Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv
Konstanz is a university city with 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland. The city houses the University of Konstanz and was for more than 1200 years residence of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Konstanz. Konstanz is situated on Lake Constance; the Rhine river, which starts in the Swiss Alps, passes through Lake Constance and leaves it larger, by flowing under a bridge connecting the two parts of the city. North of the river lies the larger part of the city with residential areas, industrial estates, the University of Konstanz. Car ferries provide access across Lake Constance to Meersburg, the Katamaran provides a shuttle service for pedestrians to Friedrichshafen. At the old town's southern border lies the Swiss town of Kreuzlingen. Konstanz is subdivided into districts; the island of Mainau belonged to the ward of Litzelstetten, a separate municipality until its incorporation into Konstanz on December 1, 1971. The first traces of civilization in Konstanz date back to the late Stone Age.
During the reign of Augustus, the Celts living south of the Danube were conquered by the Romans. Around 40 AD, the first Romans settled on the site; this small town on the left bank of the Rhine was first called Drusomagus and belonged to the Roman province of Raetia. Its name Constantia, comes either from the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus, who fought the Alemanni in the region and built a strong fortress around 300 AD, or from his grandson Constantius II, who visited the region in 354; the remains of the late Roman fortress Constantia were discovered in 2003. Around 585 the first bishop took up residence in Konstanz and this marked the beginning of the city's importance as a spiritual centre. By the late Middle Ages, about one quarter of Konstanz's 6,000 inhabitants were exempt from taxation on account of clerical rights. Trade thrived during the Middle Ages. Konstanz owned the only bridge in the region, which crossed the Rhine, making it a strategic location in the Duchy of Swabia, its linen production had made an international name for the city and it was prosperous.
In 1192, Konstanz gained the status of Imperial City so it was henceforth subject only to the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1414 to 1418, the Council of Constance took place, during which, on 6 July 1415, John Hus, seen as a threat to Christianity by the Roman Catholic Church, was burned at the stake, it was here that the Papal Schism was ended and Pope Martin V was elected during the only conclave held north of the Alps. Ulrich von Richental's illustrated chronicle of the Council of Constance testifies to all the major happenings during the Council as well as showing the everyday life of medieval Konstanz; the Konzilgebäude where the conclave was held can still be seen standing by the harbour. Close by stands the Imperia, a statue, erected in 1993 to satirically commemorate the Council. In 1460, the Swiss Confederacy conquered Konstanz's natural hinterland. Konstanz made an attempt to get admitted to the Swiss Confederacy, but the forest cantons voted against its entry, fearing over-bearing city states.
In the Swabian War of 1499, Konstanz lost its last privileges over Thurgau to the Confederation. The Protestant Reformation took hold in Konstanz in the 1520s, headed by Ambrosius Blarer. Soon the city declared itself Protestant, pictures were removed from the churches, the bishop temporarily moved to Meersburg, a small town across the lake; the city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, the Augsburg Confession. However, in 1548 Emperor Charles V imposed the Imperial Ban on Konstanz and it had to surrender to Habsburg Austria which had attacked, thus Konstanz lost its status as an imperial city. The new Habsburg rulers were eager to re-Catholicise the town and in 1604 a Jesuit College was opened, its accompanying theatre, built in 1610, is the oldest theatre in Germany still performing regularly. The city became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806. In 1821, the Bishopric of Constance became part of the Archdiocese of Freiburg. Konstanz became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany.
After World War I it was included within the Republic of Baden. On 22 October 1940, 110 of the last Jewish residents were deported to Gurs internment camp in France. Most of those who were still alive in August 1942 were murdered in either Auschwitz; because it lies within Switzerland, directly adjacent to the Swiss border, Konstanz was not bombed by the Allied Forces during World War II. The city left all its lights on at night, thus fooled the bombers into thinking it was part of Switzerland. After the war, Konstanz was included first in South Baden and in the new state of Baden-Württemberg; the Altstadt, large considering the small size of modern Konstanz, has many old buildings and twisting alleys. The city skyline is dominated by the majestic "Münster" Cathedral, several other churches and three towers left over from the city wall, one of which marks the place of the former medieval bridge over the Rhine; the University of Konstanz was established close to the town in 1966. It houses an excellent library with two million books, all accessible 24 hours a day, as well as a b
Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth. Like radiolocation, it is a type of radiodetermination; the basic principles are measurements from/to electric beacons Angular directions, e.g. by bearing, radio phases or interferometry, Distances, e.g. ranging by measurement of time of flight between one transmitter and multiple receivers or vice versa, Distance differences by measurement of times of arrival of signals from one transmitter to multiple receivers or vice versa Partly velocity, e.g. by means of radio Doppler shift. Combinations of these measurement principles are important—e.g. Many radars measure azimuth of a target; these systems used some form of directional radio antenna to determine the location of a broadcast station on the ground. Conventional navigation techniques are used to take a radio fix; these were introduced prior to World War I, remain in use today. The first system of radio navigation was the Radio Direction Finder, or RDF.
By tuning in a radio station and using a directional antenna, one could determine the direction to the broadcasting antenna. A second measurement using another station was taken. Using triangulation, the two directions can be plotted on a map where their intersection reveals the location of the navigator. Commercial AM radio stations can be used for this task due to their long range and high power, but strings of low-power radio beacons were set up for this task near airports and harbours. Early RDF systems used a loop antenna, a small loop of metal wire, mounted so it can be rotated around a vertical axis. At most angles the loop has a flat reception pattern, but when it is aligned perpendicular to the station the signal received on one side of the loop cancels the signal in the other, producing a sharp drop in reception known as the "null". By rotating the loop and looking for the angle of the null, the relative bearing of the station can be determined. Loop antennas can be seen on most pre-1950s aircraft and ships.
The main problem with RDF is that it required a special antenna on the vehicle, which may not be easy to mount on smaller vehicles or single-crew aircraft. A smaller problem is that the accuracy of the system is based to a degree on the size of the antenna, but larger antennas would make the installation more difficult. During the era between World War I and World War II, a number of systems were introduced that placed the rotating antenna on the ground; as the antenna rotated through a fixed position due north, the antenna was keyed with the morse code signal of the station's identification letters so the receiver could ensure they were listening to the right station. They waited for the signal to either peak or disappear as the antenna pointed in their direction. By timing the delay between the morse signal and the peak/null dividing by the known rotational rate of the station, the bearing of the station could be calculated; the first such system was the German Telefunken Kompass Sender, which began operations in 1907 and was used operationally by the Zeppelin fleet until 1918.
An improved version was introduced by the UK as the Orfordness Beacon in 1929 and used until the mid-1930s. A number of improved versions followed, replacing the mechanical motion of the antennas with phasing techniques that produced the same output pattern with no moving parts. One of the longest lasting examples was Sonne, which went into operation just before World War II and was used operationally under the name Consol until 1991; the modern VOR system is based on the same principles. A great advance in the RDF technique was introduced in the form of phase comparisons of a signal as measured on two or more small antennas, or a single directional solenoid; these receivers were smaller, more accurate, simpler to operate. Combined with the introduction of the transistor and integrated circuit, RDF systems were so reduced in size and complexity that they once again became quite common during the 1960s, were known by the new name, automatic direction finder, or ADF; this led to a revival in the operation of simple radio beacons for use with these RDF systems, now referred to as non-directional beacons.
As the LF/MF signals used by NDBs can follow the curvature of earth, NDB has a much greater range than VOR which travels only in line of sight. NDB can be categorized as short range depending on their power; the frequency band allotted to non-directional beacons is 190–1750 kHz, but the same system can be used with any common AM-band commercial station. VHF omnidirectional range, or VOR, is an implementation of the reverse-RDF system, but one, more accurate and able to be automated. Instead of a single signal, the VOR transmitter sends out three signals – one is a simple voice channel that sends morse code to identify the station, another is a continuous signal sent in all directions, the last is a signal, rotated at 30 RPM. Like the Orfordness concept, the bearing of the station is measured by finding the rotating signal's peak or null, but instead of timing the signal, the rotating signal is changed in phase in synchronicity with its rotation, such that it is in-phase when pointed north, 90 degrees off when it points east, so forth.
By comparing the phase of the received signal with the one being broadcast omnidirectionally, the angle can be determined using simple electronics. This angle is displayed in the cockpit of the aircraft, can be used to take a fix just like the earlier RDF systems, although it is easier to use; as VOR required two VHF receivers as well as a conventional radio for station identification, the system did not becom
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987. It was derived from earlier variations in the name and incorporation, spanning a period from its inception in 1897 until 2006, during which time it underwent numerous changes and acquisitions; the company was founded by the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi and began as the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company. The company was a pioneer of wireless long distance communication and mass media broadcasting becoming one of the UK's most successful manufacturing companies. In 1999, its defence manufacturing division, Marconi Electronic Systems, merged with British Aerospace to form BAE Systems. In 2006, extreme financial difficulties led to the collapse of the remaining company, with the bulk of the business acquired by the Swedish telecommunications company, Ericsson. 1897–1900: The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company 1900–1963: Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company 1963–1987: Marconi Company Ltd 1987–1998: GEC-Marconi Ltd 1998–1999: Marconi Electronic Systems Ltd 1999–2003: Marconi plc 2003–2006: Marconi Corporation plc Marconi's "Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company" was formed on 20 July 1897 after the granting of a British patent for wireless in March of that year.
The company opened the world's first radio factory on Hall Street in Chelmsford in 1898 and was responsible for some of the most important advances in radio and television. These include: In 1900 the company's name was changed to "Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company" and Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Training College was set up in 1901; the company and factory was moved to New Street Works in 1912, to allow for production expansion in light of the RMS Titanic disaster. Along with private entrepreneurs, Marconi company formed in 1924 the Unione Radiofonica Italiana, granted by Mussolini's regime a monopoly of radio broadcasts in 1924. After the war, URI became the RAI. In 1939, the Marconi Research Laboratories at Great Baddow were founded and in 1941 there was a buyout of Marconi-Ekco Instruments to form Marconi Instruments. English Electric acquired the Marconi Company in 1946. In 1948 the company was reorganised into four divisions: These had expanded to 13 manufacturing divisions by 1965 when a further reorganisation took place.
The divisions were placed into three groups: At this time the Marconi Company had facilities at New Street Chelmsford, Basildon and Writtle as well as in Wembley and Hackbridge. It owned Marconi Instruments, Sanders Electronics, Eddystone Radio and Marconi Italiana. In 1967 Marconi took over Company to form Eddystone Radio. In 1903 Marconi founded the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company of Canada, renamed as the Canadian Marconi Company in 1925; the radio business of the Canadian Marconi Company is known as Ultra Electronics TCS since 2002 and its avionic activities as CMC Electronics, owned by Esterline since 2007. In 1967 or 1968 English Electric was subject to a takeover bid by the Plessey Company but chose instead to accept an offer from GEC. Under UK government pressure, the computer section of GEC, English Electric Leo Marconi, merged with International Computers and Tabulators to form International Computers Limited; the computer interests of Elliott Automation which specialised in real-time computing were amalgamated with those of Marconi's Automation Division to form Marconi-Elliott Computers renamed as GEC Computers.
In 1968 Marconi Space and Defence Systems and Marconi Underwater Systems were formed. The Marconi Company continued as the primary defence subsidiary of GEC-Marconi. Marconi was renamed GEC-Marconi in 1987. During the period 1968–1999 GEC-Marconi/MES underwent significant expansion. Acquisitions which were folded into the company and partnerships established include: Other acquisitions include: Divisions of Plessey in 1989. Plessey Avionics Plessey Naval Systems Plessey Cryptography Plessey Electronic Systems Sippican Leigh InstrumentsIn a major reorganisation of the company, GEC-Marconi was renamed Marconi Electronic Systems in 1996 and was separated from other non-defence assets. In 1999 GEC underwent a major transformation. Marconi Electronic Systems which included its wireless assets was demerged and sold to British Aerospace which formed BAE Systems. GEC, realigning itself as a telecommunications company following the MES sale, retained the Marconi brand and renamed itself Marconi plc. BAE were granted limited rights to continue its use in existing partnerships, however by 2005 no BAE businesses use the Marconi name.
Major spending and the dot-com collapse led to a major restructuring of that group, in a debt-for-equity swap shareholders were given 0.5% of the new company, Marconi Corporation plc. In 1999 Reltec and Fore Systems were acquired at the height of the "dot-com" boom. With its subsequent collapse the Marconi Corporation got into financial difficulties. In October 2005 the Swedish firm Ericsson offered to buy most of the assets; the transaction was completed on 23 January 2006 effective as of 1 January 2006. The Marconi name will still be used as a brand within Ericsson. At the time of the acquisition Ericsson announced that they would be rebranding Marconi assets Ericsson and retaining Marconi only as the name of the Italian research facility; however the company has since labelled its OMS line and its Long Haul Digital Radio system Marconi. The rest of the Marconi company was renamed as Telent. Aerospace industry
Siemens & Halske
Siemens & Halske AG was a German electrical engineering company that became part of Siemens. It was founded on 12 October 1847 as Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske; the company, located in Berlin-Kreuzberg, specialised in manufacturing electrical telegraphs according to Charles Wheatstone's patent of 1837. In 1848, the company constructed one of the first European telegraph lines from Berlin to Frankfurt am Main. Siemens & Halske expanded with representatives in Great Britain and Russia as well as its own cable-manufacturing plants at Woolwich and Saint Petersburg; the company's rise was supported by Werner von Siemens' patent of the electrical generator in 1867. In 1881, Siemens & Halske built the Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway, the world's first electric streetcar line, in the southwestern Lichterfelde suburb of Berlin, followed by the Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram near Vienna, the first electrical interurban tram in Austria–Hungary. 1882 saw the opening of the experimental "Elektromote" track, an early trolleybus concept in the Berlin suburb of Halensee.
The rising popularity of telegraphs and electrical tramways, as well as in generators and electric motors, ensured steady growth for Siemens & Halske. Siemens & Halske was not alone in the realm of electrical engineering. In 1887, Emil Rathenau had established Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft, which became a long-time rival. Werner von Siemens retired in 1890, while Johann Georg Halske had left the company in 1867. Werner von Siemens' brother Karl Heinrich, together with Werner's sons Arnold and Georg Wilhelm, grew the firm and erected new Siemens & Halske premises along the banks of the western Spree river, in the Berlin suburb of Charlottenburg, in 1897; the firm's vast new site continued to grow, from 1899 onwards it was known as Siemensstadt. When Siemens & Halske merged parts of its activities with Schuckert & Co. Nuremberg in 1903 to become Siemens-Schuckert, Siemens & Halske AG specialized in communications engineering. During World War I, rotary engines of advanced and unusual design were produced under the Siemens-Halske brand, like the Siemens-Halske Sh.
I and Sh. III. Siemens established several company subsidiaries for which the Siemens & Halske AG functioned as a holding company. During the Second World War, Siemens & Halske employed slave labour from concentration camps. Siemens Siemens-Schuckert Media related to Siemens & Halske at Wikimedia Commons Documents and clippings about Siemens & Halske in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics