Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games. It is a table tennis sports game featuring simple two-dimensional graphics; the game was manufactured by Atari, which released it in 1972. Allan Alcorn created Pong as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell. Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey. Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney were surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work and decided to manufacture the game. Pong was the first commercially successful video game, which helped to establish the video game industry along with the first home console, the Magnavox Odyssey. Soon after its release, several companies began producing games that copied its gameplay, released new types of games; as a result, Atari encouraged its staff to produce more innovative games. The company released several sequels which built upon the original's gameplay by adding new features. During the 1975 Christmas season, Atari released a home version of Pong through Sears retail stores.
It was a commercial success and led to numerous copies. The game has been remade on numerous home and portable platforms following its release. Pong is part of the permanent collection of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. due to its cultural impact. Pong is a two-dimensional sports game; the player controls an in-game paddle by moving it vertically across the left or right side of the screen. They can compete against another player controlling a second paddle on the opposing side. Players use the paddles to hit a ball forth; the goal is for each player to reach eleven points before the opponent. Pong was the first game developed by Atari. After producing Computer Space, Bushnell decided to form a company to produce more games by licensing ideas to other companies; the first contract was with Bally Manufacturing Corporation for a driving game. Soon after the founding, Bushnell hired Allan Alcorn because of his experience with electrical engineering and computer science. Prior to working at Atari, Alcorn had no experience with video games.
To acclimate Alcorn to creating games, Bushnell gave him a project secretly meant to be a warm-up exercise. Bushnell told Alcorn that he had a contract with General Electric for a product, asked Alcorn to create a simple game with one moving spot, two paddles, digits for score keeping. In 2011, Bushnell stated that the game was inspired by previous versions of electronic tennis he had played before. However, Alcorn has claimed it was in direct response to Bushnell's viewing of the Magnavox Odyssey's Tennis game. In May 1972, Bushnell had visited the Magnavox Profit Caravan in Burlingame, California where he played the Magnavox Odyssey demonstration the table tennis game. Though he thought the game lacked quality, seeing it prompted Bushnell to assign the project to Alcorn. Alcorn first found them to be illegible, he went on to create his own designs based on his knowledge of transistor–transistor logic and Bushnell's game. Feeling the basic game was too boring, Alcorn added features to give the game more appeal.
He divided the paddle into eight segments to change the ball's angle of return. For example, the center segments return the ball a 90° angle in relation to the paddle, while the outer segments return the ball at smaller angles, he made the ball accelerate the longer it remained in play. Another feature was; this was caused by a simple circuit. Instead of dedicating time to fixing the defect, Alcorn decided it gave the game more difficulty and helped limit the time the game could be played. Three months into development, Bushnell told Alcorn he wanted the game to feature realistic sound effects and a roaring crowd. Dabney wanted the game to "boo" and "hiss". Alcorn had limited space available for the necessary electronics and was unaware of how to create such sounds with digital circuits. After inspecting the sync generator, he discovered that it could generate different tones and used those for the game's sound effects. To construct the prototype, Alcorn purchased a $75 Hitachi black-and-white television set from a local store, placed it into a 4-foot wooden cabinet, soldered the wires into boards to create the necessary circuitry.
The prototype impressed Bushnell and Dabney so much that they felt it could be a profitable product and decided to test its marketability. In August 1972, Bushnell and Alcorn installed the Pong prototype at Andy Capp's Tavern, they selected the bar because of their good working relation with the bar's owner and manager, Bill Gaddis. Bushnell and Alcorn placed the prototype on one of the tables near the other entertainment machines: a jukebox, pinball machines, Computer Space; the game was well received the first night and its popularity continued to grow over the next one and a half weeks. Bushnell went on a business trip to Chicago to demonstrate Pong to executives at Bally and Midway Manufacturing. A few days the prototype began exhibiting technical issues and Gaddis contacted Alcorn to fix it. Upon inspecting the machine, Alcorn discovered that the proble
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form. When the input information, supplied has an electrical signal the display is called an electronic display. Common applications for electronic visual displays are televisions or computer monitors. In the history of display technology, a variety of display devices and technologies have been used. There are various designs for display devices. Several components are common to most display devices. Display, or screen, the portion of the device that displays changeable image Bezel, the area surrounding portion that displays changing information Housing, the enclosure of the display These are the technologies used to create the various displays in use today. Electroluminescent display Liquid crystal display with Light-emitting diode -backlit LCD display Light-emitting diode display OLED display AMOLED display Plasma display Quantum dot display Some displays can show only digits or alphanumeric characters.
They are called segment displays, because they are composed of several segments that switch on and off to give appearance of desired glyph. The segments are single LEDs or liquid crystals, they are used in digital watches and pocket calculators. There are several types: Seven-segment display Fourteen-segment display Sixteen-segment display HD44780 LCD controller a accepted protocol for LCDs. Incandescent filaments Vacuum fluorescent display Cold cathode gas discharge Light-emitting diode Liquid crystal display Physical vane with electromagnetic activation 2-dimensional displays that cover a full area are called video displays, since it is the main modality of presenting video. Full-area 2-dimensional displays are used in, for example: Television set Computer monitors Head-mounted display Broadcast reference monitor Medical monitors Underlying technologies for full-area 2-dimensional displays include: Cathode ray tube display Light-emitting diode display Electroluminescent display Electronic paper, E Ink Plasma display panel Liquid crystal display High-Performance Addressing display Thin-film transistor display Organic light-emitting diode display Digital Light Processing display Surface-conduction electron-emitter display Field emission display Laser TV Carbon nanotubes Quantum dot display Interferometric modulator display Digital microshutter display The multiplexed display technique is used to drive most display devices.
Swept-volume display Varifocal mirror display Emissive volume display Laser display Holographic display Light field displays Ticker tape Split-flap display Flip-disc display Rollsign Tactile electronic displays are intended for the blind. They use electro-mechanical parts to dynamically update a tactile image so that the image may be felt by the fingers. Optacon, using metal rods instead of light in order to convey images to blind people by tactile sensation. Society for Information Display - An international professional organization dedicated to the study of display technology University of Waterloo Stratford Campus - A university that offers students the opportunity to display their work on the school's 3-storey Christie MicroTile wall
Blackjack (Atari 2600)
Blackjack is a video game programmed by Bob Whitehead and published by Atari, Inc. for its Video Computer System. The game was one of the nine launch titles available when the Atari 2600 went on sale in September 1977; the game is a video simulation of blackjack. The objective is identical to the card game: to beat the dealer's card total, without going over 21, to win a bet. One to three players play the computer dealer; the game employs a variant of blackjack rules, so unfavorable to the player, that it would certainly never be seen in a real casino because no one would play with them. Splitting pairs is not allowed, more draws are won by the dealer; this represents over a 10% house advantage. The player uses the paddle controller to enter a bet of up to 25 chips from an initial pot of 200. An up card is presented, the player decides whether to "hit" or stand; the player breaks the bank by obtaining a score of 1,000 chips, or is "busted" upon losing everything. Due to a glitch in the program, while a player is selecting among the options of what to do with the current hand by pressing left or right with the paddle controller, the amount of the player's next bet is modified though it is defined by a variable that will not be visible until the end of the hand, requiring the player to re-enter it at the start of every hand without pressing the button carelessly or risk wagering an unintended amount.
Blackjack was reviewed favorably in Video magazine as part of a general review of the Atari VCS. It was described as "a good game for adults with several variations for single or double players", was scored a 10 out of 10. Blackjack at Atari Mania
A framebuffer is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display. It is a memory buffer containing a complete frame of data. Modern video cards contain framebuffer circuitry in their cores; this circuitry converts an in-memory bitmap into a video signal that can be displayed on a computer monitor. In computing, a screen buffer is a part of computer memory used by a computer application for the representation of the content to be shown on the computer display; the screen buffer may be called the video buffer, the regeneration buffer, or regen buffer for short. Screen buffers should be distinguished from video memory. To this end, the term off-screen buffer is used; the information in the buffer consists of color values for every pixel to be shown on the display. Color values are stored in 1-bit binary, 4-bit palettized, 8-bit palettized, 16-bit high color and 24-bit true color formats. An additional alpha channel is sometimes used to retain information about pixel transparency; the total amount of memory required for the framebuffer depends on the resolution of the output signal, on the color depth or palette size.
Computer researchers had long discussed the theoretical advantages of a framebuffer, but were unable to produce a machine with sufficient memory at an economically practicable cost. In 1969, A. Michael Noll of Bell Labs implemented a scanned display with a frame buffer. On, the Bell Labs system was expanded to display an image with a color depth of three bits on a standard color TV monitor. An earlier scanned display was implemented at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Advances in integrated-circuit memory in the 1970s made it more practical to create framebuffers capable of holding a standard video image. In 1972, Richard Shoup developed the SuperPaint system at Xerox PARC. Shoup was able to use the SuperPaint framebuffer to create an early digital video-capture system. By synchronizing the output signal to the input signal, Shoup was able to overwrite each pixel of data as it shifted in. Shoup experimented with modifying the output signal using color tables; these color tables allowed the SuperPaint system to produce a wide variety of colors outside the range of the limited 8-bit data it contained.
This scheme would become commonplace in computer framebuffers. In 1974 Evans & Sutherland released the first commercial framebuffer, the Picture System, costing about $15,000, it was capable of producing resolutions of up to 512 by 512 pixels in 8-bit grayscale, became a boon for graphics researchers who did not have the resources to build their own framebuffer. The New York Institute of Technology would create the first 24-bit color system using three of the Evans & Sutherland framebuffers; each framebuffer was connected to an RGB color output, with a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/04 minicomputer controlling the three devices as one. In 1975, the UK company Quantel produced the first commercial full-color broadcast framebuffer, the Quantel DFS 3000, it was first used in TV coverage of the 1976 Montreal Olympics to generate a picture-in-picture inset of the Olympic flaming torch while the rest of the picture featured the runner entering the stadium. The rapid improvement of integrated-circuit technology made it possible for many of the home computers of the late 1970s to contain low-color-depth framebuffers.
Today, nearly all computers with graphical capabilities utilize a framebuffer for generating the video signal. Amiga computers, created in the 1980s, featured special design attention to graphics performance and included a unique Hold-And-Modify framebuffer capable of displaying 4096 colors. Framebuffers became popular in high-end workstations and arcade system boards throughout the 1980s. SGI, Sun Microsystems, HP, DEC and IBM all released framebuffers for their workstation computers in this period; these framebuffers were of a much higher quality than could be found in most home computers, were used in television, computer modeling and 3D graphics. Framebuffers were used by Sega for its high-end arcade boards, which were of a higher quality than on home computers. Framebuffers used in personal and home computing had sets of defined modes under which the framebuffer can operate; these modes reconfigure the hardware to output different resolutions, color depths, memory layouts and refresh rate timings.
In the world of Unix machines and operating systems, such conveniences were eschewed in favor of directly manipulating the hardware settings. This manipulation was far more flexible in that any resolution, color depth and refresh rate was attainable – limited only by the memory available to the framebuffer. An unfortunate side-effect of this method was that the display device could be driven beyond its capabilities. In some cases this resulted in hardware damage to the display. More it produced garbled and unusable output. Modern CRT monitors fix this problem through the introduction of protection circuitry; when the display mode is changed, the monitor attempts to obtain a signal lock on the new refresh frequency. If the monitor is unable to obtain a signal lock, or if the signal is outside the range of its design limitations, the monitor will ignore the framebuffer signal and present the user with an error message. LCD monitors tend to for different reasons. Since the LCD must digitally sample the display signal, any signal, out of range cannot be physically displayed on the monitor.
Framebuffers have traditionally supported a wide variety of color modes. Due to the expense of memory, most early framebuffers used 1-
Air-Sea Battle is a game developed by Atari, Inc. for the Atari 2600, was one of the nine original launch titles for that system when it was released in September 1977. It was released by Sears as Target Fun and was the pack-in game with the original Sears Tele-Games version of the Atari 2600. There are six basic types of games available in Air-Sea Battle, for each type, there are one or two groups of three games, for a total of twenty-seven game variants. Within each group, variant one is the standard game, variant two features guided missiles which can be directed left or right after being fired, variant three pits a single player against a computer opponent, which fires continuously at the default angle or speed. In every game, players shoot targets competing to get a higher score; each round lasts sixteen seconds. Variants 1–6 are anti-aircraft games, in which the player uses a stationary anti-aircraft gun that can be positioned at a 30, 60, or 90-degree angle to shoot down four different types of aircraft.
The planes appear in groups of three to five, once every plane in a formation has been destroyed, a new formation appears. There are two groups of anti-aircraft games: in variants 1–3, each target hit is worth 1 point, while in 4–6, the various types of aircraft have different point values. Additionally, zero-point blimps are added as obstacles in games 4–6; the torpedo games are similar to the anti-aircraft games, except that each player mans a submarine that can move left and right and fires at a 90 degree angle. The targets are ships instead of planes; as with the anti-aircraft games, in games 7–9, all targets are worth one point, while games 10–12 have variable point values for targets and additional zero-point obstacles. The shooting gallery games differ from the previous variants in that the player can both set the angle of the gun and move the gun left and right. Instead of planes or ships, clowns and rabbits are the targets, with point values of 1, 2, 3 respectively; the polaris games put the player in control of a boat which moves back and forth across the bottom of the screen automatically.
Instead of controlling the gun angle, the player controls the speed at which the ship moves, attempting to shoot the same fleets of planes as in the anti-aircraft variants, with the point values of games 4–6. In the bomber games, the player-controlled vehicle is a plane flying near the top of the screen dropping bombs on the ships from the torpedo games; as in the polaris games, the plane's speed is controlled by the player, the point values are identical to those in games 10–12. In the polaris vs. bomber games, one player controls the ship from the polaris games while the other controls the plane from the bomber games, with the goal being to destroy the other player's craft. Games 25–27 feature zero-point mines as obstacles; the cartridge was reviewed by Video magazine in its "Arcade Alley" column where it was praised as "the ultimate game for people who enjoy blowing things up". Torpedo variant #11 was noted in particular as the best game on the cartridge, with "addiction to this one common".
The most significant criticism was in regard to the computer's inability to handle guided missile controls in solo-play, the authors recommended playing the 2-player Torpedo variant #11 as a solo game if the player wished to experience a solitaire guided missile game. Air-Sea Battle appears on the Atari Anthology collection for Xbox and PlayStation 2 and the Atari Flashback dedicated console. Anti-Aircraft Air-Sea Battle at AtariAge Target Fun at AtariAge
The cathode-ray tube is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, is used to display images. It modulates and deflects electron beam onto the screen to create the images; the images may represent electrical waveforms, radar targets, or other phenomena. CRTs have been used as memory devices, in which case the visible light emitted from the fluorescent material is not intended to have significant meaning to a visual observer. In television sets and computer monitors, the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster. An image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the three electron beams, one for each additive primary color with a video signal as a reference. In all modern CRT monitors and televisions, the beams are bent by magnetic deflection, a varying magnetic field generated by coils and driven by electronic circuits around the neck of the tube, although electrostatic deflection is used in oscilloscopes, a type of electronic test instrument.
A CRT is constructed from a glass envelope, large, deep heavy, fragile. The interior of a CRT is evacuated to 0.01 pascals to 133 nanopascals, evacuation being necessary to facilitate the free flight of electrons from the gun to the tube's face. The fact that it is evacuated makes handling an intact CRT dangerous due to the risk of breaking the tube and causing a violent implosion that can hurl shards of glass at great velocity; as a matter of safety, the face is made of thick lead glass so as to be shatter-resistant and to block most X-ray emissions if the CRT is used in a consumer product. Since the late 2000s, CRTs have been superseded by newer "flat panel" display technologies such as LCD, plasma display, OLED displays, which in the case of LCD and OLED displays have lower manufacturing costs and power consumption, as well as less weight and bulk. Flat panel displays can be made in large sizes. Cathode rays were discovered by Johann Wilhelm Hittorf in 1869 in primitive Crookes tubes, he observed that some unknown rays were emitted from the cathode which could cast shadows on the glowing wall of the tube, indicating the rays were traveling in straight lines.
In 1890, Arthur Schuster demonstrated cathode rays could be deflected by electric fields, William Crookes showed they could be deflected by magnetic fields. In 1897, J. J. Thomson succeeded in measuring the mass of cathode rays, showing that they consisted of negatively charged particles smaller than atoms, the first "subatomic particles", which were named electrons; the earliest version of the CRT was known as the "Braun tube", invented by the German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1897. It was a modification of the Crookes tube with a phosphor-coated screen; the first cathode-ray tube to use a hot cathode was developed by John B. Johnson and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric, became a commercial product in 1922. In 1925, Kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated a CRT television that received images with a 40-line resolution. By 1927, he improved the resolution to 100 lines, unrivaled until 1931. By 1928, he was the first to transmit human faces in half-tones on a CRT display. By 1935, he had invented an early all-electronic CRT television.
It was named in 1929 by inventor Vladimir K. Zworykin, influenced by Takayanagi's earlier work. RCA was granted a trademark for the term in 1932; the first commercially made electronic television sets with cathode-ray tubes were manufactured by Telefunken in Germany in 1934. Flat panel displays dropped in price and started displacing cathode-ray tubes in the 2000s, with LCD screens exceeding CRTs in 2008; the last known manufacturer of CRTs ceased in 2015. In oscilloscope CRTs, electrostatic deflection is used, rather than the magnetic deflection used with television and other large CRTs; the beam is deflected horizontally by applying an electric field between a pair of plates to its left and right, vertically by applying an electric field to plates above and below. Televisions use magnetic rather than electrostatic deflection because the deflection plates obstruct the beam when the deflection angle is as large as is required for tubes that are short for their size. Various phosphors are available depending upon the needs of the display application.
The brightness and persistence of the illumination depends upon the type of phosphor used on the CRT screen. Phosphors are available with persistences ranging from less than one microsecond to several seconds. For visual observation of brief transient events, a long persistence phosphor may be desirable. For events which are fast and repetitive, or high frequency, a short-persistence phosphor is preferable; when displaying fast one-shot events, the electron beam must deflect quickly, with few electrons impinging on the screen, leading to a faint or invisible image on the display. Oscilloscope CRTs designed for fast signals can give a brighter display by passing the electron beam through a micro-channel plate just before it reaches
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill known as UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, or Carolina is a public research university in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. It is the flagship of the 17 campuses of the University of North Carolina system. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Among the claimants, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the only one to have held classes and graduated students as a public university in the eighteenth century; the first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and Sciences. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and Sciences from the time they obtain junior status.
Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, has since specialized in cancer care; the school's students and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels". UNC's faculty and alumni include 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 49 Rhodes Scholars. Additional notable alumni include a U. S. President, a U. S. Vice President, 38 Governors of U. S. States, 98 members of the United States Congress, 9 Cabinet members, 39 Henry Luce Scholars, 9 World Cup winners and 3 astronauts as well as founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies; the campus covers 729 acres of Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 recognized student organizations.
The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. In 2018, UNC was ranked amongst the top 30 universities in the United States according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, U. S. News & World Report. Internationally, UNC is ranked 33rd and 34th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities and U. S. News and World Report, respectively. UNC is regarded as a Public Ivy, an institution which provides an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, women's field hockey. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the university's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen because of its central location within the state.
The first public university chartered under the US Constitution, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities that claims to be the oldest public university in the United States and the only such institution to confer degrees in the eighteenth century as a public institution. During the Civil War, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some students from the draft, so the university was one of the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South, when student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction from December 1, 1870 until September 6, 1875. Despite initial skepticism from university President Frank Porter Graham, on March 27, 1931, legislation was passed to group the University of North Carolina with the State College of Agriculture and Engineering and Woman's College of the University of North Carolina to form the Consolidated University of North Carolina.
In 1963, the consolidated university was made coeducational, although most women still attended Woman's College for their first two years, transferring to Chapel Hill as juniors, since freshmen were required to live on campus and there was only one women's residence hall. As a result, Woman's College was renamed the "University of North Carolina at Greensboro", the University of North Carolina became the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." In 1955, UNC Chapel Hill desegregated its undergraduate divisions. During World War II, UNC Chapel Hill was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. During the 1960s, the campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began in Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance; the climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by communists on state campuses in North Carolina.
The law was criticized by university Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and university President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sh