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Telecommunications in the Philippines

Telecommunications in the Philippines are well-developed due to the presence of modern infrastructure facilities. The industry was deregulated in 1995 when President Fidel Ramos signed Republic Act 7925; this law opened the sector to more private players and improved the provision of telecom services are better and fairer rates. The industry was deregulated in 1995, leading to the creation of many telecommunication service providers for mobile, fixed-line and other services. Two private companies offered telecom services namely Eastern Extension Australasia and China Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of Britain's Cable and Wireless; the Spanish authorizes Eastern Extension to construct and operate the first submarine cable linking the Philippines and Hong Kong. The Philippine Islands Telephone and Telegraph Company is American-owned which started operations in 1905 in Metro Manila. In 1928, merged with Cebu and Negros Telephone and Telegraph companies to form the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company.

In 1932, the colonial Philippines congress granted PLDT a 50-year franchise to operate a national telephone system. The establishment of the Public Service Commission to regulate the industry as well as other utilities, meanwhile the Bureau of Posts was created to operate telegraph services nationwide. PLDT was managed by Americans, including the American company General Telephone and Electric Corporation as a major stockholder; however in March 1967, GTE disposed of their 28% controlling interest in PLDT. Which is why in November 7, 1967, the Philippines Telecommunications Investment Corporation was registered to buy GTE's controlling interest. Ramon Cojuangco, part of one of the most influential clans in Philippine history, was a main incorporator. PTIC formally took control of PLDT on January 1, 1968; this led to the takeover of PLDT by the Filipinos, becoming a dominant player in telecommunications because of its authorization to operate a national network. Company officials however dispute that they were a monopoly because of the existence of a government telephone system, over 60 provincial companies operating in the country.

The Bureau of Telecommunications handled the government telephone system, which by 1975 had 34,643 operational telephone lines, or about 10.2% of the total telephone capacity of the country. There were four major companies with license for international data communication. Eastern Extension, a franchise was transferred to the Eastern Telecommunication Philippine Incorporated in 1974, they restructured its ownership, with 60% now owned by Filipino businessmen. Globe Mackay Cable and Radio Corporation was established in 1928, owned by the Ayala family, one of the oldest and most established elite families in the country. Capitol Wireless Inc, established in 1962, owned by the Santiago family, the group which owned Retelco, then-second largest telephone company. Philippine Global Communications was established in 1977. During the term of Ferdinand Marcos, he gave Philcom exclusive rights to handle calls to Japan, Korea and Thailand. In 1976, the Philippine Association of Private Telephone Companies was organized to protect the interest of small telephone companies.

By 1975, around 60 small telephone companies provided 11.7% of the total telephone capacity at the time. These small companies were dependent on PLDT to place inter-provincial and overseas calls, in which PLDT used this interconnection to their advantage. PLDT could slow down, or deny interconnection at will; some companies which found it financially impossible to operate without interconnection sold their companies to PLDT. They dictated the interconnection access rates, which meant that PLDT cornered most telecommunications revenues. By 1991, PLDT had 94% of the total lines. Marcos' Presidential Decree 217 in 1973 mandated all PLDT subscribers to invest in PLDT to raise its equity and finance its expansion program; this law, known as the Subscribers Investment Plan required all PLDT subscribers to buy non-voting shares in the company. Mandatory investors held about 85 % of the total company equity shares but had no actual power in controlling the company. PLDT had access to international loans from the World Bank.

These loans assisted PLDT's dominance, PLDT became the single largest private recipient of foreign loans to the Philippines. In 1981, a National Telecommunications Development Plan was released. A section of the plan recommended the integration of all private telephone companies under one monopoly. Marcos issued a presidential directive to Retelco, PLDT's main competitor in Metro Manila, to merge with PLDT; the merger was met with objection by the owners of Retelco, but the merger was continued because Marcos threatened to withdraw the companies' franchises. The Aquino government's policy was two-pronged: it was to increase public spending in underserved or unserved municipalities, allow entry of new players. In 1987, the DOTC adopted a series of policies aimed at rationalizing the development of the industry; this led to the reversal of Marcos' push towards the integration of the telecommunications system under a monopoly. It affirmed that development of the national telcos needs an introduction of competition and regulated entry into the market.

During the end of Cory’s therm however, telecommunications was poor but PLDT prevailed with their tactics in maintaining their monopoly. Under the Ramos administration, a coalition named the Movement for Reliable and Efficient Phone System was formed with the goal of liberalizing the telecommunications industry; until the mid-1990s, MORE Phones

Judith Won Pat

Judith Teresita Perez Won Pat known as Judi Won Pat, is a Guamanian Democratic politician. She served as the speaker of the Guam Legislature from March 2008 to January 2017. Won Pat was the former sitting chairperson of the Committee on Education, Public Library and Women’s Affairs in the 32nd Guam Legislature, she was born as Judith Teresita Perez Won Pat on December 6, 1949, the daughter of Antonio Borja Won Pat and Ana Salas Perez of Sumay. Judith Won Pat's family moved to Takoma Park, because her father had been elected to serve as delegate to the House of Representatives in Washington, D. C, she graduated from Montgomery Blair High School. After high school, she attended Montgomery College and attained an Associate of Arts in liberal arts. Judith Won Pat attained her Master of Education from the University of Guam. Won Pat was married to the late Melvin B. Borja, they had three children: Ahtoy and Ana Maria Catherine Won Pat-Borja. Authorized by Guam Public Law 13-202, the Territory of Guam held the Guam Constitutional Convention of 1977 to provide a local framework for self-government.

When Judith Won Pat was 27 years old, she served as the Sinajana delegate to the 1977 Guam Constitutional Convention. Judith Won Pat served as the chairperson of the Women Rights Committee, vice chairperson of the Education Committee and served as a member on the Gubernatorial Powers, the Municipal Government, Natural Resources Committees, respectively. All 32 delegates to the Constitutional Convention signed the Constitution on December 15, 1977. Judith Won Pat-Borja first ran to serve as senator in the 23rd Guam Legislature in 1994, she has served in the 24th, 26th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, 32nd and 33rd Guam Legislatures. The 29th Guam Legislature had a bare majority of 8 Republican senators. After the passing of Republican Senator Antonio R. Unpingco, a special election was held on January 5, 2008, at which former Chief Justice Benjamin J. F. Cruz, a Democrat, was elected to fill the vacancy left by the late Senator Antonio R. Unpingco. After the special election, the Republican minority refused to allow a change in leadership to reflect its minority status.

Early in the morning on March 7, 2008, the Democratic majority held session and appointed a new leadership for the Guam Legislature, with Judith T. Perez Won Pat serving as Guam's first woman speaker of the Guam Legislature. An opinion by Attorney General Alicia Limtiaco upheld the validity of legislation issued by the Guam Legislature under its new leadership. Judith Won Pat has served as speaker in the 30th, 31st, 32nd and 33rd Guam Legislatures. Speaker Won Pat was the sitting chairperson of the Committee on Education, Public Library and Women’s Affairs in the 32nd Guam Legislature. After Won Pat lost re-election she has stayed out of the politics since 2017 to focus on her private life and she is now working with Guahan Academy Charter School

2010 Indonesian Futsal League

2010 Indonesian Futsal League is the 4th edition of Indonesian Futsal League, organized by the PSSI. The competition will be held in 3 consecutive series in 3 cities; the winner of this competition will represent Indonesia in the AFC Futsal Club Championship. Eight clubs are participating in this competition: Electric PLN Pelindo II Limus IBM Jaya Futsal Kota Bandung Jatim Futsal Bank Sumut FC Harimau Rawa Isen Mulang First series, starts on 2–8 August 2010 in Jakarta Second series, starts on 30 September - 3 October 2010 in Riau Third series, starts on 14–17 October in Surabaya The best four clubs in regular stage will qualify to the final four stage which will be held in Jakarta, 1–3 November 2010

Meredith Ochs

Meredith Ochs is an American radio commentator, DJ, author and musician. She is a Gracie Award honoree for her work in radio. Ochs is a commentator for National Public Radio's All Things Considered and has appeared on Talk of the Nation, she was a frequent guest on All Songs Considered. Ochs is the author of three books, Rock-and-Roll Woman, Aretha: The Queen of Soul, Bruce Springsteen: An Illustrated Biography, she contributed to the Belmont award-winning Woman Walk the Line: How the Women in Country Music Changed Our Lives Ochs is a talk show host at Sirius XM Satellite Radio. Her program Freewheelin aired weekdays 11 am – 2 pm ET. Ochs hosts a music show on the Outlaw Country channel and Tuesdays 8 pm – midnight ET. Ochs was a contributing writer at Guitar World magazine, her writing has appeared in numerous other publications, including Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone,, the Boston Phoenix, the Houston Chronicle and New York Magazine. Her photographs have appeared in Experience Hendrix and other publications.

Ochs plays guitar and writes songs for the Damn Lovelys. Their debut, "Trouble Creek", was released on Philadelphia indie label Dren Records in 2004 and earned them an appearance on Mountain Stage, the internationally syndicated PRI radio program, the following year, she played bass and sang with New Orleans-born R&B/soul singer Jesse Thomas. She periodically performs with blues/R&B band Miss Lucy & Walker Blue, along with Brazilian harmonica player Alex "Pardal" Siclari and members of Eaglemania, The Porchistas and the Zydeco Revelators. For more than a decade, Ochs hosted a weekly show, Trash and Thunder, on freeform radio station WFMU; the show focused on American roots music: country, soul, R&B and bluegrass, featured live performances by artists including Son Volt's Jay Farrar, country singer Pam Tillis, Allman Brothers alumnus Derek Trucks. Ochs co-hosted with and filled in for FMU alum Vin Scelsa at WFUV, where she worked part-time as a DJ. Ochs worked at WNYC and WXRK in New York City, as well as the ABC Radio Network.

Two characters in the children's book series The Trouble with Chickens by author Doreen Cronin are named after Ochs and her husband. Meredith Ochs' virtual home Meredith Ochs, Radio Personality The Legacy of Convoy The Year Pop Went Country A Very Kacey Christmas Trucking Radio Personality to Broadcast from Big Rig "Damn Lovelys make their national debut" From "The Drummer" Renegade Nation Till death do us part, Articles written for Entertainment Weekly

Clock network

A clock network or clock system is a set of synchronized clocks designed to always show the same time by communicating with each other. Clock networks consist of a central master clock kept in sync with an official time source, one or more slave clocks which receive and display the time from the master; the master clock in a clock network can receive accurate time in a number of ways: through the United States GPS satellite constellation, a Network Time Protocol server, the CDMA cellular phone network, a modem connection to a time source, or by listening to radio transmissions from WWV or WWVH, or a special signal from an upstream broadcast network. Some master clocks don't determine the time automatically. Instead, they rely on an operator to manually set them. Clock networks in critical applications include a backup source to receive the time, or provisions to allow the master clock to maintain the time if it loses access to its primary time source. For example, many master clocks can use the reliable frequency of the alternating current line they are connected to.

Slave clocks come in many sizes. They can connect to the master clock through either a short-range wireless signal. In the 19th century Paris used a series of pneumatic tubes to transmit the signal; some slave clocks will run independently if they lose the master signal with a warning light lit. Others will freeze. Many master clocks include the capability to synchronize devices like computers to the master clock signal. Common features include the transmission of the time via RS-232, a Network Time Protocol, or a Pulse Per Second contact. Others provide SMPTE time code outputs, which are used in television settings to synchronize the video from multiple sources. Master Clocks come equipped with programmable relay outputs to synchronize other devices such as lights, etc. One of the driving factors in developing clock networks was the broadcast industry. Television, in particular, operates on a strict schedule, where each second of airtime is planned ahead of time and must be executed precisely. A central clock system allows a television station's master control and production personnel to work within that schedule.

A clock network synchronized to the standard UTC time allows different television facilities to coordinate their activities without complicated out-of-band signaling. It provides accurate timing to equipment in stations that are becoming automated. While television broadcasters were some of the first users of clock networks, the equipment is becoming useful in other industries. For example, the National Emergency Number Association issued directive NENA-04-002, offering standards in timekeeping for 911 dispatch centers throughout the United States. Other common clock network users include schools. One of the first clock networks was installed by Charles Shepherd for the Great Exhibition, held in London in 1851. Shepherd's technology was installed at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, a replica of his Shepherd Gate Clock outside the gate is still working, the original being damaged in a WWII air raid. In the period before the universal availability of A. C. mains or atomic clocks, many clock networks were installed using a accurate pendulum clock as a master clock.

This clock resembled a longcase clock, but had a robust mechanism and a less ornate case. Electrical contacts attached to the mechanism generated minute, half minute and sometimes one second electrical pulses which were fed to the slave clocks on pairs of wires; the devices driven could be wall clocks, employee time clocks, tower clocks and clock chiming mechanisms. Some master clocks were set up to control the frequency of a generating authority's mains output. There is a hierarchy of clocks in a network. For example: NTP clock strata Synchronization in telecommunications#Components Radio clock Time clock Master clock Slave clock

Jo Enright

Jo Enright is an English stand-up comedian and actress who has appeared in a number of television and radio comedy programmes. Enright attended St Edmund Campion Catholic School and studied Drama at Middlesex University. In 1995, she made her Edinburgh Festival debut as part of the three-hander The West Midland's Serious Comedy Squad. In 2002, she appeared alongside Steve Coogan in episode five, series two of the BBC comedy I'm Alan Partridge as a tax inspector investigating Alan. In 2005, she appeared in the BBC Radio 4 series The Ape. In 2006, she appeared in the comedy series Time Trumpet on BBC Two, playing herself as a commentator in the year 2031 looking back on the world nearly thirty years before. From July 2008, she appeared in the BBC comedy series Lab Rats as Cara McIlvenny.12 October 2008, she played wheelchair user Jackie, a member of the fictional "2 Up, 2 Down", on Peter Kay's Britain's Got the Pop Factor... and Possibly a New Celebrity Jesus Christ Soapstar Superstar Strictly on Ice, a spoof on the talent show genre of programmes.

In 2009 she began playing "Carol" in the sixth series of the BBC Three sitcom Ideal. In 2011, she appeared in Ricky Gervais's and Stephen Merchant's television comedy series Life's Too Short as Sue, Warwick Davis's estranged wife. In 2012, she appeared as baker Sharon in the Sky1 sitcom Trollied. Since April 2013, Enright has appeared as officious job centre worker Angela Bromford in the ITV2 comedy series The Job Lot. 2002: Chortle Award winner for best female circuit comic 2001: Best Female on the Jongleurs Comedy Circuit, sponsored by Bodyform 1996: Named comedian of the year at the Leicester Comedy Festival The Job Lot as Angela Trollied as Sharon the Baker Life's Too Short as Sue Ideal as Carol Lab Rats as Cara McIlvenny Britain's Got the Pop Factor... and Possibly a New Celebrity Jesus Christ Soapstar Superstar Strictly on Ice as Jackie from contestants "2 Up 2 Down" Time Trumpet as herself Round as Ann I'm Alan Partridge - I Know What Alan Did Last Summer as Tax Inspector Catherine World of Pub - Ladies Phoenix Nights - Episode #1.4 as Beverly Hillscoptu That Peter Kay Thing - The Arena I Love a 1970's Christmas as herself Barking, Channel 4 sketch show, as writer and performerShe has provided voice-overs in advertisements for Jaffa Cakes, Living TV, Sainsburys and Nescafe.

Profile at Chortle Comedy CV profile Jo Enright on IMDb