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Television licence

A television licence or broadcast receiving licence is a payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid. The fee is sometimes required to own a radio or receive radio broadcasts. A TV licence is therefore a hypothecated tax for the purpose of funding public broadcasting, thus allowing public broadcasters to transmit television programmes without, or with only supplemental, funding from radio and television advertisements. However, in some cases the balance between public funding and advertisements is the opposite – the Polish TVP broadcaster receives more funds from advertisements than from its TV tax; the early days of broadcasting presented broadcasters with the problem of how to raise funding for their services. Some countries adopted the advertising model, but many others adopted a compulsory public subscription model, with the subscription coming in the form of a broadcast licence paid by households owning a radio set.

The UK was the first country to adopt the compulsory public subscription model with the licence fee money going to the BBC, formed on 1 January 1927 by Royal charter to produce publicly funded programming yet remain independent from government, both managerially and financially. The licence was known as a wireless licence. With the arrival of television, some countries created a separate additional television licence, while others increased the radio licence fee to cover the additional cost of TV broadcasting, changing the licence's name from "radio licence" to "TV licence" or "receiver licence". Today most countries fund public radio broadcasting from the same licence fee, used for television, although a few still have separate radio licences, or apply a lower or no fee at all for consumers who only have a radio; some countries have different fees for users with colour or monochrome TV. Many give charge no fee, for elderly and/or disabled consumers. Faced with the problem of licence fee evasion, some countries choose to fund public broadcasters directly from taxation or via other less avoidable methods such as a co-payment with electricity billing.

National public broadcasters in some countries carry supplemental advertising. The Council of Europe created the European Convention on Transfrontier Television in 1989 that regulates among other things advertising standards and the format of breaks, which has an indirect effect on the usage of licensing. In 1993, this treaty entered into force when it achieved seven ratifications including five EU member states, it has since been acceded to by 34 countries, as of 2010. The Museum of Broadcast Communications in Chicago notes that two-thirds of the countries in Europe and half of the countries in Asia and Africa use television licences to fund public television. TV licensing is rare in the Americas being confined to French overseas departments and British Overseas Territories. In some countries, radio channels and broadcasters' web sites are funded by a radio receiver licence, giving access to radio and web services free of commercial advertising; the actual cost and implementation of the television licence varies from country to country.

Below is a listing of the licence fee in various countries around the world. The Albanian licence fee is 100 lekë per month, paid in the electricity bill. However, the licence fee makes up only a small part of public broadcaster RTSH's funding. RTSH is funded directly from the government through taxes, the remaining 42% comes from commercials and the licence fee. Under the Austria RGG, all broadcasting reception equipment in use or operational at a given location must be registered; the location of the equipment is taken to be places of residence or any other premises with a uniform purpose of use. The agency responsible for licence administration in Austria is GIS - Gebühren Info Service GmbH, a 100% subsidiary of the Austrian Broadcasting Company, as well as an agency of the Ministry of Finance, charged with performing functions concerning national interests. Transaction volume in 2007 amounted to €682 million, 66% of which are allocated to the ORF for financing the organization and its programs, 35% are allocated to the federal government and the local governments.

GIS employs some 191 people and 125 freelancers in field service. 3.4 million Austrian households are registered with GIS. The percentage of licence evaders in Austria amounts to 2.5%. The main principle of GIS's communication strategy is to inform instead of control. To achieve this goal GIS uses a four-channel communication strategy: Above-the-line activities. Direct Mail. Distribution channels – outlets where people can acquire the necessary forms for registering. Field service – customer consultants visiting households not yet registered; the annual television & radio licence varies in price depending on. Annual fees from April 2017 are: The licence fee in Bosnia and Herzegovina is around € 46 per year; the war and the associated collapse of infrastructure caused high evasion rates. This has in part been resolved by collecting the licence fee as part of a household's monthly telephone bill; the licence fee is divided between three broadcasters: 50% for BHRT - as main state level radio and television broadcaster in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

25% for RTVFBiH - (Radio-Television of the Feder

Spider's Web (play)

Spider's Web is a play by crime writer Agatha Christie. Spider's Web, which premiered in London’s West End in 1954, is Agatha Christie's second most successful play, having run longer than Witness for the Prosecution, which premiered in 1953, it is surpassed only by her record-breaking The Mousetrap, which has run continuously since opening in the West End in 1952. Spider's Web was written at the request of its star, Margaret Lockwood, whose main body of work was in films and who had never appeared in a West End production aside from Peter Pan. In 1953, Lockwood asked her agent, Herbert de Leon, to speak with Peter Saunders, the main producer of Christie's work on the stage after the successes of The Hollow and The Mousetrap, see if Christie would be interested in writing a play for her. Saunders arranged a meeting between Lockwood at the Mirabelle restaurant. During the conversation, Lockwood requested that she didn't play a sinister or wicked part again but a role in a "comedy thriller", she requested a part for Wilfrid Hyde-White, with whom she wanted to act and, on the books of de Leon.

In the event, although the part was written, Hyde-White declined the role and Felix Aylmer was cast instead. Christie wrote the play during the period of the final rehearsals for Witness for the Prosecution which opened to rave reviews in London on 28 October 1953. Lockwood's character was given the name of Clarissa, the name of Christie's beloved mother who had died back in 1926. Unasked, Christie wrote a role which would be suitable for Lockwood's fourteen-year-old daughter, although Margaret Barton played the part in the finished production. Although the play is an original piece, within it Christie utilised four plot devices from earlier works she had written: In the play, Clarissa is offered the rental of the house she is in for only four guineas a month, whereas other inquirers are told the sum was eighteen guineas; this is to make sure that someone with the surname of Brown becomes resident to lure thieves to the house to steal something they think the real Mrs Brown possesses. This repeats the plot of the 1923 short story The Adventure of the Cheap Flat where a couple called Robinson are cheaply let a flat in order that they act as decoys for two spies who are in fear of their lives and who were living under the alias of Mr and Mrs Robinson.

The item the thieves are after is revealed to be a rare stamp, on an envelope containing other pieces of paper which are thought, throughout the play, to be the real attraction of attempts at theft. This plot device was first used in the 1941 story The Case of the Buried Treasure, printed in book form in the US as Strange Jest in the 1950 collection Three Blind Mice and Other Stories and in the UK in the 1979 collection Miss Marple's Final Cases and Two Other Stories. In the short story, a deceased man has left his great-niece and nephew a hidden fortune which Miss Marple deduces is in the form of a rare stamp on one of his otherwise innocuous-looking letters. In the 1941 novel Evil Under the Sun, an adolescent girl experiments with witchcraft, shortly before the victim is murdered, believes herself to be responsible for the murder The group's alibi of playing bridge all evening is ruined when the Inspector notices a playing card on the floor across the room from the bridge table. A full deck of cards is needed to properly play bridge.

Therefore, the Inspector knows the group could not have been playing several consecutive hands of bridge that evening. This is similar to an attempted alibi in the short story "King of Clubs," which appears in'Poirot's Early Cases'. A family claims that they have been playing bridge all night and therefore cannot be involved in a murder that has occurred in their neighbour's house. Poirot sees through this lie; this discovery proves the family's alibi of playing bridge was false and they have lied about their whereabouts that evening. The play opened at the Theatre Royal, Nottingham on 27 September 1954, followed by a short national tour and had its West End opening on 13 December 1954 at the Savoy Theatre, where it ran for 774 performances. With The Mousetrap and Witness for the Prosecution still running, Christie was at the peak of her West End career. On 7 March 1955, Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip and Princess Margaret were among the audience for a performance of the play; the action of the play passes in the drawing room of Copplestone Court, the Hailsham-Brown's home in Kent.

The time: the present. Clarissa Hailsham-Brown is the second wife of a Foreign Office diplomat and stepmother to his teenage daughter, Pippa, they are living at Copplestone Court, a large house they are renting at a cheap price in Kent. There are three guests staying with them: Sir Rowland Delahaye, a local Justice of the Peace in his fifties, Hugo Birch, an irascible man in his sixties and a young man called Jeremy Warrender. Sir Rowland and Hugo are taking part in a contest devised by Clarissa to test three different types of Port whilst Jeremy is trying to prove the timing achieved by a previous guest to the house in running to the lodge gates and back three times. Both contests however are spoofs designed by the fun-loving Clarissa to occupy her guests' time as their golf match has been rained off; the two older men move off to sample more of the Port and Pippa arrives home from school, hungry as always. Clarissa takes her off for something to eat and, momentarily alone, Jeremy starts to investigate a desk in the room looking through the drawers until he is interrupted by the arrival of Miss Mildre

NOFX: Backstage Passport

NOFX: Backstage Passport is a documentary series, shown on the music network Fuse about NOFX's 2008 world tour. The show documents the band's reaction to various events; the creation of the show was noteworthy due to the band's noted disdain for the media, including music television. The show was to be titled NOFX: Punk Rock Passport, but the band had issues with Fuse who claimed "the title would scare people away." Along with the show's title being changed, the band had numerous other issues including the company attempting to fabricate story lines that were non-existent or untrue. Fat Mike in an interview with Studio Q on CBC stated that the three months editing the show were the worst three months of his life. NOFX: Backstage Passport was released on DVD on March 17, 2009. In August 2012 in an interview with El Hefe at SRH Festival, it was announced that there would be a season two of NOFX: Backstage Passport. Fat Mike had announced it via his Twitter account. NOFX: Backstage Passport 2 was released on August 21, 2015.

The 2-disk DVD will not be in the same series-like episode format as initial announcements hinted towards, however, it will feature a full-length documentary of shows performed in Mexico and Colombia, filmed over a 4-year period. The second disk will feature bonus material including outtakes and deleted scenes from the first series in Australia and Eastern Europe The episode begins with the band planning to play in countries where punk rock bands don't play, they explain that their manager, has had a horrible time booking the tour and that they're hoping not to get "killed or kidnapped." Each band member makes preparations to leave: Fat Mike says goodbye to his wife and daughter, Eric Melvin practices the accordion, Smelly shaves his head with his wife, El Hefe packs junk food to take on the trip. The band's first stop on the tour, Rio de Janeiro, goes horribly when Kent shows up at their hotel drunk. In Porto Alegre, Melvin's guitar broke half way through the band's set. Instead of fixing his guitar, however, he spends 10 minutes fixing his tuner, the crowd turns on the band.

The next stop, Medellín, goes worse. The venue the band was set to perform at had no idea of the show, so the show was canceled. In response, their Colombian promoter, began receiving death threats, forcing the band to leave the country as soon as possible. However, things improve when the band plays a "punk show" in Santiago, Chile. Wild fans jump on stage. One fan grabs El Hefe in a headlock during the middle of a song; the band was pleased and their spirits were rekindled. The tour continues to Guayaquil, where the band plays on tennis courts that were rented out by "rich kids who wanted NOFX to play at their country club." At the next stop, Buenos Aires, the band plays a great show and wants to do an encore, but the manager of the club they are playing at won't let them, irritating the band immensely. One of the band's crew members, attempts to contact their Peruvian promoter, about their upcoming show in Peru, but fails, he informs the band that Yolanda believes that NOFX plays shows in low-quality venues like they did in the 1980s, El Hefe muses that he thinks "they're gonna get screwed in Peru."

The band arrives in Peru and they meet Yolanda for the first time. She proves to be an incompetent promoter when she fails to honor the band's requests or follow their directions; as the band departs for the hotel, Fat Mike warns the crew, who are headed to the venue, to "be nice." When the crew arrives at the venue, they find that it is a 6-acre plot of dirt and gravel with a fence around it. The venue lacks food, water, a backstage, or electricity; as the crew set up and wonder "how get any worse", Peruvian police show up and inform them that they don't have the permits to perform at the venue. Kent and the crew attempt to contact Yolanda, but she doesn't pick up her phone or leave any clues as to where she is. While the band is out to dinner, the fans start to show up at the venue. Riot police arrive and place the site on lock-down: The crew can't leave, the fans can't get in. Carlos texts Kent and explains the situation, so Kent heads to the venue to attempt to rescue the crew. Jay, the band's drum technician, finds a man with a flatbed truck at the site, bribes him to "smuggle the crew out of the venue."

The crew lay down flat in the back of the truck. As the truck driver begins to drive away, one of the riot police jumps on the side of the truck and sees the crew, but falls off, the crew manages to escape; the crew is checking into the hotel. Jay, irritated, exclaims that "if had shown up earlier, I would've strangled." The band labels the whole trip as a flop. The next day, as they begin to depart for their next location, a few hundred fans show up at the hotel cheering for NOFX. Looking to appease the fans, Fat Mike finds an acoustic guitar and plays an acoustic version of "Franco Un-American." The fans are delighted and Mike says that he has never done anything like this before. The band continues their world tour and heads to Japan where they hold a press conference and play their biggest headlining show ever. Afterwards, the crew and the band split up to enjoy themselves; the crew members are walking around when they come to a street corner with a woman, vomiting, an intoxicated businessman, two businessman fighting in a flower bed while one chats on his cell phone.

The crew declares that "Japan is just like America now!" The band and Jay claim they're going to see the "real da

Soyuz TMA-9

Soyuz TMA-9 was a Soyuz mission to the International Space Station launched by a Soyuz FG launch vehicle. It was a human spaceflight mission transporting personnel to and from the ISS, it launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on 18 September 2006 at 08:09 MSD, docked with the ISS at 09:21 MSD on 20 September, returned to Earth on 21 April 2007. Soyuz TMA-9 transported two-thirds of ISS Expedition 14 to the space station along with one "spaceflight participant" who performed several experiments on behalf of the European Space Agency. Daisuke Enomoto was scheduled to be the spaceflight participant, but on 21 August 2006, he was determined to be unfit for the flight due to medical reasons, replaced by Anousheh Ansari, his back-up crew member. Docked to ISS: 20 September 2006, 05:21 UTC Undocking from ISS: 10 October 2006 19:14 UTC Docking to ISS: 10 October 2006 19:34 UTC Undocking from ISS: 29 March 2007 23:30 UTC Docking to ISS: 29 March 2007 23:54 UTC Undocking from ISS: 21 April 2007 09:11 UTC Soyuz TMA-9, known within the International Space Station program as ISS Soyuz 13, was the 32nd crewed flight to the ISS.

It is of note because for three days, from 18–21 September 2006, it marked the first time since before the Columbia accident that twelve humans have been in space simultaneously. The capsule launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on a Soyuz-FG rocket at 09:08 MDS on Monday 18 September 2006, it docked with the ISS on Wednesday 20 September to begin a six-month stay on the orbiting laboratory. Anousheh Ansari, the Spaceflight Participant launched by TMA-9, has returned to Earth safely alongside Commander Pavel Vinogradov and Flight Engineer Jeffrey Williams of the Expedition 13 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-8 on 29 September 2006 at 01:13 UTC. Undocking from the ISS took place at 21:53 UTC on 28 September. López-Alegría and Tyurin undocked from ISS on 21 April 2007, 09:11 UTC, landed at 12:31:30 UTC, after a seven-month stay on the station; when the capsule landed after 215 days in space, exceeding the 210-day warranty for Soyuz TMA spacecraft, it concluded the longest flight by a Soyuz spacecraft.

Soyuz TMA-9 Soyuz TMA-9 Relocation On ISS YouTube video


PoraMon is a 2013 Bangladeshi Bengali romantic drama film directed by Jakir Hossain Raju and written by Farzana. It is distributed by Jaaz Multimedia, it stars Mahiya Symon in the lead roles. A Stand Alone Sequel PoraMon 2 was released On 16 June 2018; the film was a commercial success. The film is a remake of 2010 Tamil movie Mynaa.'Sujon' is a reckless boy of'Sundorpur'. But his father becomes addicted to gambling, he started working as a helper of "Chander Gari". There he meets with'Pori' and in time they fall in love with each other, but Pori's mother is not happy about this and she fixes Pori's marriage in another place, which makes Sujon unhappy. He destroys Pori's mother's cake shop. Pori's mother tries to kill Sujon with a sharp weapon but the villagers stop her. So Pori's mother complains against Sujon at the nearest police station and they arrest Sujon; the police officer Abid likes him. Sujon goes to escape into the forest with Pori. Abid starts to look for them, but in one situation Sujon saves Abid ` ss life.

So Abid promises to make their marriage happen. Mahiya Mahi as Pori Symon as Sujon Anisur Rahman Milon as Abid Bipasha as Mukti Ali Raj as Sujon's father Munira Mithu as Pori's mother Rehana Joli Sharika as Little Pori Prachurjo as Little Sujon Misha Sawdagor Shiva Shanu The film was a critical and commercial success. Asian TV's Movie Bazaar survey chose Poramon as the "Most Loved Film of Year"

Edward M. Yerger

Edward M. Yerger was an American newspaper editor and murderer. Edward M. Yerger was a colonel in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. Yerger edited several newspapers, including the Jackson Daily Mississippian, the Jackson Daily News, the Vicksburg Herald, the Baltimore Evening Journal. On April 6, 1867, while on the staff of Daily Mississippian, he engaged in a duel with I. M. Patridge of the Herald. Yerger had taken offense to an article that appeared in the latter paper, disparaging the Mississippian. Yerger was involved in conflicts with Colonel Manlove of the Vicksburg Times and Major Barksdale of the Jackson Clarion. Yerger was employed by the Vicksburg Herald, he announced his resignation from the staff of the Herald on January 28, 1868. In 1869, Major Joseph G. Crane became acting mayor of Mississippi by military appointment. Yerger, a resident of Jackson, had refused to pay his taxes in 1867 and 1868. In order to collect the money Yerger owed, Crane decided to seize Yerger's piano and sell it at auction.

Yerger was out of town and unable to prevent the seizure. He returned home on June 8, confronted Crane the next day. An argument ensued and Yerger stabbed Crane to death. Yerger was set to be tried by a military commission, he was represented by his uncle William Yerger, who sought a writ of habeas corpus from the circuit court. The resulting case, Ex parte Yerger, was heard by the Supreme Court of the United States. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase concluded that the court had jurisdiction to hear the case, which meant Yerger did not have to be tried by the military commission; the attorney general and William Yerger agreed that Yerger be turned over to civilian authorities for prosecution. Yerger was never tried for murder, after a stint in a Mississippi jail, was released on bail and moved to Baltimore, Maryland. Yerger died in Baltimore on April 22, 1875. Wilkinson, W. S. M.. Trial of E. M. Yerger, before a military commission for the killing of Bv't-Col. Joseph G. Crane, at Jackson, Miss. June 8th, 1869.

Jackson, Miss.: Clarion Book and Job Printing Establishment. Retrieved 18 August 2014. Eubank, Sever Landon; the Yerger case: a side light of reconstruction. Thesis --Colorado College. Retrieved 18 August 2014. Works related to Ex parte Yerger at Wikisource