile cellular phone lines. There are two major mobile telephone operators and Malitel. In June 2003, legislation passed allowing other private telecommunications operators to enter the market. Telephone system: domestic system unreliable but improving. Mali has since 1994. Foreign funding, some commercial funding have helped to established 160 FM stations in Mali, though many of those are small community "suitcase radio stations". Private radio are required to be members of URTEL, the radio union The state operated radio, is ORTM, which operates 2 FM stations and 1 television station, with repeaters throughout the country. Note: The shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International Radios: 570,000 Television broadcast stations: 1 Televisions: 45,000 Top-level Internet users: 414,985 users or 2.9% of the population.

Internet usage is low by international standards, ranked 123 of 125 by the UN in 2002. Internet Service Providers: 13. There are an estimated 25 private internet service providers. An association has been formed called AFIM, intended to represent these providers. SOTELMA the state telecom, provides dial-up telephone services. Many operators offer dial-up internet service, wireless internet services. Most ISPs are small Bamako based providers with a VSAT connection, a cyber cafe and use wireless systems to share their service with their clients. Bamako has at least 21 wireless providers, ranging from small VSAT operators, to sophisticated, multi-access point, full services providers. Telephone numbers in Mali Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision du Mali: State Radio and Television broadcaster. Union des Radios et Televisions Libres Media of Mali Peter Coles, Turn your radio on. New Scientist, 7 October 1995. Mali: Freedom House report. Six radio station staff freed on completing sentences: Mali. Reporters Without Borders, 26 September 2006.

Silicon Mali. Silvia Sansoni, Forbes 02.04.02. VOA Training African Affiliates: Broadcasters’ Fiscal Health Key ‘To Guarantee Pluralism’. Voice of America, 13 September 2005 Mali Market Information Study FOOD SECURITY II COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT between U. S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT and MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY: IN-COUNTRY TIME PERIOD: JULY 1987 - DECEMBER 1994. Statistical evidence is consistent with anecdotal reports from both farmers and traders that the SIM radio broadcasts have fundamentally changed bargaining relationships between traders and farmers, forcing traders to offer more competitive prices in isolated rural markets. Cécile Leguy. Revitalizing the Oral Tradition: Stories Broadcast by Radio Parana. Research in African Literatures, Fall 2007, Vol. 38, No. 3, Pages 136-147. Radio Bamakan - Mali. InteRadio, Vol. 5, No.2, June 1993. PanAfriL10n page on Mali

Honomu, Hawaii

Honomū is a census-designated place in Hawaiʻi County, United States. The population was 509 at the 2010 census, down from 541 at the 2000 census. Honomū is located on the northeast side of the island of Hawaii at 19°52′17″N 155°07′01″W. Hawaii Route 19 passes through the community, leading northwest 31 miles to Honokaa and south 11 miles to Hilo. Hawaii Route 220 leads southwest from Route 19 through the center of Honomu 3.8 miles to its terminus at Akaka Falls State Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.50 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 5.83%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 541 people, 193 households, 143 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,172.8 people per square mile. There were 213 housing units at an average density of 461.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 23.29% White, 0.74% Native American, 29.94% Asian, 5.18% Pacific Islander, 2.03% from other races, 38.82% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.20% of the population. There were 193 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.9% were non-families. 19.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.19. In the CDP the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 20.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $30,179, the median income for a family was $35,536. Males had a median income of $28,438 versus $19,167 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,190. About 11.9% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.6% of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over.

List of places in Hawaiʻi Media related to Honomu, Hawaii at Wikimedia Commons

Htantabin Township

Htantabin Township is a township located on the western border of central Yangon Region, Burma. Its administrative seat is Htantabin, located in the southeastern part of the township on the western bank of the Hlaing River just south of its confluence with the Kokkowa River; the township is urbanized, although it is not part of the city of Yangon. The majority of the land is still in agriculture. In addition to agricultural work on the farms, the main sources of employment are as factory workers, temporary manual labor, as civil servants, work in a variety of small to medium-size businesses. Htantabin township is home to the University of West Yangon; the township will be home to a 270 megawatt coal-fired power plant built by Htoo Trading, which will supply electricity to Yangon's industrial zones. There are 59 Village Tracts in the township consisting of 230 villages. On 29 December, 1994 at 11:00 p.m. SLORC troops from IB 73 threw a grenade into a crowd while they were holding a religious ceremony in In Gyin Koe Village, Htantabin Township, Pegu Division, causing the deaths of 10 villagers and wounding 24 others.

On February 5, 1998 Burmese Army troops tortured and killed a pastor, Maung Ohn Kyi, his son-in-law in Kawtupoe village of Htantabin township. The township's eastern border is formed by the Hlaing River, its southwestern boundary is formed by the Panhlaing River and part of its western border is formed by the Bawle River. Htantabin Township borders with: Ayeyarwady Region, to the northwest. "Htantabin Township, Yangon Division" map ID: MIMU154 Htantabin Township 090423 v02, April 2009, Myanmar Information Management Unit "Htantabin Google Satellite Map" Maplandia World Gazetteer

109th (Aberdeenshire) Regiment of Foot

The 109th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army from 1794 to 1795. Raised by Alexander Leith Hay for service in the French Revolutionary Wars the regiment was deployed in Jersey before it was disbanded in England and its men sent to reinforce the 53rd Regiment of Foot; the disbandment was controversial as Leith-Hay believed it contravened an assurance given to him in his original letter of service to raise the regiment. The 109th was one of fifty-eight regiments of foot raised in 1793–95 as part of a recruiting drive; the majority of these units had a short and uneventful existence as it was decided in 1795 to "reduce" all regiments numbered above 100, to draft their members into existing senior regiments. The establishment of the regiment had been proposed to the House of Commons committee of supply on 19 November 1793 by Major-General Richard FitzPatrick on behalf of Alexander Hay. Alexander was known as "Sandie" Leith-Hay after inheriting Leith Hall from his brother, taking on the additional titles of Hay of Rannes to honour his great uncle Andrew Hay, a renowned jacobite in the 1745 rising.

He was a regular army soldier, commissioned lieutenant upon his birth and promoted to captain in the 7th Dragoons at the age of ten, as well as a noted laird in Aberdeenshire. On 8 March 1794 Leith-Hay wrote to Sir George Yonge, 5th Baronet, Secretary of State for War, to remind him of his offer to recruit soldiers to fight in the French Revolutionary Wars, he was granted a letter of service to raise the regiment on 2 April 1794; the regiment was raised on 17 May 1794 in Aberdeenshire, was known as "Hay's" or the Aberdeenshire Regiment. Leith-Hay was reported to have offered between 20 and 25 guineas bounty as an incentive to recruits in Aberdeen and gave his recruits a written promise that they would not be drafted into another regiment. Leith-Hay adopted the "Aberdeenshire" name for the regiment causing a dispute with the rival Huntly Gordon family who had considered the name for their 100th Regiment of Foot; the 100th and 109th regiments reflected the rivalries of their colonels, with both attempting various means to recruit from the limited pool of available men in north-east Scotland.

Officers of the Gordons complained that the Aberdeen town council showed favour to the 109th over their regiment. The rivalry extended to the Highland Fencible Corps too, with Leith-Hay's brother, raising the Aberdeenshire Fencibles in 1795 in direct rivalry to the Duke of Gordon's Northern Fencibles. Leith-Hay was able to furnish his regiment with experienced officers, his majors and all bar one of his lieutenants holding commissions in other regiments. Upon its first muster the regiment comprised 32 sergeants, 30 corporals, 22 drummers and 610 privates; the officer corps comprised Leith-Hay, 2 majors, 8 captains, 14 lieutenants, 15 ensigns, a chaplain, surgeon and quartermaster. The regiment received its colours and was inspected by General Sir Hector Munro, 8th laird of Novar at Aberdeen on 5 September 1794. On 1 October 1794 the regiment was numbered as the 109th Foot and Hay appointed colonel by royal warrant. By September 1794 it was billeted in the Dundee area before boarding ships at Burntisland for transit to Southampton where they disembarked on 26 October.

In April the following year the regiment moved to Jersey, returning to England in July to form part of a force commanded by General Sir Ralph Abercromby for service in the West Indies. Whilst mustering with 19 other regiments on Nursling Common, the regiment received the order to disband on 15 September; this caused disquiet amongst the regiment's officers and two of their number, Captain Leith and Lieutenant Leslie, were brought to the attention of General Gordon for their behaviour. Under the circumstances he showed leniency, a decision approved of by the commander-in-chief, the Duke of York. Colonel Leith-Hay travelled to London to protest the move, claiming he had been promised that if the regiment were to disband it would do so in Aberdeenshire and to allow the men to enter a regiment of their own choosing as volunteers, his protests, those of The Morning Chronicle, were in vain and the regiment ceased to exist on 24 September 1795. The men were drafted into the existing 53rd Regiment of Foot, despite an apparent attempt to place Scottish recruits into other Scottish regiments in such circumstances.

Such instances of drafting of Scottish soldiers into non-Scottish regiments created a distrust among recruits that hampered recruitment north of the border. The 109th's officers were placed on half-pay. On 26 November 1795 the House of Commons ordered that all correspondence between Colonel Leith-Hay and the government's secretaries of state regarding the raising and disbanding of the regiment be presented to the house; this was at the instigation of Generals Fitzpatrick and Macleod, who believed that the disbanding of the regiment and drafting of its men contravened the letter of service granted to Leith-Hay. The colonel had himself resigned his commission in disgust at the decision to disband the regiment. Leith-Hay went on to have a distinguished military career and became a full general of the British Army in 1838. "Aberdeenshire Regiment of Foot". Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2007. 109 Regiment of Foot.


Gernrode is a historic town and former municipality in the Harz District, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Since 1 January 2014, it has been part of Quedlinburg, it was the seat of the former Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of Gernrode/Harz. First mentioned in 961, Gernrode received the privilege to bear its own coat of arms and seal regarded as town privileges; the town is best known for the Ottonian church of Saint Cyriakus, the collegiate church of a former Imperial chapter of nuns, as the start of the narrow gauge Selke Valley Railway. Gernrode is situated at the northeastern rim of the Harz mountain range and the Harz/Saxony-Anhalt Nature Park, about 6.5 km south of Quedlinburg. It lies at the foot of the Ramberg massif, it is nationally recognized for its health facilities and has state recognition as a spa town, where one may take the cure and recuperate in general. The town is known as'Gernrode/Harz', because of its location in the Harz mountains, to distinguish it from Gernrode in the district of Eichsfeld in Thuringia called'Gernrode'.

In 959 the Saxon margrave Gero founded a convent of canonesses in the Schwabengau territory, within the grounds of the Geronisroth fortification he built about the same time. He founded the collegiate church for the convent, which King Otto I took under his special protection by a 961 deed, it was dedicated to Saint Cyriacus, whose relics Gero brought back for the church from his second journey to Rome in 963. Without male heirs, he bequested his vast properties to the convent and made his daughter-in-law Hathui, widow of his son Siegfried, first abbess, she was succeeded by Adelaide I, a sister of Emperor Otto III, Princess-abbess of Quedlinburg. The Gernrode convent was on a par with the Imperial abbeys of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim. However, its secular Vogt protectors from the Ascanian princes of Anhalt, descendants of Albert the Bear, became powerful, yet in 1188, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa held a Hoftag in Gernrode and donated a bell to the St. Stephan church, the second historical church in Gernrode built in 1046.

In the thirteenth century, Adelaide II was abbess of Gernrode. The Protestant Reformation came to Anhalt and Gernrode in 1521. A Protestant elementary school was founded in 1533 according to the ideas of Martin Luther. Linked to the University of Wittenberg, the premises were used as a school until 1847, when it moved into St Stephen's Church, may be the oldest such school in Germany. In 1565 Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst became abbess of Gernrode and the convent was led by Ascanian princesses since, it was disbanded in 1614, when the last abbess Sophia Elizabeth, daughter of the Ascanian prince John George I of Anhalt-Dessau, married Duke George Rudolf of Liegnitz. Gernrode received brewing rights in 1545. Beer brewing has since stopped; the city was traditionally part of a district of Ballenstedt. From 1037 to 1740 lead and silver were mined here. Matches and guns were made in Gernrode. Parts of Gernrode were burnt in the Thirty Years' War. In 1728 Emperor Charles VI formally enfeoffed the Anhalt princes with Gernode, incorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg, raised to a duchy in 1806.

Due to its picturesque setting, Gernrode became a popular destination for recreational visitors from the early 19th century onwards. Goethe, Heinrich von Kleist and Wilhelm von Kügelgen stayed here, followed by numerous vacationers, tourism became a significant economic factor; the town had 2,533 inhabitants in 1885. On 19 April 1945, at the end of World War II, Gernrode was taken by the US Army without a battle, followed by occupation by Soviet troops in June; as part of the Soviet occupation zone, Gernrode belonged to East Germany from 1949 until German reunification in 1990. It celebrated its 1,000th year in 1961 and 450th year as a town in 1989. In 2001, celebrations to honour Emperor Otto I were held. Between 1 January 2011 and 19 February 2013, Gernrode was part of the town Quedlinburg, again after 1 January 2014. Gernrode is the starting point of a narrow-gauge railway; the line was built in 1887 and after climbing through the mountains, follows the Selke river valley to Stiege. The total length from Gernrode to Stiege is 35 km.

Attractions include the giant cuckoo clock, listed in the Guinness Book of Records in 1998. This is part of a clock factory, which incorporates a giant weather house indicating current weather conditions. Other local attractions include a 7.45 m giant wood thermometer, the largest Skat table in the world, the Prussia Tower on the Ölbergshöhe. Gernrode is twinned with: Bachant, since 1969 Walsrode, since 1990 Official website General map of the region around Gernrode Chronicles on Gernrode Collegiate church of St. Cyriacus


Struthers-Dunn LLC, formally known as Struthers-Dunn or Dunco, is a manufacturer of industrial controls since 1923. Struthers-Dunn was founded by John Struthers-Dunn in 1923 outside Pennsylvania, they were one of the earliest relay manufacturers in the United States and became the first manufacturer of Military Relays for US Government during World War II. Their first military product, the 101 Series contactor was a 100A rated SPST switch for use on Naval Ships in 1938. Subsequent development led to the beginning of the QPL of products for the US Military known as MIL-SPEC Products today. On the Commercial Products side, their other notable design was the 219 Series of Industrial Relays. Designed as a socket-compatible, high-reliability relay for use in Nuclear Energy Facilities, it is still used today for critical controls; the 219 packaged family of products, the 219NE family, encompassed in addition to the standard electro-mechanical versions - the 236/237/238 family of industrial time-delay relays, the 246/247/248 family of advanced time-delay relays, the 255 Series of latching relays, the 311 Series of Sequence/stepper relays, the 349 Series Voltage Sensors and the RSX Series of custom packages controls.

1923 - Company is founded by John Struthers-Dunn in Philadelphia, PA. 1926 - John Struthers-Dunn submit and is awarded a patent for his SPDT, self-adjusting relay, the first use of many standard features still used in the design of electro-mechanical relays today. 1938 - Introduces the first relay approved for US Military Applications - the 101 Series, used on Naval Vessels. 1946 - Charles Packard, Chief Engineer and Struthers-Dunn publish "Relay Engineering" one of the earliest relay textbooks written. 1947 - Becomes a founding members of NARM, The National Association of Relay Manufacturers. 1954 - Company moves to new headquarters in Pitman, NJ. 1958 - Introduces the 219 and 219NE Series approved for use by the AEC in Nuclear Power Plants. 1986 - Nytronics Corporation purchases Struthers-Dunn and moves company to new facility in Darlington, SC. 1990 - Magnecraft Electric Company purchases the Struthers-Dunn Commercial Product Lines from the Nytronics Corporation. The two companies are reorganized as MSD, Inc with headquarters in Chicago and primary operations in Darlington, SC. 1995 - MSD Inc purchases the Military Product Line from the Nytronics Corporation.

2003 - MSD sells the Military Product Line to Tyco Electronics for an exchange of cash and Commercial Relay product lines. 2005 - MSD sells the Magnecraft Commercial Product Lines to Schneider Electric. The Struthers-Dunn commercial products are sold to Eric Steinback, former Director of Sales of MSD. Company is reformed as Struthers-Dunn LLC, a premier supplier of custom built industrial controls. Struthers-Dunn is one of a few owned relay companies left in the United States. Struthers-Dunn Website NRC Website