Culture of Argentina
The culture of Argentina is as varied as the country's geography and is composed of a mix of ethnic groups. Modern Argentine culture has been influenced by Italian and other European immigration, although there are lesser elements of Amerindian and African influences in the fields of music and art. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture. Museums and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centers, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres. Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows: The spoken languages of Argentina number at least 40, although Spanish is dominant. Others include other immigrant languages; the most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense known as "Argentine Spanish", whose speakers are located in the basin of the Río de la Plata. Argentines are amongst the few Spanish-speaking countries that universally use what is known as voseo — the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú.
In many of the central and north-eastern areas of the country, the “rolling r” takes on the same sound as the ll and y. South Bolivian Quechua is a Quechuan language spoken by some 800,000 people immigrants who have arrived in the last years. There are 70,000 estimated speakers in Salta Province; the language is known as Central Bolivian Quechua, which has six dialects. It is classified as a Quechua II language, is referred to as Quechua IIC by linguists. Guaraní is spoken in the Mesopotamia, is an official language in the province of Corrientes. Argentina has a detailed literary history, as well as one of the region's most active publishing industries. Argentine writers have figured prominently in Latin American literature, since becoming a united entity in the 1850s, with a strong constitution and a defined nation-building plan; the struggle between the Federalists and the Unitarians, set the tone for Argentine literature of the time. The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández, Facundo by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is a great example.
Hernández, a federalist, was opposed to the centralizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Sarmiento wrote in support of immigration as the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families, arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences, therefore a more prosperous society. Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist, it was followed by the modernist movement, which emerged in France in the late 19th century, this period in turn was followed by vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. Jorge Luis Borges, its most acclaimed writer, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate, his influence has extended to writers all over the globe. Borges is most famous for his works such as Ficciones and The Aleph; some of the nation's notable writers and intellectuals include: Juan Bautista Alberdi, Jorge Luis Borges, Roberto Arlt, Enrique Banchs, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Silvina Bullrich, Eugenio Cambaceres, Julio Cortázar, Esteban Echeverría, Leopoldo Lugones, Eduardo Mallea, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Victoria Ocampo, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Osvaldo Soriano, Alfonsina Storni, María Elena Walsh and Oliverio Girondo.
Argentine painters and sculptors have a rich history, dating from both before and since the development of modern Argentina in the second half of the 19th century. Artistic production did not come into its own, until after the 1852 overthrow of the repressive regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas. Immigrants like Eduardo Schiaffino, Eduardo Sívori, Reynaldo Giudici, Emilio Caraffa, Ernesto de la Cárcova left behind a realist heritage influential to this day. Impressionism did not make itself evident among Argentine artists until after 1900, never acquired the kind of following it did in Europe, though it did inspire influential Argentine post-impressionists such as Martín Malharro, Ramón Silva, Cleto Ciocchini, Fernando Fader, Pío Collivadino, Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós, aestheticism continued to set the agenda in Argentine painting and sculpture, noteworthy during this era for the sudden fame of sculptor Lola Mora, a student of Auguste Rodin's; as Lola Mora had been until she fell out of favor with local high society, monumental sculptors became in high demand after 1900 by municipal governments and wealthy families, who competed with each other in boasting the most evocative mausolea for their dearly departed.
Though most preferred French and Italian sculptors, work by locals Erminio Blotta, Ángel María de Rosa, Rogelio Yrurtia resulted in a proliferation of soulful monuments and memorials made them immortal. Not as realist as the work of some of his belle-époque predecessors in sculpture, Yrurtia's subtle impressionism inspired Argentine students like Antonio Pujía, whose internationally prized female torsos always surprise admirers with their whimsical and surreal touches, while
Junín, Buenos Aires
Junín is a city in the province of Buenos Aires and administrative seat of the county of Junín. It is located 260 km west of the city of Buenos Aires, it is most famous as the hometown of former first lady of Eva Peron. Inhabited by the native Charrúa people, the site's strategic location on the Salado River made it of interest to Spanish Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo, who established an outpost there in the 1790s as part of a line of defense against raids by displaced natives; the location became known as El Potroso. El Potroso was reinforced by a fort by way of an 1826 decree by President Bernardino Rivadavia, on December 27, 1827, the citadel was established under the command of a veteran of the Argentine War of Independence, Bernardino Escribano, as Fuerte de la Federación; the advent of Buenos Aires Province Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas led to Escribano's 1829 destitution as commander. Suárez, a veteran of one of the last battles of the War for Independence, inadvertently gave the failing settlement its new name by his actions: "Junín."
Political conflict and ongoing Indian raids had all but destroyed Junín by the 1830s, this prompted Governor Rosas to send the remaining settlers provisions and to subsidize crop farming in the surrounding, fertile pampas fields. This was followed by a pact with Ranquel Chief Santiago Yanquelén, whereby his people would defend Junín against raids by other tribes. Towards the end of his rule, Rosas appointed José Seguí, among the few Afro Argentines to achieve a commissioned officer's rank, to administer Junín, in 1851. Seguí was an efficient, though repressive commander, in 1863, he was assassinated at his nearby ranch. Rosas' 1852 overthrow resulted in the appointment of a justice of the peace, who shared governing duties with the military commander. Junín's first general store opened in 1860, in 1861, Junín elected its first city council; the province designated the area as a county in 1864, with nearly 2,000 inhabitants, Junín ceases to be categorized as a "fort," and its first municipal master plan was laid out in 1865.
The 1880 arrival of the Central Argentine Railway and that of the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway in 1884 led to the town's rapid growth. The National Bank of Argentina had opened a branch there in 1892 and by the 1895 census, Junín was home to over 12,000; the town largest employer by was the B. A.& P.'s rail equipment factory, which employed over 1,600. The City Hall was completed in 1904 and Junín was declared a "city," in 1906. Junín's steady development over the subsequent decades and setting amid lakes made it a well-known regional tourist destination. A hunting club was established in 1938, a fishermen's pier and club on Lake El Carpicho, in 1942; the Aero Club Junín became well-known following the IX International Gliding Competition, in 1963, the nearby Borchex Municipal Park and Lake Gómez both have become popular weekend destinations since the 1960s. Nearby Estancia La Oriental has attracted growing rural tourism to the area, as well; the city is home to an important Municipal Historical Museum best known for its paleontology hall and its wooly mammoth fossils, the Ángel María de Rosa Municipal Museum of Art.
In a bid to further diversify the city's economy, an industrial park was authhorized north of the city in 1995, a racetrack, the Autódromo Eusebio Marcilla, was opened in 2003. The closure of much of Argentina's passenger rail service during the 1990s was offset in Junín in part by the purchase of local rail facilities by América Latina Logística, a São Paulo-based rail transport provider operating in Argentina, as well as by establishment of the Junín Railworks Cooperative; the city features numerous cinemas, as well as prominent stage theatres such as the Teatro de la Ranchería. The city's first institution of higher learning, the Junín Regional University, was established in 1990; the public Dr. Abraham Piñeyro Emergency Hospital, opened in 1930, serves as the city's principal health care establishment. Famous people from Junín include Argentine supermodel Yesica Toscanini, Tour de France cyclist Juan Antonio Flecha, football greats such as coach Osvaldo Zubeldía, forward Atilio García and goalie Federico Vilar, the "wild bull of the pampas," boxer Luis Ángel Firpo and Elvira Rawson de Dellepiane, a militant suffragist and the second woman to receive a medical degree in Argentina.
A decade she became the influential Eva Perón. A fellow UCR figure, Moisés Lebensohn, founded the city's leading newsdaily, Democracia, in 1931; the city's mayor, elected in 2015, is Pablo Petrecca of Cambienos-PRO. Junín has a humid subtropical climate. Winters are characterized with moderate temperatures during cold nights. In the coldest month, the average high is 15.1 °C while the average low is 4.2 °C. Temperatures can fall below freezing during cold waves although during heat waves such as the 2009 heat wave, temperatures can reach up to 35 °C when a record high of 35.3 °C was recorded on August 29, 2009. During this time of the year, overcast days are more
Argentine cuisine is described as a cultural blending of Mediterranean influences with and small inflows, within the wide scope of agricultural products that are abundant in the country. Argentine annual consumption of beef has averaged 100 kg per capita, approaching 180 kg per capita during the 19th century. Beyond asado, no other dish more genuinely matches the national identity; the country's vast area, its cultural diversity, have led to a local cuisine of various dishes. The great immigratory waves imprinted a large influence in the Argentine cuisine, after all Argentina was the second country in the world with the most immigrants with 6.6 million, only second to the United States with 27 million, ahead of other immigratory receptor countries such as Canada, Australia, etc. Argentine people have a reputation for their love of eating. Social gatherings are centered on sharing a meal. Invitations to have dinner at home is viewed as a symbol of friendship and integration. Sunday family lunch is considered the most significant meal of the week, whose highlights include asado or pasta.
Another feature of Argentine cuisine is the preparation of homemade food such as french fries and pasta to celebrate a special occasion, to meet friends, or to honor someone. The tradition of locally preparing food is passed down from generation to generation. Homemade food is seen as a way to show affection. Argentine restaurants include a great variety of cuisines and flavors. Large cities tend to host everything from high-end international cuisine, to bodegones, less stylish restaurants, bars and canteens offering a range of dishes at affordable prices. Native Americans lived in Argentina thousands of years. Members of an Indian tribe in the southern part of Argentina were farmers who grew squash and sweet potatoes. Spanish settlers came to Argentina in 1536. Between 1853 and 1955, 6.6 million immigrants came to live in Argentina from diverse sources such as Europe, the Near and Middle East and Japan, contributing to the development of Argentine cuisine and making Argentina the second country with most immigrants only second to the United States.
Most of the immigrants were from Spain. The Italians introduced pizza, as well as a variety of pasta dishes, including spaghetti and lasagna. British, German and other immigrants settled in Argentina, all bringing their styles of cooking and favorite foods with them; the British brought tea. All of these cultures influenced the dishes of Argentina. Most regions of Argentina are known for their beef-oriented diet. Grilled meat from the asado is a staple, with steak and beef ribs common; the term asado. Popular items such as Chorizo, chinchulines and other parts of the animal are enjoyed. In Patagonia, however and chivito are eaten more than beef. Whole lambs and goats are traditionally cooked over an open fire in a technique known as asado a la estaca; the most common condiment for asado is Chimichurri, a sauce of herbs and vinegar. Unlike other preparations, Argentines do not include chili in their version of chimichurri. Breaded and fried meats — milanesas — are used as snacks, in sandwiches, or eaten warm with mashed potatoes — purée.
Empanadas — small pastries of meat, sweet corn, a hundred other fillings — are a common sight at parties and picnics, or as starters to a meal. A variation, the "empanada gallega", is a big, round meat pie made most with tuna and mackerel. Vegetables and salads are eaten by Argentines. Italian staples, such as pizza and pasta, are eaten as as beef. Fideos, tallarines, ñoquis and canelones can be bought freshly made in many establishments in the larger cities. Italian-style ice cream is served in large parlours and drive-through businesses. In Chubut, the Welsh community is known for its teahouses, offering scones and torta galesa, rather like torta negra. Sandwiches de miga are delicate sandwiches made with crustless buttered white bread thinly sliced cured meat and lettuce, they are purchased from entrepreneurial home cooks and may be eaten for a light evening meal. A sweet paste, dulce de leche is another treasured national food, used to fill cakes and pancakes, spread over toasted bread for breakfast, or served with ice cream.
Alfajores are shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate and dulce de leche or a fruit paste. The "policeman's" or "truck driver's" sweet is cheese with dulce de membrillo. Dulce de batata is made of sweet potato/yam: this with cheese is the Martín Fierro's sweet. Apples, peaches, kiwifruits and plums are major exports. A traditional drink of Argentina is an infusion called mate; the name comes from the hollow gourd. The mate or other small cup is filled about three-quarters full with yerba mate, the dried leaves and twigs of the Ilex paraguariensis; the drink, rather bitter, is sipped through a metal or cane straw called a bombilla. M
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Koninklijke Philips N. V. is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam, one of the largest electronics companies in the world focused in the area of healthcare and lighting. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik, with their first products being light bulbs, it was once one of the largest electronic conglomerates in the world and employs around 74,000 people across 100 countries. The company gained its royal honorary title in 1998 and dropped the "Electronics" in its name in 2013. Philips is organized into two main divisions: Philips Consumer Health and Well-being and Philips Professional Healthcare; the lighting division was spun off as a separate company, Signify N. V.. The company started making electric shavers in 1939 under the Philishave brand, post-war they developed the Compact Cassette format and co-developed the Compact Disc format with Sony, as well as numerous other technologies; as of 2012, Philips was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world as measured by applicable revenues.
Philips has a primary listing on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Acquisitions include that of Magnavox, they have had a sports club since 1913 called PSV Eindhoven. The Philips Company was founded by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik Philips. Frederik, a banker based in Zaltbommel, financed the purchase and setup of an empty factory building in Eindhoven, where the company started the production of carbon-filament lamps and other electro-technical products in 1892; this first factory is used as a museum. In 1895, after a difficult first few years and near bankruptcy, the Philipses brought in Anton, Gerard's younger brother by sixteen years. Though he had earned a degree in engineering, Anton started work as a sales representative. With Anton's arrival, the family business began to expand resulting in the founding of Philips Metaalgloeilampfabriek N. V. in Eindhoven in 1908, followed in 1912, by the foundation of Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken N.
V.. After Gerard and Anton Philips changed their family business by founding the Philips corporation, they laid the foundations for the electronics multinational. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, such as vacuum tubes. In 1939, they introduced the Philishave; the "Chapel" is a radio with built-in loudspeaker, designed during the early 1930s. On 11 March 1927, Philips went on the air with shortwave radio station PCJJ, joined in 1929 by sister station PHOHI. PHOHI broadcast in Dutch to the Dutch East Indies while PCJJ broadcast in English and German to the rest of the world; the international program on Sundays commenced in 1928, with host Eddie Startz hosting the Happy Station show, which became the world's longest-running shortwave program. Broadcasts from the Netherlands were interrupted by the German invasion in May 1940; the Germans commandeered the transmitters in Huizen to use for pro-Nazi broadcasts, some originating from Germany, others concerts from Dutch broadcasters under German control.
Philips Radio was absorbed shortly after liberation when its two shortwave stations were nationalised in 1947 and renamed Radio Netherlands Worldwide, the Dutch International Service. Some PCJ programs, such as Happy Station, continued on the new station. Philips was instrumental in the revival of the Stirling engine when, in the early 1930s, the management decided that offering a low-power portable generator would assist in expanding sales of its radios into parts of the world where mains electricity was unavailable and the supply of batteries uncertain. Engineers at the company's research lab carried out a systematic comparison of various power sources and determined that the forgotten Stirling engine would be most suitable, citing its quiet operation and ability to run on a variety of heat sources, they were aware that, unlike steam and internal combustion engines no serious development work had been carried out on the Stirling engine for many years and asserted that modern materials and know-how should enable great improvements.
Encouraged by their first experimental engine, which produced 16 W of shaft power from a bore and stroke of 30 mm × 25 mm, various development models were produced in a program which continued throughout World War II. By the late 1940s, the'Type 10' was ready to be handed over to Philips's subsidiary Johan de Witt in Dordrecht to be produced and incorporated into a generator set as planned; the result, rated at 180/200 W electrical output from a bore and stroke of 55 mm × 27 mm, was designated MP1002CA. Production of an initial batch of 250 began in 1951, but it became clear that they could not be made at a competitive price, besides with the advent of transistor radios with their much lower power requirements meant that the original rationale for the set was disappearing. 150 of these sets were produced. In parallel with the generator set, Philips developed experimental Stirling engines for a wide variety of applic
Flag of Argentina
The flag of Argentina is a triband, composed of three wide horizontal bands coloured light blue and white. There are multiple interpretations on the reasons for those colors; the flag was created by Manuel Belgrano, in line with the creation of the Cockade of Argentina, was first raised at the city of Rosario on February 27, 1812, during the Argentine War of Independence. The National Flag Memorial was built on the site; the First Triumvirate did not approve the use of the flag, but the Asamblea del Año XIII allowed the use of the flag as a war flag. It was the Congress of Tucumán which designated it as the national flag, in 1816. A yellow Sun of May was added to the center in 1818; the full flag featuring the sun is called the Official Ceremonial Flag. The flag without the sun is considered the Ornamental Flag. While both versions are considered the national flag, the ornamental version must always be hoisted below the Official Ceremony Flag. In vexillological terms, the Official Ceremonial Flag is the civil and war flag and ensign, while the Ornamental Flag is an alternative civil flag and ensign.
There is controversy of the true colour of the first flag, between scientist and the descendants of Manuel Belgrano between blue and pale blue. The flag of Argentina was created by Manuel Belgrano during the Argentine War of Independence. While in Rosario he noticed that both the royalist and patriotic forces were using the same colors, Spain's yellow and red. After realizing this, Belgrano created the Cockade of Argentina, approved by the First Triumvirate on February 18, 1812. Encouraged by this success, he created a flag of the same colors nine days later, it used the colors that were used by the Criollos during the May Revolution in 1810. However, recent research and studies would indicate that the colors were chosen from the Spanish Order of Charles III symbolizing the allegiance to the rightful, captive King Ferdinand VII of Spain. Most portraits about the creation or first uses of the flag show the modern design of it, but the flag of Macha, a early design kept at the House of Freedom in Sucre, Bolivia was instead a vertical triband with two white bands and a light blue one in the middle.
The flag was first flown for soldiers to swear allegiance to it on 27 February 1812, on the Batería Libertad, by the Paraná River. On that day, Belgrano said the following words: Soldiers of the Fatherland, we have heretofore had the glory of wearing the national cockade. Let us swear to defeat our enemies and external, South America will become the temple of Independence and Freedom. In testament that you so swear it, say with me: LONG LIVE THE FATHERLAND! "Lord Captain and troops chosen for the first time for the Independence Battery: go, take possession of it and fulfill the oath you have just sworn today. Belgrano dispatched a letter addressed to the First Triumvirate, informing them of the newly created flag. However, unlike with the cockade, the Triumvirate did not accept the use of the flag: policy at the time was to state that the government was ruling on behalf of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, captive of Napoleon, whereas the creation of a flag was a clear independentist act. Thus, the triumvirate sent a warning to Belgrano not to fight under the flag, but by the time the reply had arrived, Belgrano had moved to the north, following the previous orders that requested him to strengthen the patriotic position in the Upper Peru after the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the Battle of Huaqui.
Meanwhile, the flag was hoisted for the first time in Buenos Aires atop the Church of Saint Nicholas of Bari on August 23, 1812. Still not knowing about the Triumvirate's refusal, Belgrano raised the flag at San Salvador de Jujuy and had it blessed by the local church on the second anniversary of the May Revolution. Belgrano accepted the orders from the Triumvirate by time they arrived to Salta and ceased using the flag; as soldiers had made oaths to the new flag, Belgrano said that he was saving it for the circumstance of a great victory. The First Triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate, with a more liberal ideology, who called the Asamblea del Año XIII. Despite being one of its original goals, it did not declare independence, so did not approve the use of a national flag either; the first oath to the newly approved flag was on February 13, 1813, next to the Salado River, which became known as the "Río Juramento". The first battle fought with the approved flag was the Battle of Salta, a decisive patriotic victory that achieved the complete defeat of royalist Pío Tristán.
The flag would be declared the national flag by the Congress of Tucumán on July 20, 1816, shortly after the declaration of independence. The proposal was made by the deputy Juan José Paso and the text written by the deputy of Charcas, José Serrano. On February 25, 1818, the Congress included the Sun of May in the war flag, after the proposal of deputy Chorroarín; the sun was copied after the one that the first Argentine coin featured in 1813. It was subsequently decided to keep it as part of the regular flag afterwards, thus the sun no longer represents war. José de San Martín was aware of the new flag, but did not employ it during the crossing of the Andes in 1817. Being a joint operation of both Argentine and Chilean forces, he thought that a new flag would be a
LS86 TV América TV La Plata is a television station located in La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The station is owned and operated by America TV S. A. América is one of Argentina's five national television channels. América TV maintains studio offices located in Palermo neighborhood of Buenos Aires. Outside of the Buenos Aires province, América is available on cable. Channel 2 in La Plata was launched on June 25, 1966 as Tevedos, under the ownership of Rivadavia Televisión S. A. whose proprietors owned several radio stations and the now-defunct El Mundo daily newspaper. La Plata is close in proximity to Buenos Aires, the two cities can receive each other's television broadcasts; this geographical reality led Tevedos to target the much larger media market of Argentina's capital. But with transmission facilities in Florencio Varela to the south, northern portions of the metropolitan area couldn't receive an adequate signal; this stood in contrast to the other four stations in Buenos Aires, which had their transmitters located in the city proper.
At the start of the 1970s, Perú's Panamericana Televisión acquired Tevedos. Panamericana's owner, Peruvian businessman Genaro Delgado Parker, had strong connections to Goar Mestre, who owned studios in the Martinez neighborhood. From that facility, the two produced programs intended for the entire Spanish-speaking world. However, problems continually plagued the channel; the ratings for Argentinian television were measured in Buenos Aires, its comparatively poor signal could not offer the same coverage as its four competitors. Comedians joked about the station's small 7% market share by dubbing it "James Bond", a pun of his "007" codename. To lower costs, it began airing cheaper programs simulcasting Canal 13 at times. In 1976, the Province of Buenos Aires took control of the station, in 1979, it was transferred to the provincial level Ministry of Economy; that same year, the station became known as Canal 2. Color broadcasts, which began in 1980, the same year as national station Channel 9, made it the 3rd station to be converted to color transmissions and the first TV station outside Buenos Aires itself to introduce color broadcasts.
After the fall of the final Argentinian dictatorship and return to democracy in 1983, a bid was hurriedly opened to solicit companies wanting to privatize the station. Radiodifusora El Carmen S. A. won the license, but it took four years for the company to find a partner with the technical capacity to run the station. In December 1987, El Carmen partnered with Héctor Ricardo García, owner of the Crónica newspaper, his company Estrella Productions S. A. under the new name of Teledos. Within a month, now Argentina's second private television channel, rocketed to second place in the ratings, leaving behind the station's long cellar dweller past. Teledos had taken a tight second, just ahead of Canal 13, but behind the ratings monster, Alejandro Romay's Canal 9, which still brought in double the viewership. Newer and fresher hosts, forgotten by the state-owned ATC, channel 11 and channel 13, headed up a refreshed outlet with a heavy emphasis on news; the resurgence, would not last long. The shareholders in El Carmen were in bitter legal disputes, which boiled over in November 1988.
García promptly left. A crisis now emerged, as Canal 2 was left with little programming to air; the TV Guía publication proclaimed the situation as a tormenta. Without studio space of its own, the station had to record its newscasts three hours in advance and drive the film by car to its La Plata transmitter, for there was no connection between the Buenos Aires facilities it was using and its own physical plant. By the end of the year, a new name had emerged: Tevedos returned. However, the precarious financial state that the channel was in led to bankruptcy reorganization in 1989, out of which Eduardo Eurnékian, owner of the Cablevisión cable system and several radio stations in the capital city, bought the channel and incorporated it into his new multimedia group, Corporación Multimedios América. On April 15, 1991, Tevedos was replaced by América Te Ve, but Eurnékian's biggest change would be in facilities. In 1994, what was now known as América 2 moved its studios—and, more its transmitter—to the Palermo neighborhood of Buenos Aires, improving its over-the-air reception and becoming the first of the major Argentinian broadcasters to possess digital television equipment.
Within two years, the name would change again, to América Televisión. Eurnékian pulled out of his multimedia ventures during the 1990s. Ávila had created Torneos y Competencias, the longtime rights holder to Argentinian soccer and producer of other sports events. Under Ávila, América's programming would have a strong emphasis on sports and news. In 2002, a major economic crisis carried the channel into bankruptcy. In 2005, two of the most popular programs on the network moved to Canal 13 after the program Televisión Registrada invited a guest, charged with bribing the Argentinian Senate; the station's news director refused to allow the program to air, as a result, both Television Registrada and Indomables left América. In 2007, Francisco de Narváez bought a majority stake in the channel. América occupies fourth place in the ratings, slight