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Telharmonium

The Telharmonium was an early electrical organ, developed by Thaddeus Cahill circa 1896 and patented in 1897. The electrical signal from the Telharmonium was transmitted over wires. Like the Hammond organ, the Telharmonium used tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it is considered to be the first electromechanical musical instrument. Cahill built three versions: The Mark I version weighed 7 tons; the Mark II version weighed 210 tons, as did the Mark III. Each was a considerable advancement over the features of its predecessor. A small number of performances in front of a live audience were given in addition to the telephone transmissions. Performances in New York City were well received by the public in 1906, the performer would sit at a console to control the instrument; the actual mechanism of the instrument itself was so large it occupied an entire room—wires from the controlling console were fed discreetly through holes in the floor of an auditorium into the instrument room itself, housed in the basement beneath the concert hall.

The Telharmonium foreshadowed modern electronic musical equipment in a number of ways. For instance, its sound output came in the form of connecting ordinary telephone receivers to large paper cones—a primitive form of loudspeaker. Cahill was noted for saying that electromagnetic diaphragms were the most preferable means of outputting its distinctive sound; the Telharmonium's demise came for a number of reasons. The instrument was immense in weight; this being an age before vacuum tubes had been invented, it required large electric dynamos which consumed great amounts of power in order to generate sufficiently strong audio signals. In addition, problems began to arise when telephone broadcasts of Telharmonium music were subject to crosstalk and unsuspecting telephone users would be interrupted by strange electronic music. By 1912, interest in this revolutionary instrument had changed, Cahill's company was declared not successful in 1914. Cahill died in 1934; this was the last version to be scrapped, in 1962.

Telharmonium tones — referring to the electronic sine wave tones it was capable of producing. However, it was not restricted to such simple sounds; each tonewheel of the instrument corresponded to a single note, and, to broaden its possibilities, Cahill added several extra tonewheels to add harmonics to each note. This, combined with organ-like stops and multiple keyboards, as well as a number of foot pedals, meant that every sound could be sculpted and reshaped — the instrument was noted for its ability to produce the sounds of common orchestral woodwind instruments such as the flute, bassoon and the cello; the Telharmonium had 150 keys that allowed it to work properly. Trautonium Shepard, Brian. Refining Sound: A Practical Guide to Synthesis and Synthesizers. Oxford University Press. P. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-992296-3. Official U. S. Patent Telharmonium, Audion Piano, Luigi Russsolo et les bruitistes sonhors.free.fr, French The Telharmonium the Telharmonium on'120 years Of Electronic Music'

Frances Baker

Frances Baker was a British painter, active in Ireland in the early years of the 20th century. Frances Baker was born into a prominent family of medical professionals: her father, John Neville Davies-Colley, was chief surgeon at Guy's Hospital, her brothers, Robert Davies-Colley and Hugh Davies-Colley became surgeons at Guy's, her sister, Eleanor Davies-Colley, was the founder of the South London Hospital for Women and Children and the first woman elected to the Royal College of Surgeons. Frances, the eldest child, studied at the Slade School of Art, taking a certificate in figure drawing in the 1894-95 session, she married Cecil Cautley Baker in 1897. The couple had two daughters: Lettice Cautley Baker, born in Guildford, England in 1898; the family moved to Rosses Point, County Sligo, where Cecil Baker leased oyster farming rights in the Sligo estuary. He died in 1903, his widow and young family moved to Ballysadare, where Frances had a farm, worked as a photographer and continued painting.

Working both in oil and watercolor, producing portraits and landscapes, Baker exhibited with George William Russell. In Dublin, Baker was acquainted with Irish activists and artists including Constance Gore-Booth and her second husband Casimir Dunin Markievicz, she exhibited paintings in a joint show at the Leinster Lecture Hall in 1911 with Markievicz and Paul and Grace Henry. She showed work in exhibitions at the Royal Hibernian Academy and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters. Frances Baker married a second time in 1915 to Dublin physician Francis Kennedy Cahill, her husband was active in amateur theatrical circles, they were involved with the United Arts Club in Dublin. In 1919, she opened; the firm became well known as part of the craft revival of handwork and exhibited at the Irish Decorative Art Association exhibitions pre-Partition and the Arts and Crafts Society shows throughout the late 1920s and early 1930s. As with other successful handcrafting businesses at the time, the firm’s traditional handmade textiles sold to modern fashion designers, including French designer Coco Chanel.

Baker's daughter Frances and her husband, the writer Michael Farrell managed the successful business. Baker's second husband Dr. Francis Kennedy Cahill died in 1930 in Dublin, while Baker was in England attending the funeral of her son-in-law, the Cambridge mathematician Frank P. Ramsey. Baker settled in Cambridge by the late 1930s, she died in Cambridge in December 1944. After her second marriage, Baker was known as Mrs. Kennedy Frances Cahill. Lettice, Newnham College Loading the Turf Cart Driving Cattle Ox Mountain Co Sligo Peasants Working before a Cottage Self Portrait, 1900 Self Portrait, 1917 Cafe Scenes, Spalato Croatia A Park in Paris Fontaine De L'Observatoire, Paris, 1933 Irish Cottage Interior with Family Group, 1904 Irish Landscape Lettice Reading and Frances Knitting, 1914 Market Day, Co Sligo Market Stalls on the Left Bank, Paris Meadow Morning, Place Montrouge, 1933 Portrait of Cecil Baker Portrait of Mrs. George Russell River Scene with Trees on the Far Bank Self Portrait Self Portrait Self Portrait, 1895 Women Digging Potatoes, Co Sligo, 1905 Portrait of Lettice Ramsey née Baker, by Frances Baker, Newnham College, University of Cambridge

Live or Die (song)

"Live or Die" was the second single released from Naughty by Nature's fifth album, Nineteen Naughty Nine: Nature's Fury. It was produced by Naughty by Nature and Mufi and featured No Limit Records' artists Master P, Mystikal and Silkk the Shocker, as well as singer Phiness; the single was not much of a success, only making it to 86 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks. The song sampled Steely Dan's "Third World Man" for which the song's writer's Donald Fagen and Walter Becker were given writing credits. "Live or Die" - 3:43 "Live or Die" - 3:41 "Live or Die" - 3:41 "Live or Die" - 3:39