A teleprinter is an electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. They were used in telegraphy, which developed in the late 1830s and 1840s as the first use of electrical engineering, though teleprinters weren't used for telegraphy until 1887 at the earliest; the machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could be used to create punched tape for data storage and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission. Teleprinters could use a variety of different communication media; these included a simple pair of wires. A teleprinter attached to a modem could communicate through standard switched public telephone lines; this latter configuration was used to connect teleprinters to remote computers in time-sharing environments. Teleprinters have been replaced by electronic computer terminals which have a computer monitor instead of a printer.

Teleprinters are still used in the aviation industry, variations called Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf are used by the hearing impaired for typed communications over ordinary telephone lines. The teleprinter evolved through a series of inventions by a number of engineers, including Samuel Morse, Alexander Bain, Royal Earl House, David Edward Hughes, Emile Baudot, Donald Murray, Charles L. Krum, Edward Kleinschmidt and Frederick G. Creed. Teleprinters were invented in order to send and receive messages without the need for operators trained in the use of Morse code. A system of two teleprinters, with one operator trained to use a keyboard, replaced two trained Morse code operators; the teleprinter system improved message speed and delivery time, making it possible for messages to be flashed across a country with little manual intervention. There were a number of parallel developments on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In 1835 Samuel Morse devised a recording telegraph, Morse code was born.

Morse's instrument used a current to displace the armature of an electromagnet, which moved a marker, therefore recording the breaks in the current. Cooke & Wheatstone received a British patent covering telegraphy in 1837 and a second one in 1840 which described a type-printing telegraph with steel type fixed at the tips of petals of a rotating brass daisy-wheel, struck by an “electric hammer” to print Roman letters through carbon paper onto a moving paper tape. In 1841 Alexander Bain devised an electromagnetic printing telegraph machine, it used pulses of electricity created by rotating a dial over contact points to release and stop a type-wheel turned by weight-driven clockwork. The critical issue was to have the sending and receiving elements working synchronously. Bain attempted to achieve this using centrifugal governors to regulate the speed of the clockwork, it was patented, along with other devices, on April 21, 1841. By 1846, the Morse telegraph service was operational between Washington, D.

C. and New York. Royal Earl House patented his printing telegraph that same year, he linked two 28-key piano-style keyboards by wire. Each piano key represented a letter of the alphabet and when pressed caused the corresponding letter to print at the receiving end. A "shift" key gave each main key two optional values. A 56-character typewheel at the sending end was synchronised to coincide with a similar wheel at the receiving end. If the key corresponding to a particular character was pressed at the home station, it actuated the typewheel at the distant station just as the same character moved into the printing position, in a way similar to the daisy wheel printer, it was thus an example of a synchronous data transmission system. House's equipment could transmit around 40 readable words per minute, but was difficult to manufacture in bulk; the printer could print out up to 2,000 words per hour. This invention was first put in operation and exhibited at the Mechanics Institute in New York in 1844.

Landline teleprinter operations began in 1849, when a circuit was put in service between Philadelphia and New York City. In 1855, David Edward Hughes introduced an improved machine built on the work of Royal Earl House. In less than two years, a number of small telegraph companies, including Western Union in early stages of development, united to form one large corporation – Western Union Telegraph Co. – to carry on the business of telegraphy on the Hughes system. In France, Émile Baudot designed in 1874 a system using a five-unit code, which began to be used extensively in that country from 1877; the British Post Office adopted the Baudot system for use on a simplex circuit between London and Paris in 1897, subsequently made considerable use of duplex Baudot systems on their Inland Telegraph Services. During 1901, Baudot's code was modified by Donald Murray, prompted by his development of a typewriter-like keyboard; the Murray system employed an intermediate step, a keyboard perforator, which allowed an operator to punch a paper tape, a tape transmitter for sending the

Navarretia hamata

Navarretia hamata is a species of flowering plant in the phlox family known by the common name hooked pincushionplant. The plant is native to the coastal valleys of California and Baja California, it is found from the Monterey Bay area, through the Central Coast, to the lower slopes of the Transverse Ranges and Peninsular Ranges and coastal mesas in Southern California, as well as on the three of the Channel Islands and south into Baja California. It is a member of the chaparral flora. Navarretia hamata is a hairy, glandular annual herb producing a spreading, erect stem up to about 30 centimeters tall, it has a strong skunky scent. The leaves are divided into narrow, sharp-tipped lobes, the ones at the tip of each leaf hooked; the inflorescence is a head filled with leaflike green bracts. The pink or purple flowers are tubular with five-lobed corollas and measure up to 1.5 centimeters long. Navarretia hamata; the Jepson Manual

Mickey Whatley

Michael Stewart "Mickey" Homer, Jr. Whatley age 75 when he died, was a Commissioner of the South Carolina Charleston County Parks and Recreation Commission, he was a member of the South Carolina House of Representatives representing the district 113 for two terms ending in 2003. He was the South Carolina's North Charleston Police Chief from 1992 to 1994 and was a Lieutenant for the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division from 1984 to 1992, he served in the United States Army from 1958 to 1960 as an artillery gunner and driver for the commanding officer. Mickey was born on 7 October 1935 in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Homer Whatley, Sr. and Luise Whatley. Mickey's life was dedicated to public service, he began at the Post & Courier News as a journeyman printer but enlisted in the US Army serving from 1958-1960. Mickey was first a fireman and a police officer for Charleston County. Mickey's father, Lawrence Stewart, was a county policeman and the first to be recognized as Policeman of the Year by the Kiwanis Club.

Mickey was part of the original police force in North Charleston and became one of the City's first detectives. He attended the Southern Police Institute and held a Bachelor of Science degree with a double major in Political Science and Criminal Justice from the Baptist College Mickey was a Lieutenant for the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division from 1984-1992 and served as Chief of Police for the City of North Charleston from 1992-1994, he served two terms in the SC House of Representatives for District 113. He was a commissioner for the Charleston County Parks and Recreation Department. Mickey's past affiliations include: Past President of the South Carolina Chapter of the FBI National Academy, a member of the National Law Enforcement Explorer Commission, the International Association of Police Chiefs, the Environmental Crimes Commission, National Boy Scouts Council of America. Mickey has four children: Tim, Todd and Buck, his brother, Bill. He had two former wives and Evette. Whatley served on the following committees in the state house: Judiciary Made national headlines when both he and Representative Margaret Gamble switched from the Republican to Democratic parties in 2000.

Mickey Whatley died on August 2011 at his home. He died at age 75, he was preceded in death by Ottlie Louise Stewart, Lawrence Stewart. His burial and dedicated sculpture of him while a young Charleston County police officer is located at Carolina Memorial Park, North Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Video of speakers Senator Jake Knotts, Rev. Dr. Samuel Whatley and Mr. Buck Whatley