Tempel 1 is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867. It completes an orbit of the Sun every 5.5 years. Tempel 1 was the target of the Deep Impact space mission, which photographed a deliberate high-speed impact upon the comet in 2005, it was re-visited by the Stardust spacecraft on February 14, 2011 and came back to perihelion in August 2016. Tempel 1 was discovered on April 1867, by Wilhelm Tempel, an astronomer working in Marseille. At the time of discovery, it approached perihelion once every 5.68 years. It was subsequently observed in 1873 and in 1879. Photographic attempts during 1898 and 1905 failed to recover the comet, astronomers surmised that it had disintegrated. In fact, its orbit had changed. Tempel 1's orbit brings it sufficiently close to Jupiter to be altered, with a consequent change in the comet's orbital period; this occurred in 1881. Perihelion changed, increasing by 50 million kilometres, rendering the comet far less visible from Earth. Tempel 1 was rediscovered 13 orbits in 1967, after British astronomer Brian G. Marsden performed precise calculations of the comet's orbit that took into account Jupiter's perturbations.
Marsden found that further close approaches to Jupiter in 1941 and 1953 had decreased both the perihelion distance and the orbital period to values smaller than when the comet was discovered. These approaches moved Tempel 1 into its present libration around the 1:2 resonance with Jupiter. Despite an unfavorable 1967 return, Elizabeth Roemer of the Catalina Observatory took several photographs. Initial inspection revealed nothing, but in late 1968 she found a June 8, 1967 exposure that held the image of an 18th magnitude diffuse object close to where Marsden had predicted the comet to be. At least two images are required for orbit computation, so the next return had to be awaited. Roemer and L. M. Vaughn recovered the comet on January 1972, from Steward Observatory; the comet became observed, reached a maximum brightness of magnitude 11 during May, was last seen on July 10. Since that time the comet has been seen at every apparition, in 1978, 1983, 1989, 1994, 2000 and 2005, its orbital period is 5.515 years.
Tempel 1 is not a bright comet. Its nucleus measures 7.6 km × 4.9 km. Measurements taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in visible light and the Spitzer Space Telescope in infrared light suggest a low albedo of only 4%. A two-day rotation rate was determined. On 4 July 2005 at 05:52 UTC, Tempel 1 was deliberately struck by one component of the NASA Deep Impact probe, one day before perihelion; the impact was photographed by the other component of the probe, which recorded a bright spray from the impact site. The impact was observed by earthbound and space telescopes, which recorded a brightening of several magnitudes; the crater that formed was not visible to Deep Impact due to the cloud of dust raised by the impact, but was estimated to be between 100 and 250 meters in diameter and 30 meters deep. The probe's spectrometer instrument detected dust particles finer than human hair, discovered the presence of silicates, smectite, metal sulfides, amorphous carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Water ice was detected in the ejecta. The water ice came from 1 meter below the surface crust. In part because the crater formed during the Deep Impact collision could not be imaged during the initial flyby, on 3 July 2007, NASA approved the New Exploration of Tempel 1 mission; the low-cost mission utilized the existing Stardust spacecraft, which had studied Comet Wild 2 in 2004. Stardust was placed into a new orbit so that it approached Tempel 1, it passed at a distance of 181 km on February 15, 2011, 04:42 UTC. This was the first time. On February 15, NASA scientists identified; the crater is estimated to be 150 m in diameter, has a bright mound in the center created when material from the impact fell back into the crater. Energy of impactor According to NASA "The impactor delivers 19 Gigajoules of kinetic energy to excavate the crater; this kinetic energy is generated by the combination of the mass of the impactor and its velocity when it impacts". According to NASA, Expected crater dimensions "The energy from the impact will excavate a crater 100m wide and 28m deep".
The geometry of the flyby allowed investigators to obtain more three-dimensional information about the nucleus from stereo pairs of images than during Deep Impact's encounter. Scientists were able to spot locations where an elevated flow-like formation of icy material on the comet's surface receded due to sublimation between encounters. Comets are in unstable orbits that outgassing. Tempel 1 passed within 0.04 AU - or 5.9 million km - of the dwarf planet Ceres on November 11, 2011. As a Jupiter-family comet, it will spend years interacting with the giant planet Jupiter passing within 0.02 AU - or 3.0 million km - of Mars on October 17, 218
Aleko Point Aleko Rock, is a rocky point midway along the northeast Antarctic coast of Emona Anchorage in the east of Livingston Island, projecting 150m to the west of southwest. A nameless 400m wide cove is indented for 250m to the north of northwest, with two chains of rocks extending 80m and 50m in a westerly direction; the cove’s head features three rocks which are awash at high tide, the westernmost one lying 320m north of Aleko Point, while a larger rock rising to over 4m is located 90m southeast of the point. The point emerged during a recent glacier retreat and was first recorded in the Bulgarian recording of February 1995; the rock was mapped from a topographic survey of the region made from December 8, 1995, to February 8, 1996. Aleko is the name of a peak of Rila Mountain and a site on Vitosha Mountain, named after Aleko Konstantinov, a prominent writer and proponent of wilderness exploration. Aleko Point is located at 62°37′03.2″S 60°20′04″W, 2 km north-northeast of Spanish Point, 3.58 km northeast by north of Hespérides Point and 6.71 km east-northeast of Ereby Point.
List of Bulgarian toponyms in Antarctica Antarctic Place-names Commission L. L. Ivanov et al. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Sofia: Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, 2005. L. L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2009. Aleko Point. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission
Rolf Egon Kestener is a former international freestyle swimmer from Brazil, who participated in a Summer Olympics for his native country. His son, Cláudio Kestener, participated in Moscow. At the 1948 Summer Olympics, in London, he finished 8th in the 4×200-metre freestyle final, along with Aram Boghossian, Willy Otto Jordan and Sérgio Rodrigues, he swam the 1500-metre freestyle, not reaching the finals. At the 1955 Pan American Games in Mexico City, he won the bronze medal in the Water Polo, he broke two times the Brazilian record in the 1500-metre freestyle, both in London at the 1948 Summer Olympics
Mount Murray is a 3,026-metre mountain summit in the Spray Mountains range of the Canadian Rockies in Alberta, Canada. The mountain is situated in Peter Lougheed Provincial Park of Kananaskis Country, its nearest higher peak is 2.0 km to the south-southwest. Mount Murray can be seen from the Smith-Dorrien/Spray Trail; the mountain was named in 1918 for General Sir A. J. Murray. Murray was a British Army officer who served in the Second Boer War and the First World War as Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force from 1916-1917; the mountain's name was adopted in 1928 by the Geographical Names Board of Canada. Mount Murray is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Precambrian to Jurassic periods. Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Mount Murray is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below −20 °C with wind chill factors below −30 °C.
In terms of favorable weather conditions, July to September are best for climbing. Geography of Alberta Scrambles in the Canadian Rockies, Alan Kane, 3rd edition, page 132 Mount Murray weather: Mountain Forecast Mount Murray climbing photos: Expor8ion.com Mt. Murray photo: Flickr
Joy Tanner is an American-born Canadian actress, best known for providing the voice of Candy Kong in the animated television series Donkey Kong Country. Tanner is part Native American, of the Seneca Nation and she is adopted. Information on her birthplace varies, some sources state she was born in Rochester, New York while others, including IMDb, state she was born in Buffalo, New York. Tanner earned an honors B. A. from SUNY Potsdam, worked with Tony Award-winning director Warren Enters at SUNY Buffalo and has her diploma from the British America Drama Academy. After moving to Canada, she began her career in film, she augmented her acting career with commercials in Canada and was the star in the Shoppers Drug Mart and Pharmacy commercials playing Wonder Woman in a Listerine spot. She was nominated for a Gemini Award in 2007 for her guest role on ReGenesis in the episode "Let It Burn", she has a recurring role on Degrassi as Mrs. Coyne. Tanner was pregnant with her son during the filming of the first season of the Family Channel sitcom Life With Derek, in which she portrayed Nora MacDonald.
She gave birth in 2005. Joy Tanner on IMDb
This is a list of educational institutions in the Philippines arranged according to the dates of their foundation. It comprises the list of the oldest schools in the Philippines sorted in various categories, gives an overview of the development of education and higher learning in the Philippines. To be included in this list, an institution must satisfy a traditional definition of a formal educational institution at the time of its founding. Chronologically, an educational institution can only be included in the top ten in a certain category only if no other school has been proven, with reliable sources, to be older. Moreover, an addendum shall be attached in a category; the oldest universities, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the Spanish colonial period. The earliest schools were founded by Spanish Catholic missionaries. By the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power, Filipinos were among the most educated subjects in all of Asia.
Disputed Note: The University of San Carlos traces its roots to the Colegio de San Ildefonso founded by the Spanish Jesuits fathers Antonio Sedeno, Pedro Chirino and Antonio Pereira in 1595, thus claiming to be the oldest still existing school in Asia. USC celebrated its quadricentennial in 1995. However, this claim is opposed by the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, which argues that USC only took over the facility of the former Colegio de San Ildefonso and that there is no'visible' and'clear' link between San Carlos and San Ildefonso. Notable scholars including Dr. Jose Victor Torres, professor of history at the De La Salle University, Fr. Aloysius Cartagenas STD, professor at the Seminario Mayor de San Carlos of Cebu and Fr. Fidel Villarroel, OP, eminent historian and former archivist of Santo Tomas have questioned San Carlos' claim of tracing its roots to the 16th Century Colegio de San Ildefonso." A claim in the first ten is disputed. Still in operation Defunct Established as a School for Girls Two among the first ten oldest schools for girls are defunct.
Note: Centro Escolar University was established as Centro Escolar de Señoritas by Doña Librada Avelino and Doña Carmen de Luna in 1907 to cater the young women of Manila. The university is still continuously operating, but now as a co-educational institution. Still in operation Defunct Disputed Still in operation Defunct Disputed Three among the first ten educational institutions with the oldest University charter is defunct. Still in operation Defunct Disputed Still in operation Defunct Disputed Two among the first ten oldest law schools is defunct. Still in operation Defunct Disputed Still in operation Defunct Disputed Still in operation Defunct Disputed Still in operation Defunct Disputed Still in operation Defunct Disputed Education in the Philippines Education in the Philippines during Spanish rule Education in the Philippines during the American rule Higher education in the Philippines Medical education in the Philippines Legal education in the Philippines List of universities and colleges in the Philippines List of Catholic universities and colleges in the Philippines