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Television antenna

A television antenna, or TV aerial, is an antenna designed for use with a television receiver to receive over-the-air broadcast television signals from a television station. Terrestrial television is broadcast on frequencies from about 47 to 250 MHz in the VHF band, 470 to 960 MHz in the UHF band in different countries. Television antennas are manufactured in two different types: "indoor" antennas, to be located on top of or next to the television set, "outdoor" antennas, mounted on a mast on top of the owner's house, they can be mounted in a loft or attic, where the dry conditions and increased elevation are advantageous for reception and antenna longevity. Outdoor antennas are more expensive and difficult to install, but are necessary for adequate reception in fringe areas far from television stations; the most common types of indoor antennas are the dipole and loop antennas, for outdoor antennas the yagi, log periodic, for UHF channels the multi-bay reflective array antenna. The purpose of the antenna is to intercept radio waves from the desired television stations and convert them to tiny radio frequency alternating currents which are applied to the television's tuner, which extracts the television signal.

The antenna is connected to the television with a specialized cable designed to carry radio current, called transmission line. Earlier antennas used; the standard today is 75 ohm coaxial cable, less susceptible to interference, which plugs into an F connector on the back of the TV. In most countries, television broadcasting is allowed in the high frequency band from 47 to 68 MHz, called VHF low band or band I in Europe; the boundaries of each band vary somewhat in different countries. Radio waves in these bands travel by line-of-sight; some TV stations broadcast in horizontal polarization, which requires the receiving antenna elements be horizontal, but most now broadcast in circular polarization, which can be received by antennas in any orientation. In the previous standard analog television, used before 2006, the VHF and UHF bands required separate tuners in the television receiver, which had separate antenna inputs; the wavelength of a radio wave equals the speed of light divided by the frequency.

The above frequency bands cover a 15:1 wavelength ratio, or 4 octaves. It is difficult to design a single antenna to receive such a wide wavelength range, there is an octave gap from 216 to 470 MHz between the VHF and UHF frequencies. So traditionally separate antennas have been used to receive the UHF channels. Starting in 2006 many countries in the world switched from broadcasting using an older analog television standard to newer digital television; however the same broadcast frequencies are used, so the same antennas used for the older analog television will receive the new DTV broadcasts. Sellers claim to supply a special "digital" or "high-definition television" antenna advised as a replacement for an existing analog television antenna. Indoor antennas may be mounted on the television itself or stand on a table next to it, connected to the television by a short feedline. Due to space constraints indoor antennas cannot be as large and elaborate as outdoor antennas, they are not mounted at as high an elevation.

They are perfectly adequate in urban and suburban areas which are within the strong radiation "footprint" of local television stations, but in rural fringe reception areas only an outdoor antenna may give adequate reception. A few of the simplest indoor antennas are described below, but a great variety of designs and types exist. Many have a dial on the antenna with a number of different settings to alter the antenna's reception pattern; this should be rotated with the set on while looking at the screen, until the best picture is obtained. The oldest and most used indoor antenna is the rabbit ears or bunny ears, which are provided with new television sets, it is a simple half-wave dipole antenna used to receive the VHF television bands, consisting in the US of 54 to 88 MHz and 174 to 216 MHz, with wavelengths of 5.5 to 1.4 m. It is constructed of two telescoping rods attached to a base, which extend out to about 1 meter length, can be collapsed when not in use. For best reception the rods should be adjusted to be a little less than 1/4 wavelength at the frequency of the television channel being received.

However the dipole has a wide bandwidth, so adequate reception is achieved without adjusting the length. The half wave dipole has a low gain of about 2.14 dBi. Dipole antennas are bi-directional, that is, they have two main lobes in opposite directions, 180° apart. Instead of being fixed i

Arthur Wait

Arthur John Wait was an English builder and life president and former chairman of Crystal Palace F. C.. Wait was a local builder who joined the board of Crystal Palace F. C. as a director sometime between 1948 and 1950. In 1958 he became the Chairman, before being replaced by Raymond Bloye in 1972, he became Life President of the club, a position he held until 1981; the Arthur Wait Stand at Selhurst Park is named in his honour. Wait was a lifelong Palace supporter. During his time as chairman he oversaw a successful period for the club, gaining promotion to the First Division in 1969 and he helped the club achieve distinction when he invited Real Madrid over to play their first game in London to celebrate the installation of the new floodlights at Selhurst Park. Wait and the board wanted to invite a famous club from the north of England, but after discovering the fee demanded, Wait declared: "If that's what they are going to do to us, we might as well try to get Real Madrid." Wait secured the services of the Spanish giants for a fee of expenses.

On the evening of 18 April 1962, the Spanish Ambassador switched on the floodlights and Madrid secured a first half lead of 3-1 and held on to win 4-3

Fred L. Peterson

Fred Lawrence Peterson was an American politician and businessman in the state of Oregon. A native of Minnesota, he grew up in Portland, where he served as mayor from 1953 through 1956. Fred Lawrence Peterson was born on May 21, 1896, in Owatonna, Minnesota, to Frank R. Peterson and Nina A. Peterson. Peterson lived in Portland from 1902, graduated from Washington High School in 1915, his father Frank operated the Lents pharmacy for a number of years. Fred served as a sergeant in the 162nd Infantry Regiment during World War I and was promoted to second lieutenant. In 1940, Peterson was a prominent Portland east-side businessman when he began his run for political office. At that time, he was proprietor of the Glisan Street Pharmacy, it was Peterson's contention, as stated at the Willamette Democratic Society luncheon on April 18, 1940, that "…city hall is a place for business men and a business administration". His unsuccessful first campaign for city commissioner in 1940 called on Portland citizens to clean up the city for children, building more parks and playgrounds.

His second campaign for city commissioner in 1940, was successful, he took office on January 1, 1941. As commissioner he presided over the Bureau of Health, he continued to serve as a city commissioner. Peterson served three terms as city commissioner. During his service as commissioner, he battled with Mayor Dorothy McCullough Lee, Portland's first female mayor, he had encouraged her to run for office. Lee was a reform-minded Republican who devoted attention to removing slot machines from American Legion and Shriner's facilities and the prestigious Multnomah Athletic Club, all of which Peterson as commissioner and member of the business community opposed, her attempt to have gambling punchboards removed from shops was opposed by Peterson. She responded by removing Peterson as commissioner of finance and made him commissioner of public utilities, pointedly adding garbage collection and street sweeping to his new duties; the two fought for the mayoralty in a close election that Peterson won in November 1952.

Peterson served as mayor from January 1, 1953, to December 31, 1956. In 1955, when the new chief engineer of the Water Bureau L. Kenneth Anderson told him a new dam was needed in the Bull Run watershed Peterson told him to get it done now. Anderson replied that a great deal of planning and design would be required, to which Peterson said, "Put the dam in this summer and you can plan and design it next winter during the slow period". Among the events of his administration was a visit by the Oregon Zoo's newly acquired elephant Rosy to City Hall on September 26, 1953. On June 11, 1955, Peterson rode in a car in the Portland Rose Festival Parade with ex-president Harry S. Truman. Peterson was a member of the Fraternal Order of Eagles, American Legion, the Forty and Eight veterans organization, the Portland chapter of Rotary International, the Portland Breakfast Club. Peterson was married to Madeline E. until her death, to Margaruite "Peg". Peterson died of cancer at age 89 on October 16, 1985, he is buried at Willamette National Cemetery in Oregon.

Specific GeneralHarmon, Rick. "The Bull Run Watershed: Portland's Jewell" Oregon Historical Quarterly Summer Fall 1995, p. 260. Heinz, Spencer. "An Oregon Century Growing Up in the 1950s" Oregonian, December 27, 1999 p. A1. Hogan, Dave. "Portland Restricted Watering in 1951" Oregonian, July 4, 1992 p. D1. MacColl, E. Kimbark; the Growth of a City: Power and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1915 to 1950. The Georgian Press, 1979. Obituary, Oregonian October 22, 1985 p. D16 Pharmacist Out for Council Post. Oregonian April 2, 1940 page 6. Pitzer, Paul C. "Dorothy McCullough Lee: The Successes and Failure of `Dottie-Do-Good'" Oregon Historical Quarterly, Spring 1990 vol. 91 pages 12, 16, 20, 23, 28-29, 31

Channan Pir

Channan Pir is a village in the Punjab province of Pakistan, it is named after a Sufi saint and contains his tomb. It is located between the Derawar and Din Gargh forts and lies a few kilometres from Yazman town, in the start of the Cholistan desert; the village is linked to Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, said to have come to the village while travelling en route to Jaisalmir during the 13th century. It is a centre of the cultural heritage of Yazman and Cholistan. Cultural activities are observed. Urs is held on seven consecutive Thursdays starting in the month of March every year; the visitors throw tabbaruk and the persons who pick and taste this tabarruk are supposed to be fortunate in achieving their worldly pursuits. Haji Zakir Hussain Channan Pakistani Citizen


Cunter is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. On 1 January 2016 the former municipalities of Bivio, Marmorera, Riom-Parsonz, Savognin and Tinizong-Rona merged to form the new municipality of Surses. Cunter is first mentioned in 1370 as Contra. Cunter had an area, as of 2006, of 7.1 square kilometers. Of this area, 32.3 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 2.5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The former municipality is located in the Surses sub-district of the Albula district, it lies on the road between Tiefencastel and Savognin. It consists of the village of Cunter and the hamlets of Burvagn and Muntschect; until 1943 Cunter was known as Conters im Oberhalbstein. Cunter had a population of 256; as of 2008, 19.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last ten years the population has grown at a rate of 11.5%. Most of the population speaks Romansh, with German being second most Italian being third.

As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 49.8 % female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Cunter is eighteen people or 9.1% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old. Seven people or 3.5% are 10 to 14, sixteen people or 8.1% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, twenty-nine people or 14.6% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. Twenty-eight people or 14.1% are 30 to 39, thirty-six people or 18.2% are 40 to 49, thirty-one people or 15.7% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is thirteen people or 6.6% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, fifteen people or 7.6% are 70 to 79, there are four people or 2.0% who are 80 to 89. There is one person or 0.5%, 90 to 99. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the SVP, the FDP and the SPS. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Cunter about 61.5% of the population aged 25 to 64 have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education.

Cunter has an unemployment rate of 2.44%. As of 2005, there were ten people employed in the primary economic sector and about five businesses involved in this sector. Nine people are employed in the secondary sector and there are three businesses in this sector. Eleven people are employed with six businesses in this sector; the historical population is given in the following table: Cunter in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Willem Kloos

Willem Johannes Theodorus Kloos was a nineteenth-century Dutch poet and literary critic. He was one of the prominent figures of the Movement of Eighty and became editor in chief of De Nieuwe Gids after the editorial fracture in 1893, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature five times. Kloos was one of the leaders, along with the poet Herman Gorter, the critic Lodewijk van Deyssel, the prolific writer and psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden, of the influential group of Dutch writers known as the Movement of Eighty, otherwise known as the Tachtigers, who interacted and worked with each other in Amsterdam in the 1880s; as part of this movement, Kloos criticized mainstream literary style as bookish and overly wrought, instead sought to write poetry in which the form matched the content, so that intimate experiences should be conveyed with a natural intimacy of expression. Kloos rejected art that sought to express shared experiences or emotions. Instead, he demanded that art must be "the most individualistic expression of the most individualistic emotion".

Along with the other Tachtigers, Kloos took inspiration in this effort both from Shakespeare and from the recent Impressionist painters and Naturalist writers. The Tachtigers' primary literary vehicle was a journal co-founded by Kloos called De Nieuwe Gids, first published in October 1885; the title was intended as a sarcastic anti-tribute to the prevailing literary journal in Amsterdam, De Gids, which had rejected submissions by Kloos and other Tachtigers. Many pieces by Kloos and others that are still highly regarded first appeared in the early editions of De Nieuwe Gids, including most of Kloos's sonnets, his most important idiom. However, the Tachtigers had one falling out after another, until Kloos was left in 1893 as the only remaining editor from among the original five editors of De Nieuwe Gids. Although he published most of his material over several years starting in 1885 in De Nieuwe Gids, Kloos had written most prolifically between 1880 and 1885, had held onto most of his poems for years before publishing them.

He claimed to have lost inspiration to write in life, indeed all the writings for which he is remembered today were written during that period from 1880 to 1885 if published later. Starting in 1888 Kloos sought psychiatric treatment from his Tachtiger friend and fellow editor at The New Guide, psychiatrist, Frederik van Eeden. However, Kloos's mental condition deteriorated, at least due to his persistent effort to conceal his homosexuality, to his increasing alcoholism, he reached his nadir in 1895 when he was picked up in a delirious state and placed temporarily in a sanitarium. He continued trying to write thereafter, although his efforts consisted of little more than ramblings of self-pity and bitter diatribes against one-time friends turned traitors; however while Kloos's ongoing efforts were ignored, his early works continued to gain an ever-wider appreciation earning him several literary honors and prizes. Kloos died in The Hague in 1938 at 79, after watching his early writings become part of the canon of Dutch literature.

Works by Willem Kloos at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Willem Kloos at Internet Archive Works by Willem Kloos at LibriVox