A telescope is an optical instrument that makes distant objects appear magnified by using an arrangement of lenses or curved mirrors and lenses, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses, they were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy. The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first refracting telescope. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s; the word telescope now refers to a wide range of instruments capable of detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in some cases other types of detectors. The word telescope was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.
In the Starry Messenger, Galileo had used the term perspicillum. The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope; the actual inventor is unknown but word of it spread through Europe. Galileo heard about it and, in 1609, built his own version, made his telescopic observations of celestial objects; the idea that the objective, or light-gathering element, could be a mirror instead of a lens was being investigated soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes. In 1668, Isaac Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope, of a design which now bears his name, the Newtonian reflector; the invention of the achromatic lens in 1733 corrected color aberrations present in the simple lens and enabled the construction of shorter, more functional refracting telescopes.
Reflecting telescopes, though not limited by the color problems seen in refractors, were hampered by the use of fast tarnishing speculum metal mirrors employed during the 18th and early 19th century—a problem alleviated by the introduction of silver coated glass mirrors in 1857, aluminized mirrors in 1932. The maximum physical size limit for refracting telescopes is about 1 meter, dictating that the vast majority of large optical researching telescopes built since the turn of the 20th century have been reflectors; the largest reflecting telescopes have objectives larger than 10 m, work is underway on several 30-40m designs. The 20th century saw the development of telescopes that worked in a wide range of wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays; the first purpose built radio telescope went into operation in 1937. Since a large variety of complex astronomical instruments have been developed; the name "telescope" covers a wide range of instruments. Most detect electromagnetic radiation, but there are major differences in how astronomers must go about collecting light in different frequency bands.
Telescopes may be classified by the wavelengths of light they detect: X-ray telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light Ultraviolet telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than visible light Optical telescopes, using visible light Infrared telescopes, using longer wavelengths than visible light Submillimetre telescopes, using microwave wavelengths that are longer than those of infrared light Radio telescopes that use longer wavelengthsAs wavelengths become longer, it becomes easier to use antenna technology to interact with electromagnetic radiation. The near-infrared can be collected much like visible light, however in the far-infrared and submillimetre range, telescopes can operate more like a radio telescope. For example, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observes from wavelengths from 3 μm to 2000 μm, but uses a parabolic aluminum antenna. On the other hand, the Spitzer Space Telescope, observing from about 3 μm to 180 μm uses a mirror. Using reflecting optics, the Hubble Space Telescope with Wide Field Camera 3 can observe in the frequency range from about 0.2 μm to 1.7 μm.
With photons of the shorter wavelengths, with the higher frequencies, glancing-incident optics, rather than reflecting optics are used. Telescopes such as TRACE and SOHO use special mirrors to reflect Extreme ultraviolet, producing higher resolution and brighter images than are otherwise possible. A larger aperture does not just mean that more light is collected, it enables a finer angular resolution. Telescopes may be classified by location: ground telescope, space telescope, or flying telescope, they may be classified by whether they are operated by professional astronomers or amateur astronomers. A vehicle or permanent campus containing one or more telescopes or other instruments is called an observatory. An optical telescope gathers and focuses light from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects as well as their apparent brightness. In order for the image to be observed, photographed and sent to a computer, telescopes work by employing one or more curved opt
Diederrick Joel Tagueu Tadjo known as Joel in Brazil, is a Cameroonian footballer who plays as a forward for Marítimo in Primeira Liga. Born in Nkongsamba, Joel moved to Brazil in September 2009. In March 2011 he moved to neighbouring Londrina, was promoted to the first-team in 2012, after impressing in the youth squads. Joel made his first-team debut on 28 March 2012, coming on as a late substitute in a 0–1 away loss against Coritiba, for the Campeonato Paranaense championship, he scored his first goal four days netting his side's only in a 1–1 home draw against Toledo Colônia Work. In the 2014 season, Joel played an important role in Londrina's Paranaense winning campaign, scored for the side in Série D. On 31 July 2014 he scored a brace in a 2–1 home success against Santos, for the campaign's Copa do Brasil. On 4 September 2014 Joel was loaned to Coritiba for the remainder of the season, being subsequently negotiated with a German unnamed team, he made his Série A debut three days again from the bench in a 0–0 away draw against Bahia.
Joel scored his first goal in the Brazilian top flight on 10 September, netting the last of a 3–0 home success against Chapecoense. Seven days he scored a brace in a 3–1 home win against São Paulo, but fell into a hole into the locker room tunnel after going out to celebrate the last goal. On 16 December 2014 Joel moved for a R$2.5 million fee. He made his debut for the club on 1 February of the following year, scoring the winner in an away success over Democrata-GV. Joel was bought outright by Raposa in May 2015. However, he struggled with injuries during the campaign, appeared in only 11 league matches, scoring one goal. On 11 January 2016 Joel was loaned for one year, he made his debut for the club on 30 January, coming on as a second-half substitute in a 1–1 Campeonato Paulista home draw against São Bernardo. On 19 January 2017, Joel signed a one-year loan contract with Botafogo. On 20 June 2017, Joel signed a loan contract until the end of the year with Avaí. On 8 January 2018, Joel signed a loan contract until the end of the season with Marítimo.
In June 2019 he suffered a heart problem. In October 2019, Joel started to be train with the team squad, he was ruled out of the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations due to a heart defect. As of 4 December 2019. Scores and results list Cameroon's goal tally first. LondrinaCampeonato Paranaense: 2014SantosCampeonato Paulista: 2016 Cruzeiro official profile SM Sports profile Joel at Soccerway
Vermont Route 144 is an east–west state highway in Rutland County, United States. It extends from VT 22A in Benson to VT 30 in Sudbury. VT 144 passes through the extreme northwestern corner of Hubbardton. All of VT 144 is town-maintained. Route 144 begins in the west at an intersection with Route 22A east of Benson; the route follows a east-northeast track as it heads out of Benson, crossing into Sudbury and ending at an intersection with Route 30 south of town. Route 144 runs through an isolated area, intersecting one major local road, Hortonia Road, along its length, but not intersecting any numbered routes between its endpoints; the road passes by Lake Hortonia just before ending at its eastern terminus. The entire route is in Rutland County