In musical terminology, tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece and is measured in beats per minute. In modern classical compositions, a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will simply be stated in bpm. Tempo may be separated from articulation and meter, or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando. In ensembles, the tempo is indicated by a conductor or by one of the instrumentalists, for instance the drummer. While tempo is described or indicated in many different ways, including with a range of words, it is measured in beats per minute.
For example, a tempo of 60 beats per minute signifies one beat per second, while a tempo of 120 beats per minute is twice as rapid, signifying one beat every 0.5 seconds. The note value of a beat will be that indicated by the denominator of the time signature. For instance, in 44 the beat will be a crotchet; this measurement and indication of tempo became popular during the first half of the 19th century, after Johann Nepomuk Maelzel invented the metronome. Beethoven was one of the first composers to use the metronome. Instead of beats per minute, some 20th-century classical composers specify the total playing time for a piece, from which the performer can derive tempo. With the advent of modern electronics, bpm became an precise measure. Music sequencers use the bpm system to denote tempo. In popular music genres such as electronic dance music, accurate knowledge of a tune's bpm is important to DJs for the purposes of beatmatching; the speed of a piece of music can be gauged according to measures per minute or bars per minute, the number of measures of the piece performed in one minute.
This measure is used in ballroom dance music. In different musical contexts, different instrumental musicians, conductors, music directors or other individuals will select the tempo of a song or piece. In a popular music or traditional music group or band, the bandleader or lead singer may select the tempo. In popular and traditional music, whoever is setting the tempo counts out one or two bars in tempo. In some songs or pieces in which a singer or solo instrumentalist begins the work with a solo introduction, the tempo they set will provide the tempo for the group. In an orchestra or concert band, the conductor sets the tempo. In a marching band, the drum major may set the tempo. In a sound recording, in some cases a record producer may set the tempo for a song. In classical music it is customary to describe the tempo of a piece by one or more words, most in Italian, in addition to or instead of a metronome mark in beats per minute. Italian is used because it was the language of most composers during the time these descriptions became commonplace.
Some well-known Italian tempo indications include "Allegro", "Andante" and "Presto". This practice developed during the baroque and classical periods. In the earlier Renaissance music, performers understood most music to flow at a tempo defined by the tactus; the mensural time signature indicated. In the Baroque period, pieces would be given an indication, which might be a tempo marking, or the name of a dance, the latter being an indication both of tempo and of metre. Any musician of the time was expected to know how to interpret these markings based on custom and experience. In some cases, these markings were omitted. For example, the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 has no tempo or mood indication whatsoever. Despite the increasing number of explicit tempo markings, musicians still observe conventions, expecting a minuet to be at a stately tempo, slower than a Viennese waltz. Genres imply tempos. Thus, Ludwig van Beethoven wrote "In tempo d'un Menuetto" over the first movement of his Piano Sonata Op. 54, though that movement is not a minuet.
Many tempo markings indicate mood and expression. For example and allegro both indicate a speedy execution, but allegro connotes joy. Presto, on the other hand indicates speed. Additional Italian words indicate tempo and mood. For example, the "agitato" in the Allegro agitato of the last movement of George Gershwin's piano concerto in F has both a tempo indication and a mood indication. Composers name movements of compositions after their tempo marking. For instance, the second movement of Samuel Barber's first String Quartet is an Adagio. A particular musical form or genre implies its own tempo, so composers need place no further explanation in the score. Popular music charts use terms such as bossa nova, ballad
Mehmet Sabancı, a member in third generation of the renowned Sabancı family in Turkey, was a businessman. Mehmet was born on April 25, 1963 in Adana as the third child and the second son of Hacı Sabancı, his father was the son of Hacı Ömer Sabancı, the founder of Sabancı Holding, the second largest industrial and financial conglomerate of Turkey. After he finished the high school at Tarsus American College in Tarsus, province Mersin, he was educated in Business Administration at US International University Europe in London, UK, he worked from 1983 on 18 years long at several posts in the family owned Akbank and Sabancı Holding. In 2001, he quit his high ranked position in the holding as head of the food group with US$1.3 billion turnover, started his own business in upper class car trade representing Smart, Aston Martin, Porsche, Brabus Mercedes-Benz, Startech Chrysler, MG and Rover brands. He extended his business interests to food and petroleum products under the roof of his F&B-Group Company.
Mehmet Sabancı died of a heart attack on November 9, 2004 in a hotel room during a business trip in London at age 41. His corpse was buried in Zincirlikuyu Cemetery in İstanbul, he and his wife Zeynep and two sons and Burak. He was brother of Ömer Sabancı, former chairman of the prestigious "Turkish Businesspeople Association" TÜSİAD, Demet Cetindogan, member of the board of textile giant Bossa. Our unforgettables at Sabancı website F&B-Group website
The Last Legion is a 2007 historical action adventure film directed by Doug Lefler and produced by Dino De Laurentiis. It is based on the 2002 novel of the same name by Valerio Massimo Manfredi, it stars Colin Firth, Ben Kingsley, Aishwarya Rai, Thomas Brodie-Sangster, Peter Mullan, Kevin McKidd, John Hannah, Iain Glen. It premiered in Abu Dhabi on 6 April 2007; the film is loosely inspired by the events of 5th-century European history, notably the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. This is coupled with other facts and legends from the history of Britain and fantastic elements from the legend of King Arthur to provide a basis for the Arthurian legend; the film is narrated by Ambrosinus, native to Britain, who knows of a legend concerning the sword of Julius Caesar, hidden away from evil men. It begins shortly before the coronation of Romulus Augustulus as Emperor in AD 475. Having travelled through much of the known world in search of Caesar's sword, Ambrosinus has become the tutor to the young Romulus.
A Druid and part of a secret brotherhood protecting the sword, he at times gives the impression he is a magician, but his "magic" is revealed to be simple trickery. One of the running concepts of the movie surrounds the question of whether or not Ambrosinus has any actual magical abilities or is an illusionist. Romulus's father Orestes is not Emperor himself. On the day before the coronation, commander of the barbarian Goths allied with Rome, demands a third of Italy from Orestes, but is rebuffed; the same day, Romulus meets the general of the Nova Invicta Legion, Aurelianus Caius Antonius, called "Aurelius". The night after Romulus is crowned, Rome is attacked by the Goths. Most of Aurelius's men, pledged to protect the emperor, are killed, though Aurelius is only stunned and left for dead. Orestes and his wife are killed by Odoacer's lieutenant Wulfila; the next day, now ruler of the Western Empire, plans to have Romulus killed. However, Ambrosinus convinces Odoacer to spare the boy. Instead, Romulus is exiled to Capri along with Ambrosinus, guarded by his men.
His prison is a villa constructed more than four centuries earlier by the emperor Tiberius. With Ambrosinus's help, Romulus discovers a hidden chamber within the villa, he comes across a statue of Caesar holding the fabled sword, forged by a Chalybian smith after his military campaigns in Britain. Writing near the statue's feet proclaims the sword was made for "he, destined to rule"; this is interpreted as a prophecy by various characters, Romulus keeps the weapon. The two are rescued from Capri by the loyal Aurelius and three surviving legionaries, Vatrenus and Demetrius, accompanied by a female agent of the Eastern Roman Empire – an Indian warrior named Mira, they take Romulus to a seaport where the Eastern Roman Empire's emissary and the senator Nestor have promised safe passage to Constantinople. However, they escape after they learn the Senate and the Eastern Empire have betrayed them and sided with Odoacer. Ambrosinus persuades Romulus to seek refuge in Britain, where the Ninth Legion may remain loyal, being far from the events.
They are followed by his men. Crossing the Alps and the English Channel, the party travels to Hadrian's Wall and find no evidence of the legion until a farmer approaches and reveals he was its commanding general. With the collapse of Roman support of Britain, the legion had decided to disband and settle as farmers. Most of the men in the legion had families, they did not want to antagonise the powerful warlord Vortgyn. During their stay in the small Celtic village, Romulus meets and befriends a young girl named Igraine. Aurelius and Mira become close to each other. Ambrosinus told Romulus of a scar on his chest, similar to the design on the sword hilt, which he received from Vortgyn after he refused to tell him where the sword of Caesar was. Vortgyn desires the sword of Caesar as he aspires to rule the whole of Britain, it is revealed that Ambrosinus are old enemies. After meeting with the Goths, Vortgyn decides to either capture or kill Romulus as a gesture to Odoacer. After confronting Igraine outside of the village, he convinces her to tell everyone in the village to surrender Romulus and has several of his men kill the blacksmith's wife and sons.
When a tearful Igraine tells the villagers of what has happened, Aurelius confesses that Romulus is the emperor of Rome. The blacksmith demands revenge on his wife's and sons' deaths, Aurelius and his men decide to lead an army to Hadrian's Wall to face Vortgyn's armies in one final battle. Before leaving the village, Romulus receives from Igraine a suit of Roman armour which belonged to her brother, which he has since outgrown. Aurelius, wielding Caesar's sword, leads his men and a small number of Celtic warriors against Vortgyn's forces at Hadrian's Wall. Mira, Demetrius and the archers pelt the infantry with arrows, while Aurelius and several Celtic soldiers struggled to hold the charging enemy at the open gate. Despite their casualties, Vortgyn's soldiers began to overwhelm the small force on the wall; the battle appears hopeless until the rest of the Ninth Legion, having taken up their old Roman arms and uniforms, appear on the nearby ridgeline, turn the tide of battle. The two warring sides cease their hostilities upon sighting Ambrosinus holding aloft Vortgyn's golden mask, after confronting and burning him alive at a tree-sanctuary of his secret brotherhood close to the battlefield.
After having fought and injured Aurelius, Wulfila is confronted by Romulus who is