Tellurium is a chemical element with the symbol Te and atomic number 52. It is a brittle, mildly toxic, silver-white metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to all three of which are chalcogens, it is found in native form as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the Universe as a whole than on Earth, its extreme rarity in the Earth's crust, comparable to that of platinum, is due to its formation of a volatile hydride that caused tellurium to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of Earth, to tellurium's low affinity for oxygen, which causes it to bind preferentially to other chalcophiles in dense minerals that sink into the core. Tellurium-bearing compounds were first discovered in 1782 in a gold mine in Kleinschlatten, Transylvania by Austrian mineralogist Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, although it was Martin Heinrich Klaproth who named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for "earth", tellus. Gold telluride minerals are the most notable natural gold compounds.
However, they are not a commercially significant source of tellurium itself, extracted as a by-product of copper and lead production. Commercially, the primary use of tellurium is copper and steel alloys, where it improves machinability. Applications in CdTe solar panels and cadmium telluride semiconductors consume a considerable portion of tellurium production. Tellurium is considered a technology-critical element. Tellurium has no biological function, although fungi can use it in place of sulfur and selenium in amino acids such as tellurocysteine and telluromethionine. In humans, tellurium is metabolized into dimethyl telluride, 2Te, a gas with a garlic-like odor exhaled in the breath of victims of tellurium exposure or poisoning. Tellurium has two allotropes and amorphous; when crystalline, tellurium is silvery-white with a metallic luster. It is a brittle and pulverized metalloid. Amorphous tellurium is a black-brown powder prepared by precipitating it from a solution of tellurous acid or telluric acid.
Tellurium is a semiconductor that shows a greater electrical conductivity in certain directions depending on atomic alignment. When molten, tellurium is corrosive to copper and stainless steel. Of the chalcogens, tellurium has the highest melting and boiling points, at 722.66 K and 1,261 K, respectively. Tellurium adopts a polymeric structure consisting of zig-zag chains of Te atoms; this gray material is not volatile. Occurring tellurium has eight isotopes. Six of those isotopes, 120Te, 122Te, 123Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, are stable; the other two, 128Te and 130Te, have been found to be radioactive, with long half-lives, including 2.2 × 1024 years for 128Te. This is the longest known half-life among all radionuclides and is about 160 trillion times the age of the known universe. Stable isotopes comprise only 33.2% of occurring tellurium. A further 31 artificial radioisotopes of tellurium are known, with atomic masses ranging from 104 to 142 and with half-lives of 19 days or less. 17 nuclear isomers are known, with half-lives up to 154 days.
With the exception of beryllium-8 and beta-delayed alpha emission branches in some lighter nuclides, tellurium is the lightest element with isotopes known to undergo alpha decay. The atomic mass of tellurium exceeds that of the next element in the periodic table. With an abundance in the Earth's crust comparable to that of platinum, tellurium is one of the rarest stable solid elements. In comparison the rarest of the stable lanthanides have crustal abundances of 500 µg/kg; this rarity of tellurium in the Earth's crust is not a reflection of its cosmic abundance. Tellurium is more abundant than rubidium in the cosmos, though rubidium is 10,000 times more abundant in the Earth's crust; the rarity of tellurium on Earth is thought to be caused by conditions during preaccretional sorting in the solar nebula, when the stable form of certain elements, in the absence of oxygen and water, was controlled by the reductive power of free hydrogen. Under this scenario, certain elements that form volatile hydrides, such as tellurium, were depleted through evaporation of these hydrides.
Tellurium and selenium are the heavy elements most depleted by this process. Tellurium is sometimes found in its native form, but is more found as the tellurides of gold such as calaverite and krennerite, petzite, Ag3AuTe2, sylvanite, AgAuTe4; the city of Telluride, was named in hope of a strike of gold telluride. Gold itself is found uncombined, but when found as a chemical compound, it is most combined with tellurium. Although tellurium is found with gold more than in uncombined form, it is found more combined as tellurides of more common metals. Natural tellurite and tellurate minerals occur, formed by oxidation of tellurides near the Earth's surface. In contrast to selenium, tellurium does not replace sulfur in minerals because of the great difference in ion radii. Thus, many common sulfide minerals contain substantial quantities of selenium and only traces of tellurium. In the gold rush of 1893, miners in Kalgoorlie discarded a pyritic material as they searched for pure gold, it was used to fill in potholes and build sidewalks.
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Beppo Levi was an Italian mathematician. He published high-level academic articles and books, not only on mathematics, but on physics, history and pedagogy. Levi was a member of the Bologna Academy of Sciences and of the Accademia dei Lincei. Beppo Levi was born on May 14, 1875, in Turin, he was an older brother of Eugenio Elia Levi, he obtained his Ph. D. in mathematics at age 21 from the University of Turin, where he was appointed Assistant Professor three months and shortly thereafter became a full-time Scholar. Levi was appointed Professor at the University of Piacenza in 1901, at the University of Cagliari in 1906, at the University of Parma in 1910, at the University of Bologna in 1928; the years that followed his last appointment saw the rise of Benito Mussolini's power and of antisemitism in Italy, Levi, being Jewish, was soon expelled from his position at the University of Bologna. He emigrated to Argentina, as did many other European Jews at that time. Levi chose Argentina because of an invitation by the engineer Cortés Plá, dean of the Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales Aplicadas a la Industria at the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in the city of Rosario.
Cortés Plá invited Levi to come to Rosario to head the created Instituto de Matemática. It was there that Levi did most of his work from 1939 until his death in 1961. While living in Rosario, Levi joined a group of mathematicians that included Luis Santaló, Simón Rubinstein, Juan Olguín, Enrique Ferrari and Enrique Gaspar, Mario Castagnino and Edmundo Rofman. In 1940 Levi founded Mathematicae Notae, the first mathematical journal in Argentina. In 1956 he was awarded the Italian Premio Feltrinelli, he died on August 28, 1961 in Rosario and was buried in the Jewish cemetery there. His early work studied singularities on algebraic surfaces. In particular, he supplied a proof that a procedure for resolution of singularities on algebraic surfaces terminates in finitely many steps, he proved some foundational results concerning Lebesgue integration, including a statement that today appears in many measure theory textbooks as "Beppo Levi's lemma". He studied the arithmetic of elliptic curves, he classified them up to isomorphism, not only over C, but over Q.
Next he studied what in modern terminology would be the subgroup of rational torsion points on an elliptic curve over Q: he proved that certain groups were realizable and that others were not. He formulated a conjecture as to what the complete list of possibilities should be, a conjecture, to be made independently by Andrew Ogg about 60 years and proved by Barry Mazur. Coen, Salvatore, "Beppo Levi: una biografia", in Levi, Opere. Volume I: 1897-1906, Bologna: Edizioni Cremonese, Zbl 1054.01520. An ample biographical paper of nearly 40 pages, an earlier version of, published as Coen, Salvatore, "Beppo Levi: la vita", in Coen, Seminari di geometria, Università di Bologna, Italia, 1991–1993, Bologna: Università degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Matematica, pp. 193–232, MR 1265762, Zbl 0795.01022. Viola, Tullio, "Necrologio di Beppo Levi", Bollettino della Unione Matematica Italiana, Serie 3, 16: 513–516 Levi, Opere di Beppo Levi 1897–1926, 1: 1897–1906, Bologna: Edizioni Cremonese, Zbl 1054.01520 ——, Opere di Beppo Levi 1897–1926, 2: 1907–1926, Bologna: Edizioni Cremonese, Zbl 1054.01521.
Schappacher, N.. For a downloadable offprint from the web site of one of the two authors, see here. Beppo Levi at the Mathematics Genealogy Project. Coen, Salvatore. Convegno Italo – Argentino in onore di Beppo Levi, Bologna; the web site of a scientific meeting in Bologna, honouring the memory of Beppo Levi. Guerraggio, Angelo. Available from the Edizione Nazionale Mathematica Italiana
World Street Photography is an independent nonprofit organization and community created for street photographers by the non-profit Kujaja organisation. World Street Photography was founded in February 2014 by Gido Carper with the intention of giving street photographers a community and a public arena to show their street photography. Profit from its photobooks is given to charitable organizations; the World Street Photography Awards are street photography competitions divided into 8 categories representing different types of street photography: Free style, Urban Geometry, Street Portraits, Decisive Moment and Lights, Reflections and Without Humans. Winners receive an award and are included in the annual World Street Photography Photobook and/or shown in the yearly exhibition; the judges are Alex Coghe, Chris Suspect, Michael Ernest Sweet, Don Springer, Jonathan Highbee, Lara Kantardjian, Lauren Welles, Peter Kool, Tatsuo Suzuki, Setsiri Silapasuwanchai and Siegfried Hansen. World Street Photography book 2013/2014.
2014. World Street Photography 2015. Gudberg Nerger. ISBN 978-3-945772-06-5. World Street Photography 3. Gudberg Nerger. ISBN 978-3-945772-21-8. World Street Photography 4. Gudberg Nerger. ISBN 978-3-945772-32-4; the Gudberg Nerger Gallery Exhibition, Germany, 24 June 2015 – 15 August 2015. The Gudberg Nerger Gallery Exhibition, Germany, 21 July 2016 – 28 August 2016; the Gudberg Nerger Gallery Exhibition, Germany, 20 July 2017 – 27 August 2017. The profit of the two World Street Photography Photobooks were donated to Ashalayam. Official website
Real Rimini Football Club was an Italian association football club located in Rimini, Emilia-Romagna. The origins of the team go back to 1929 when the former Valleverde Riccione F. C. was founded in Riccione. In summer of 2010 its sports title of Serie D was moved to the city of Rimini to create Real Rimini. In the meanwhile, Valleverde Riccione was refounded as A. S. D. Riccione 1929. Real Rimini F. C. was relocated to take the place of Rimini Calcio F. C. an historical club of the city, that had financial problems. However, Rimini Calcio was admitted to Serie D with the new denomination of A. C. Rimini 1912. Real Rimini was fielded anyway, so the town of Rimini had two city derbies in the Serie D 2010–11: in this season it ranks ninth. Real Rimini lost both the matches with the results of 2–0. In the season 2011–12 it was relegated to Eccellenza; the club was dissolved in 2012 by retiring, for financial problems at the beginning of the next season of Eccellenza. Its colors were white and red
WRMN is an American radio station licensed to serve the community of Elgin, Illinois. The station's broadcast license is held by Elgin Community Broadcasting LLC; the station was assigned the call sign "WRMN" by the Federal Communications Commission. WRMN broadcasts a news/talk radio format to the Fox Valley area in the northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois; as of January 2012, local programming includes The Morning Wakeup Call and The Radio Shopping Show on weekdays plus broadcasts of church services on Sunday mornings. Syndicated programs include. Starting with the 2012 season, WRMN is the flagship station for the Schaumburg Boomers of minor league baseball's Frontier League. An agreement was signed October 26, 2016 to sell WRMN, along with commonly-owned stations KSHP and WBIG, to Pollack Broadcasting for $2 million; the sale was consummated on January 31, 2017. WRMN official website Query the FCC's AM station database for WRMN Radio-Locator Information on WRMN Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WRMN
Elmer Boyd Staats was an American public servant whose career from the late 1930s to the early 1980s was associated with the Bureau of the Budget and the GAO. Staats was born to Maude Staats. Staats received his AB from McPherson College in 1935, his MA from the University of Kansas in 1936, his Ph. D. from the University of Minnesota in 1939. Married on September 14, 1940, to Margaret S. Rich, the couple had three children: David and Catharine. In 1939, Staats became a staff member in the Executive Office of the President, U. S. Bureau of the Budget, he worked his way up at BOB until 1947, when he was promoted to assistant to the Director of the Bureau executive assistant to the director, before he held the position of Deputy Director. In 1966, Staats became Comptroller General of the United States and head of the GAO, holding that position until 1981. Elmer Boyd Staats: An Inventory of His Personal Papers, 1961-1963 in the John F. Kennedy Library, his early life was spent on a farm in the Kansas wheat belt.
In 1940 he married Margaret Rich, the daughter of Congressman Robert Fleming Rich of Pennsylvania, a textile manufacturer and banker who had a distinctly conservative record in Congress. The couple had three children: David and Catharine. Staats was a member of the Cosmos and Chevy Chase Clubs and the Metropolitan Memorial United Methodist Church of Washington, DC. Staats was valedictorian of the 1931 graduating class of Sylvia High School in Kansas. Staats attended McPherson College, operated by the Church of the Brethren in McPherson, where he received a A. B. in 1935, graduating Phi Beta Kappa. He went to the University of Kansas, where he received an M. A. in political science and economics in 1936. After this, he entered the University of Minnesota’s doctoral program in political economy, earning his by a Ph. D. in 1939. Staats first entered public service in 1936, after graduating with his master's degree from the University of Kansas, where he spent that summer as a research assistant for the Kansas Legislative Council of Topeka.
He was a member of the staff of the Public Administration Service of Chicago from 1937 to 1938 while he was working on his doctorate at the University of Minnesota. He was a Fellow of the Brookings Institution in Washington from 1938 to 1939. Staats joined the Bureau of the Budget during the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt and was employed by the BOB from 1939 to 1953. At BOB, he served in the Division of Administrative Management, in the War Agencies Section, as its chief. During World War II, Staats was responsible for organizing, financing and coordinating the principal civilian war agencies. After the war, Staats was promoted to assistant to the BOB director, assistant director in charge of Legislative Reference, executive assistant director, following appointment by President Harry Truman, to the deputy director of the agency. Staats left government service for a year after the Eisenhower presidential transition, during most of 1953 he served as research director for Marshall Field & Company.
He returned to government service when he was appointed by President Dwight Eisenhower to serve as Executive Officer of the Operations Coordinating Board of the National Security Council, responsible for coordinated implementation of US foreign policies and operations in foreign countries. Staats served from 1954 to 1958. In 1958, Staats returned to BOB and served as assistant director before being reappointed deputy director by President Eisenhower. Staats continued in the deputy director position under Presidents John Lyndon Johnson. Staats left BOB to become the 5th Comptroller General of the United States in 1966. On February 11, 1966, President Johnson nominated Staats for the position of Comptroller General, which involves serving as head of the GAO; the United States Senate Committee on Government Operations held a hearing on March 2, 1966 on Johnson's nomination of Staats to be Comptroller General, endorsed it on the same date, on March 4, 1966, the US Senate confirmed the nomination of Staats to become Comptroller General.
Staats was sworn in as Comptroller General by President Johnson on March 8, 1966, at a ceremony at the White House. Staats served until his term, expired on March 3, 1981; as Comptroller General, Staats drew on his many years of government experience, including as a former Deputy Director of the Bureau of the Budget under Presidents Truman, Eisenhower and Johnson, as he led GAO during a period of change and national turmoil. In reflecting on Staats's tenure, a senior GAO manager referred to him in 1981 as "a pragmatic agent of good government," who viewed GAO's reports as "a way to achieve results rather than hitting someone over the head." Staats was a strong advocate of public service and constructive change, who worked to improve management throughout the government. Within GAO, he practiced a participatory management style relying on task forces to study job processes and organizational issues. Staats focused on improving GAO's internal planning processes and on expanding its work and issue areas to more serve the Congress.
Not only the Comptroller General broadened GAO's work but he increased the agency's services to Congress. When Staats took charge of GAO in 1966, less than te