Temperance movement

The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence from alcohol, its leaders emphasize alcohol's negative effects on people's health and family lives; the movement promotes alcohol education and it demands the passage of new laws against the sale of alcohol, either regulations on the availability of alcohol, or the complete prohibition of it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries in English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, it led to national prohibitions in Canada, in Norway and in the United States, as well as provincial prohibition in India. In the late 17th century, alcohol was a vital part of colonial life as a beverage and commodity for men and children. Drinking was accepted and integrated into society. However, most supporters of the movement were heavy drinkers themselves, according to a study done by an insider.

Attitudes towards alcohol began to change in the late 18th century. One of the reasons for this was the need for sober laborers to operate heavy machinery developed in the Industrial Revolution. Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775; as early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush researched the danger that drinking alcohol could lead to disease that leads to a lack of self-control and he cited abstinence as the only treatment option. Rush condemned the use of distilled spirits; as well as addiction, Rush noticed the correlation that drunkenness had with disease, death and crime. According to "Pompili, Maurizio et al", there is increasing evidence that, aside from the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of diseases and injuries. Alcohol is estimated to cause about 20–30% of cases of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, homicide and motor vehicle accidents.

After the American Revolution, Rush called upon ministers of various churches to act in preaching the messages of temperance. However, abstinence messages were ignored by Americans until the 1820s. During the 18th century, Native American cultures and societies were affected by alcohol, given in trade for furs, leading to poverty and social disintegration; as early as 1737, Native Americans began to campaign against alcohol and for legislation to restrict the sale and distribution of alcoholic drinks in indigenous communities. The Pequot writer and minister William Apess established the first formal Native American temperance society among the Maspee Indians on 11 October 1833. In the 18th century, there was a "gin craze" in Great Britain; the bourgeoisie became critical of the widespread drunkenness among the lower classes. Motivated by the bourgeoisie's desire for order, amplified by the population growth in the cities, the drinking of gin became the subject of critical national debate. In 1743, John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches, proclaimed "that buying and drinking of liquor, unless necessary, were evils to be avoided".

In the early 19th-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. On one hand, water supplies were polluted, milk was not always available, coffee and tea were expensive. On the other hand, social constructs of the time made. Drunkenness was not a problem, because people would only drink small amounts of alcohol throughout the day, but at the turn of the 19th century and subsequent intoxication became problems that led to the disintegration of the family. Early temperance societies associated with churches, were located in upstate New York and New England, but only lasted a few years; these early temperance societies called for moderate drinking, but had little influence outside of their geographical areas. In 1810, Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations; the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed in 1813.

The organization only accepted men of high social standing and encouraged moderation in alcohol consumption. Its peak of influence was in 1818, it ended in 1820, having made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Other small temperance societies appear in the 1810s, but had little impact outside their immediate regions and they disbanded soon after, their methods had little effect in implementing temperance, drinking increased until after 1830. The temperance movement in the United States began at a national level in the 1820s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes. There was a concentration on advice against hard spirits rather than on abstinence from all alcohol, on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol. An earlier temperance movement had begun during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling; the movement spread to eight states, advocating temperanc

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country. While veterans benefits have been provided since the American Revolutionary War, an veteran-focused federal agency, the Veterans Administration, was not established until 1930, became the cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989; the VA employs 377,805 people at hundreds of Veterans Affairs medical facilities, benefits offices, cemeteries. In Fiscal Year 2016, net program costs for the department were $273 billion, which includes VBA Actuarial Cost of $106.5 billion for compensation benefits. The long-term actuarial accrued liability is $2.491 trillion for compensation benefits. The agency is led by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, who—being a cabinet member—is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. In May 2014, it was revealed that veterans experienced extended delays in getting care at the Veterans Health Administration, an investigation found that VA personnel falsified scheduling data to make it seem as if they had met scheduling targets.

The Continental Congress of 1776 encouraged enlistments during the American Revolutionary War by providing pensions for soldiers who were disabled. Direct medical and hospital care given to veterans in the early days of the U. S. was provided by the individual communities. In 1811, the first domiciliary and medical facility for veterans was authorized by the federal government, but not opened until 1834. In the 19th century, the nation's veterans assistance program was expanded to include benefits and pensions not only for veterans, but their widows and dependents. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, many state veterans' homes were established. Since domiciliary care was available at all state veterans homes, incidental medical and hospital treatment was provided for all injuries and diseases, whether or not of service origin. Indigent and disabled veterans of the Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish–American War, Mexican Border period as well as discharged regular members of the Armed Forces were cared for at these homes.

Congress established a new system of veterans benefits when the United States entered World War I in 1917. Included were programs for disability compensation, insurance for service persons and veterans, vocational rehabilitation for the disabled. By the 1920s, the various benefits were administered by three different federal agencies: the Veterans Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions of the Interior Department, the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers; the establishment of the Veterans Administration came in 1930 when Congress authorized the president to "consolidate and coordinate Government activities affecting war veterans". The three component agencies became bureaus within the Veterans Administration. Brigadier General Frank T. Hines, who directed the Veterans Bureau for seven years, was named as the first Administrator of Veterans Affairs, a job he held until 1945; the close of World War II resulted in not only a vast increase in the veteran population, but a large number of new benefits enacted by Congress for veterans of the war.

In addition, during the late 1940s, the VA had to contend with aging World War I veterans. During that time, "the clientele of the VA increased five fold with an addition of nearly 16,000,000 World War II veterans and 4,000,000 World War I veterans." Prior to World War II, in response to scandals at the Veterans Bureau, programs that cared for veterans were centralized in Washington, D. C; this centralization caused delays and bottlenecks as the agency tried to serve the World War II veterans. As a result, the VA went through a decentralization process, giving more authority to the field offices; the World War II GI Bill was signed into law on 22 June 1944, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt."The United States government began serious consolidated services to veterans in 1930. The GI Bill of Rights, passed in 1944, had more effect on the American way of life than any other legislation – with the possible exception of the Homestead Act."The VA health care system has grown from 54 hospitals in 1930 to include 153 medical centers.

VA health care facilities provide a broad spectrum of medical and rehabilitative care. The responsibilities and benefits programs of the Veterans Administration grew enormously during the following six decades. Further educational assistance acts were passed for the benefit of veterans of the Korean War, the Vietnam Era, the introduction of an "all-volunteer force" in the 1970s, the Persian Gulf War, those who served following the attacks of 11 September 2001; the Department of Veterans Affairs Act of 1988 changed the former Veterans Administration, an independent government agency established in 1930 to see to the needs of World War I veterans, into a Cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 25 October 1988, but came into effect under the term of his successor, George H. W

The Dangerous Rescue

The Dangerous Rescue by Jude Watson is the thirteenth in a series of young reader novels called Jedi Apprentice. The series explores the adventures of Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi prior to Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace. Obi-Wan Kenobi is joined by Jedi Master Adi Gallia and her Padawan Siri Tachi at Jenna Zan Arbor's secret laboratory on Simpla-12. Zan Arbor, conducting experiments in an attempt to break the Force into its constituent parts, is holding captive Qui-Gon Jinn and the elderly Jedi Master Noor R'aya; the three rescuers attempt to smuggle themselves into the laboratory. Obi-Wan receives a message informing him that his companion Astri Oddo, who went to pursue the bounty hunter Ona Nobis, is injured on the planet of Sorrus. Qui-Gon and Adi send their Padawans to Sorrus to bring Astri home, but Obi-Wan learns that this was a trap set by Ona Nobis, wisely chooses to run away from a fight, he and Siri are ordered to return to the Jedi Temple, but he convinces Siri that they should look for Astri since she's on Sorrus.

They are transported to the far desert and investigate a cave where they find Astri and her three companions tied up. However, the cave collapses — another trap set by Ona Nobis; the party are rescued by a member of a tribe that Astri once helped. The two Padawans learn that Ona Nobis is headed to Belasco, the homeworld of Senator Uta S'orn, Jenna Zan Arbor's only friend. On Belasco, the Jedi discover that the population is suffering unusually from bacteria that recur in the drinking supply every seven years, they find Senator S'orn caring for sick children. They discover that S'orn has altered Galactic Senate transcripts for Zan Arbor, that Zan Arbor is on the planet. Suspecting that Zan Arbor has bioengineered the bacteria in order to make a profit selling a cure, the four Jedi infiltrate the water purification plant, obtaining dated water samples as evidence. Obi-Wan and Siri follow Uta S'orn as she delivers dinner to patients at the royal grounds, in the hope that she will lead them to the hiding place of Zan Arbor and Ona Nobis.

After seeing Ona Nobis eat dinner, they report back to their Masters, who confront the Leader of Belasco and ask that S'orn's quarters be searched. There, the Jedi find Jenna Zan Arbor, along with the captive Noor R'aya. Zan Arbor is captured, but Obi-Wan notices that Siri has left the room, he goes to search for her, he finds her cornered by Ona Nobis on the palace roof, the two Padawans manage to hold off the wily bounty hunter. Ona Nobis tries to escape, but she falls to her death when Siri slashes through her whip. Listing CargoBay Listing review