Television Centre is a building complex in White City, West London, the headquarters of BBC Television between 1960 and 2013. After a refurbishment, the complex reopened in 2017 with three studios in use for TV production, operated by BBC Studioworks; the first BBC staff moved into the Scenery Block in 1953, the centre was opened on 29 June 1960. It is one of the most recognisable facilities of its type, having appeared as the backdrop for many BBC programmes. Parts of the building are Grade II listed, including the central ring and Studio 1. Most of the BBC's national television and radio news output came from Television Centre, in years most recorded television was output from the nearby Broadcast Centre at 201 Wood Lane, care of Red Bee Media. Live television events from studios and routing of national and international sporting events took place within Television Centre before being passed to the Broadcast Centre for transmission; the building is 4 miles west in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham.
The nearest Underground stations are Wood Lane. The BBC announced in 2010 that it would cease broadcasting from Television Centre in 2013. In July 2012 it was announced that the complex had been sold to property developers Stanhope plc, who said that the new Television Centre development would "pay homage to the original use of the building", that the new Television Centre would be opened up to the public, offering entertainment and leisure facilities and 1,000 new homes. On Friday 1 April 1949 Norman Collins, the Controller of the BBC Television Service, announced at the Television Society's annual dinner at The Waldorf Hilton, London that a new TV centre would be built in Shepherd's Bush. London broadcasts at the time came from Lime Grove Studios, it was to be the largest television centre in the world. Riverside Studios in Hammersmith were used from 1954, it turned out to be twice the size. On 24 August 1956 the main contract was awarded to Higgs and Hill, which built The London Studios for ITV which opened in 1972.
Television Centre was planned to cost £9m. When it opened, the Director of BBC television was Gerald Beadle, the first programme broadcast was First Night with David Nixon in Studio Three. In 1997, the BBC News Centre was opened, in a new complex at the front of the building; the decision to move radio news to this building was attributed to Director General John Birt, a move, resisted by the managing director of BBC Radio, Liz Forgan, who resigned after failing to dissuade the governors. Birt's decision caused problems; the building featured a central circular block around which were studios, engineering areas and the News Centre. In the centre of the main block was a statue designed by T. B. Huxley-Jones of Helios, the Greek god of the sun, to symbolise the radiation of television around the world. At the foot of the statue were two reclining figures, symbolising sound and vision, the components of television, it was a fountain, but owing to the building's unique shape it was too noisy for the staff in the overlooking offices, there were problems with water leakage into the videotape area which for a long time was directly beneath.
Though there was a foundation stone marked'BBC 1956' in the basement of the main building, construction began in 1951. Various extensions have been added; the BBC had to seek accommodation elsewhere, such as the nearby BBC White City complex comprising White City One, a 25,000 square metre office building, the adjacent Broadcast and Media Centres. With the migration of staff and functions to complexes in Salford and London W1, White City One was mothballed in March 2013; the overall design from the air appeared to resemble a question mark in shape. The architect, Graham Dawbarn, CBE, drew a question mark on an envelope while thinking about the design of the building, realised that it would be an ideal shape for the site. An article in The BBC Quarterly, July 1946, proposed a circular design, several years before Dawbarn drew up his plans; the building was commissioned in 1949 with work starting in 1950. However government restrictions on building, through its loan sanction and licensing of materials, ensured that building work was halted until 1953.
Intended as stopgaps, the BBC remodelled the former Gaumont Studios at Lime Grove and the Riverside Studios in Hammersmith. In 1953, the Shepherd's Bush Empire began to be used for television broadcasts. Work resumed in 1953 on the TVC scenery block and work began in 1954 on the canteen block, which doubled as a rehearsal space. Work on Stage 3, the central circular office block and studios, began in March 1955 on TC4, 5 and 2; the shells of TC1, TC6 and TC7 were constructed around the same time but they were not fitted out until a few years later. BBC Television Centre opened with TC3 operational on 29 June 1960. Arthur Hayes worked on the building from 1956 to 1970 and was responsible for the creation of the original'BBC Television Centre' lettering on the façade of Studio 1; the lettering was used all over the building in tile work outside lift entrances. Demands from Broadcasting House meant that Hayes had less time than he had thought to design a decor for the façade, leading to him puncturing a scale foam model of the wall with drawing pins, an
William Bingham "Klondike" Douglass was an American Major League Baseball player who split his time between first base, at catcher for the St. Louis Browns and the Philadelphia Phillies from 1896 to 1904. A good hitter, he had a career batting average of.274, including a high of.329 in 1897. Born in Boston, Douglass was raised in Wellsville, Missouri, he played independent baseball in Missouri before ascending to professional baseball. Douglass played in the minor leagues only appearing as a player-manager for the 1895 Sherman Orphans of the Texas-Southern League. Douglass was a left fielder when he debuted for the St. Louis Browns in 1896, but he registered a fielding percentage of only.894, the team moved him to catcher the next season. Douglass was sent to Philadelphia in a multiplayer trade before the 1898 season, he became the team's first baseman. Promising infielder Nap Lajoie has been the team’s primary first baseman, Lajoie was shifted to second base. Lajoie became a Baseball Hall of Fame inductee.
Douglass had his best offensive season in 1898. He spent the rest of his career at first base. Klondike last appeared in the major leagues in 1904, he played in the minor leagues until 1912, he died at the age of 81 in Oregon. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference
A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a thermal reservoir. Heat pumps move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer, by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses external power to accomplish the work of transferring energy from the heat source to the heat sink; the most common design of a heat pump involves four main components – a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator and a compressor. The heat transfer medium circulated through these components is called refrigerant. While air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to many heating and air conditioning devices used for space heating or space cooling. Heat pumps can be used either in heating mode or cooling mode, as required by the user; when a heat pump is used for heating, it employs the same basic refrigeration-type cycle used by an air conditioner or a refrigerator, but in the opposite direction – releasing heat into the conditioned space rather than the surrounding environment.
In this use, heat pumps draw heat from the cooler external air or from the ground. Heat pumps are increasingly used to heat domestic hot water, the hot water used for kitchens, clothes washers, etc. In heating mode, heat pumps are more energy efficient than simple electrical resistance heaters but only at certain temperatures; as the temperatures goes down the efficiency of the heat pump in heating mode, becomes marginal The typical cost of installing a heat pump is higher than that of a resistance heater. When discussing heat pump efficiencies, the following terms are used: coefficient of performance, seasonal coefficient of performance and seasonal performance factor; the higher the number, the more efficient a heat pump is, the less energy it consumes, the more cost-effective it is to operate. There are several factors that will affect the efficiency of a heat pump, such as auxiliary equipment, technology and control system, but temperature and humidity conditions: the efficiency drops when the temperature difference increases or when freezing can occur.
Heat energy transfers from warmer places to colder spaces. However, a heat pump can reverse this process, by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one; this process requires some amount such as electricity. In heating and air conditioning systems, the term heat pump refers to vapor-compression refrigeration devices optimized for high efficiency in both directions of thermal energy transfer; that is, heat pumps able to provide cooling to the internal space as required. Heat pumps are more efficient for heating than resistance heaters because most of the energy they release comes from the ambient environment, only a fraction from the externally-supplied energy required to run the device. In electrically-powered heat pumps, the heat transferred can be three or four times larger than the electrical power consumed, giving the system a coefficient of performance of 3 or 4, as opposed to a COP of 1 for a conventional electrical resistance heater, in which all heat is produced from input electrical energy.
Heat pumps work like inside-out. They use a refrigerant as an intermediate fluid to absorb heat where it vaporizes, in the evaporator, to release heat where the refrigerant condenses, in the condenser; the refrigerant flows through insulated pipes between the evaporator and the condenser, allowing for efficient thermal energy transfer at long distances. The simpler heat pumps tap the atmosphere as heat source; the heat can be released directly into the air, or through the water plumbing of central heating or to provide domestic hot water. Heat pumps take advantage of low temperature underfloor heating, because COP can be higher when the temperature difference is lower. Reversible heat pumps work in either direction to provide cooling to the internal space, they employ a reversing valve to reverse the flow of refrigerant from the compressor through the condenser and evaporation coils. In heating mode, the outdoor coil is an evaporator; the refrigerant flowing from the evaporator carries the thermal energy from outside air indoors.
Vapor temperature is augmented within the pump by compressing it. The indoor coil transfers thermal energy to the indoor air, moved around the inside of the building by an air handler. Alternatively, thermal energy is transferred to water, used to heat the building via radiators or underfloor heating; the heated water may be used for domestic hot water consumption. The refrigerant is allowed to expand, hence cool, absorb heat from the outdoor temperature in the outside evaporator, the cycle repeats; this is a standard refrigeration cycle, save that the "cold" side of the refrigerator is positioned so it is outdoors where the environment is colder. In cold weather, the outdoor unit of an air source heat pump needs to be intermittently defrosted; this will cause the auxiliary or emergency heating elements to be activated. At the same time, the frost on the outdoor coil will be melted due to the warm refrigerant; the condenser/evaporator fan will not run during defrost mode