Phoenicians and wine
The culture of the ancient Phoenicians was one of the first to have had a significant effect on the history of wine. Phoenicia was a civilization centered in the reaches of Canaan along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Between 1550 BC and 300 BC, the Phoenicians developed a maritime trading culture that expanded their influence from the Levant to North Africa, the Greek Isles and the Iberian Peninsula. They either introduced or encouraged the dissemination of knowledge to several regions that today continue to produce wine suitable for international consumption. These include modern-day Lebanon, Algeria, Egypt, Italy, France, the Phoenicians and their Punic descendants of Carthage had a direct influence on the growing winemaking cultures of the ancient Greeks and Romans that would spread viticulture across Europe. The agricultural treatises of the Carthaginian writer Mago were among the most important early texts in the history of wine to ancient knowledge of winemaking. The Phoenicians spread the use of amphoras for the transport, historians think it was shortly after the discovery of wine itself, the alcoholic product of fermented grape juice, that cultures realized its value as a trade commodity.
Although wild grapes of the Vitis genus could be throughout the known world and all could be fermented, it took some degree of knowledge. This knowledge was passed along the routes that emerged from the Caucasus and Zagros Mountains down through Mesopotamia and to the Mediterranean. Specific varieties of grapevines of the V. vinifera species were identified as especially favorable for winemaking, in addition to being a valuable trade commodity for personal consumption, wine began to take on religious and cultural significance. Wine, or chemer as the Phoenicians called it, was associated with various Levantine deities—most notably El, Wine was considered an acceptable offering to both gods and kings, increasing its trade value in the ancient world. Around 1000 BC, the Mediterranean wine trade exploded, making the Phoenicians, the Phoenicians not only traded in wine produced in Canaan but developed markets for wine produced in colonies and port cities around the Mediterranean Sea. From their principal settlements in cities like Byblos and Sidon, from there they expanded from beyond mere trading to establishing colonies of trading cities throughout the Mediterranean.
They continued along the shores to found Carthage in 814 BC in northern Africa, and from there to the Balearic Islands. The Phoenicians were the founders of Málaga and Cádiz in present-day Spain sometime in the 9th century, the Phoenicians traveled the peninsulas interior, establishing trading routes along the Tagus, Douro and Iberus rivers. In Portugal, the Phoenicians were known to trade amphoras of wine for local silver, a recent discovery in the modern-day winemaking region of Valdepeñas in the south central part of what is now Spain, suggests that the Phoenicians brought viticulture further inland. Excavation in Valdepeñas has revealed the remnants of the ancient Iberian town of Cerro de las Cabezas, among the remnants were several examples of Phoenician ceramics and artifacts, including winemaking equipment. Beyond the Phoenicians own expansion and colonization, the civilization did much to influence the Greek, the wines of Phoenicia had such an enduring presence in the Greek and Roman world that the adjective Bybline became a byword denoting wine of high quality
Argentina is the fifth largest producer of wine in the world. Argentine wine, as some aspects of Argentine cuisine, has its roots in Spain. Historically, Argentine winemakers were traditionally more interested in quantity than quality with the country consuming 90% of the wine it produces, until the early 1990s, Argentina produced more wine than any other country outside Europe, though the majority of it was considered unexportable. However, the desire to increase exports fueled significant advances in quality, Argentine wines started being exported during the 1990s, and are currently growing in popularity, making it now the largest wine exporter in South America. The most important wine regions of the country are located in the provinces of Mendoza, San Juan, Catamarca, Río Negro and more recently Southern Buenos Aires are wine producing regions. The Mendoza province produces more than 60% of the Argentine wine and is the source of a higher percentage of the total exports. This allows cultivating with little or no pesticides, enabling even organic wines to be easily produced, there are many different varieties of grapes cultivated in Argentina, reflecting the countrys many immigrant groups.
The French brought Malbec, which makes most of Argentinas best known wines, the Italians brought vines that they called Bonarda, although Argentine Bonarda appears to be the Douce noir of Savoie, known as Charbono in California. It has nothing in common with the light fruity wines made from Bonarda Piemontese in Piedmont, Torrontés is another typically Argentine grape and is mostly found in the provinces of La Rioja, San Juan, and Salta. It is a member of the Malvasia group that makes aromatic white wines and it has recently been grown in Spain. Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and other varieties are becoming more widely planted. In November 2010, the Argentine government declared wine as Argentinas national liquor, viticulture was introduced to Argentina during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and again by Christian missionaries. Ampelographers suspect that one of these cuttings brought the grape of Chiles Pais. This grape was the forerunner of the Criolla Chica variety that would be the backbone of the Argentine wine industry for the next 300 years, a provincial governor, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, instructed the French agronomist Miguel Aimé Pouget to bring grapevine cuttings from France to Argentina.
Of the vines that Pouget brought were the very first Malbec vines to be planted in that country, as the infantile Argentine wine industry became centralized in the western part of the country among the foothills of the mountains, the population centers of the country developed in the east. The 19th century saw the first wave of immigrants from Europe, in the 20th century, the development and fortunes of the Argentine wine industry were deeply influenced by the economic influences of the country. In the 1920s, Argentina was the eighth richest nation in the world with the domestic market feeding a strong wine industry, the ensuing global Great Depression dramatically reduced vital export revenues and foreign investment and led to a decline in the wine industry. There was a revival in the economy during the presidency of Juan Perón
Mexican wine and wine making began with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, when they brought vines from Europe to modern day Mexico, the oldest wine-growing region in the Americas. In 1699, Charles II of Spain prohibited wine making in Mexico, from until Mexico’s Independence, wine was produced in Mexico only on a small scale. After Independence, wine making for personal purposes was no longer prohibited and production rose, especially in the late 19th, many other European immigrant groups helped with the comeback of wine in Mexico. However, the Mexican Revolution set back wine production, especially in the north of the country, Wine production in Mexico has been rising in both quantity and quality since the 1980s, although competition from foreign wines and 40% tax on the product makes competing difficult within Mexico. Mexico is not traditionally a country, but rather prefers beer, tequila. Interest in Mexican wine, especially in the cities and tourists areas, has grown along with Mexican wines’ reputation throughout the world.
Many Mexican companies have received numerous awards, various wine producers from Mexico have won international awards for their products. There are three major wine producing areas in Mexico, with the Baja California area producing 90% of Mexico’s wine. This area is promoted heavily for enotourism with the “Ruta del Vino”, which connects over fifty wineries with the port of Ensenada and the border and the annual Vendimia harvest festival. According to legend, Hernán Cortés and his soldiers quickly depleted the wine they brought them from Spain celebrating the conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521. Because of this, one of Cortés’ first acts as governor was to order the planting of grapevines throughout New Spain, in the early colonial era, ships arriving to Mexico and Spain’s other colonies carried grapevines. In certain areas, Spaniards found a type of grapevine. However, vines from Europe grew very well here, and they were planted in monasteries and haciendas in the states of Puebla, Coahuila and others.
In 1597, Casa Madero was founded by Lorenzo García in the town of Santa María de las Parras as the oldest winery in the Americas and this area of Coahuila soon became a major wine producer due to its climate and good supplies of water. The vines that were established here were exported to the Napa Valley in California. Vineyards in the Americas, especially New Spain were successful enough that wine exports from Spain to America plummeted, because of this, Charles II decided to prohibit the production of wine in Spain’s colonies, especially Mexico, except for the making of wine for the Church in 1699. That prohibition stayed in force until Mexico’s Independence, many missionaries refused to abide by the edict and continued to produce wine for normal consumption on a small scale. One of these was Jesuit priest Juan Ugarte, who planted the first vines in Baja California when he arrived at the Loreto mission in 1701, from the end of the 18th century to the middle of the 19th, most wine production was done by clergy
The state of Oregon in the United States has established an international reputation for its production of wine, ranking fourth in the country behind California and New York. Wine making dates back to times in the 1840s, with commercial production beginning in the 1960s. American Viticultural Areas entirely within the state are the Willamette Valley AVA, parts of the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Snake River Valley AVAs lie within Oregon. Pinot noir and Pinot gris are the top two grapes grown, with over 66,041 short tons harvested in 2015, Oregon winemakers sold just over 3 million cases in 2015. With 702 wineries in Oregon, an industry has developed around wine tasting. Much of the focuses on the wineries and tasting rooms in. It is estimated that enotourism contributed USD $207.5 million to the economy in 2013 excluding sales at wineries. Wine has been produced in Oregon since the Oregon Territory was settled in the 1840s, grapes were first planted in the Oregon Territory in 1847.
Valley View, the first recorded winery, was established by Peter Britt in the late 1850s in Jacksonville, throughout the 19th century, there was experimentation with various varietals by immigrants to the state. In 1904, an Oregon winemaker won a prize at the St. Louis Worlds Fair, Wine production stopped in the United States during Prohibition. As in other states, the Oregon wine industry lay dormant for thirty years after Prohibition was repealed, the Oregon wine industry started to rebuild in the 1960s, when California winemakers opened several vineyards in the state. By 1970, there were five commercial wineries, with 35 recorded acres and this included the planting of Pinot noir grapes in the Willamette Valley, a region long thought too cold to be suitable for viticulture. In the 1970s, more out-of-state winemakers migrated to the state, the states land use laws had prevented rural hillsides from being turned into housing tracts, preserving a significant amount of land suitable for vineyards.
In 1979, The Eyrie Vineyards entered a 1975 Pinot noir in the Wine Olympics, the accolades continued into the 1980s, and the Oregon wine industry continued to add both wineries and vineyards. The state industry continued to market itself, establishing the first of several AVAs in the state, in the early 1990s, the wine industry was threatened by a Phylloxera infestation in the state, but winemakers quickly turned to the use of resistant rootstocks to prevent any serious damage. The state legislature enacted new laws designed to promote winemaking. The state found a newfound focus on green winemaking, leading the global industry into more environmentally friendly practices. In 2005, there were 314 wineries and 519 vineyards in operation in Oregon, by 2014, the number of wineries in the state has increased to 676, the 3rd most behind California and Washington
Sangiovese is a red Italian wine grape variety that derives its name from the Latin sanguis Jovis, the blood of Jupiter. Sangiovese was already known by the 16th century. Recent DNA profiling by José Vouillamoz of the Istituto Agrario di San Michele all’Adige suggests that Sangioveses ancestors are Ciliegiolo, the former is well known as an ancient variety in Tuscany, the latter is an almost-extinct relic from the Calabria, the toe of Italy. At least fourteen Sangiovese clones exist, of which Brunello is one of the best regarded, an attempt to classify the clones into Sangiovese grosso and Sangiovese piccolo families has gained little evidential support. Young Sangiovese has fresh fruity flavours of strawberry and a little spiciness, while not as aromatic as other red wine varieties such as Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah, Sangiovese often has a flavour profile of sour red cherries with earthy aromas and tea leaf notes. Wines made from Sangiovese usually have medium-plus tannins and high acidity, early theories on the origin of Sangiovese dated the grape to the time of Roman winemaking.
It was even postulated that the grape was first cultivated in Tuscany by the Etruscans from wild Vitis vinifera vines, the literal translation of the grapes name, the blood of Jove, refers to the Roman god Jupiter. According to legend, the name was coined by monks from the commune of Santarcangelo di Romagna in what is now the province of Rimini in the Emilia-Romagna region of east-central Italy, the first documented mention of Sangiovese was in the 1590 writings of Giovanvettorio Soderini. Identifying the grape as Sangiogheto Soderini notes that in Tuscany the grape makes very good wine but if the winemaker is not careful, while there is no conclusive proof that Sangiogheto is Sangiovese, most wine historians generally consider this to be the first historical mention of the grape. Regardless, it would not be until the 18th century that Sangiovese would gain widespread attention throughout Tuscany, being with Malvasia, in 1738, Cosimo Trinci described wines made from Sangiovese as excellent when blended with other varieties but hard and acidic when made as a wine by itself.
In 1883, the Italian writer Giovanni Cosimo Villifranchi echoed a similar description about the quality of Sangiovese being dependent on the grapes with which it was blended. The winemaker and politician, Bettino Ricasoli formulated one of the recipes for Chianti when he blended his Sangiovese with a sizable amount of Canaiolo. In the wines of Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Sangiovese would experience a period of popularity in the late 19th and early 20th century. In 2004, DNA profiling done by researchers at San Michele AllAdige revealed the grape to be the product of a crossing between Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo and this essentially means that the genetic heritage of Sangiovese is half Tuscan and half southern Italian. Early ampelographical research into Sangiovese begun in 1906 with the work of Girolamo Molon, Molon discovered that the Italian grape known as Sangiovese was actually several varieties of clones which he broadly classified as Sangiovese Grosso and Sangiovese Piccolo.
The Sangiovese Grosso family included the growing in the Brunello region as well as the clones known as Prugnolo Gentile. It is possible, and even likely, that Sangiovese is one of the parents of each of these grape varieties. Since these grape varieties are spread over different parts of Italy, in the Chianti Classico region, Sangiovese thrives on the highly friable shale-clay soil known as galestro
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist, a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St, the original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of their monasteries, after that the followers of the older pattern of life became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux and it was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order.
By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy, the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially field-work, Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy. The monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James. On March 21,1098, Roberts small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, during the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Roberts absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, and Pope Urban II, the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding.
Robert had been the idealist of the order, and Alberic was their builder, upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church. The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16,1106, on January 26,1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase. The order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, and he framed the original version of the Cistercian Constitution or regulations, the Carta caritatis.
Although this was revised on several occasions to meet needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, prayer. Cistercian abbeys refused to admit children, allowing adults to choose their religious vocation for themselves – a practice emulated by many of the older Benedictine houses
Carignan is a red Spanish/French wine grape variety that is widely planted throughout the western Mediterranean and around the globe. Along with Aramon, it was considered one of the main grapes responsible for Frances wine lake and was a substantial producer in jug wine production in Californias Central Valley. Ampelographers believe that the grape originated in Cariñena and was transplanted to Sardinia, elsewhere in Italy, Algeria. The variety was historically a component of Riojas red wine blend, from Spain, it gained prominence in Algeria and fed that countrys export production to France. Upon Algerias independence in 1962, the French supply of Carignan wine was cut off, the grapes prominence in France hit a high point in 1988 when it accounted for 167,000 hectares and was Frances most widely planted grape variety. Out of all the French wine varieties, Carignan was the most widely affected dropping by 2000 to 95,700 ha, the popularity of Carignan was largely tied to its ability to produce very large yields in the range of 200 hl/ha.
The vine does face significant viticultural hazards with significant sensitivity to several viticultural hazards including rot, powdery mildew, downy mildew, Carignan is a late budding and ripening grape which requires a warm climate in order to achieve full physiological ripeness. The vine develops very thick stalk around the grape clusters which makes mechanical harvesting difficult and it has an upright growth habit and can be grown without a trellis. A white grape known as Carignan blanc and a pink-berried Carignan gris exists in Roussillon in small plantings of around 411 hectares and 1 hectare, respectively. Today, ampelographers largely discount this theory due to the lack of documentation or evidence from DNA analysis suggesting a Phoenician or Italian origin. Instead, the points more strongly to a Spanish origin of the grape. The grape likely originated in the Aragon region of northwest Spain where it possibly named after the town of Cariñena in the province of Zaragoza. In 2006, DNA profiling suggested a relationship between Carignan and the Rioja wine grape Graciano though it was not yet clear which variety is the parent.
Carignan was likely introduced to Sardinia sometime between 1323-1720 when the island was under the Spanish influence of the Crown of Aragon, here the grape developed in isolation to form distinct clones under the synonyms Bovale di Spagna and Bovale Grande. At some point the grape reached Algeria where it became a high yielding workhouse variety that was exported to France to add color. After the phylloxera epidemic devastated French vineyards in the mid to late 19th century, plantings increased even more when Algeria gained independence in 1962. The grapes prominence in France hit a point in 1988 when it accounted for 167,000 hectares and was Frances most widely planted grape variety. Carignan is a budding and late ripening variety that is often one of the last grapes to be harvested during a vintage
Grenache or Garnacha is one of the most widely planted red wine grape varieties in the world. It ripens late, so it needs hot, dry conditions such as found in Spain. It is grown in Sardinia, the south of France, Australia and it is generally spicy, berry-flavored and soft on the palate and produces wine with a relatively high alcohol content, but it needs careful control of yields for best results. Characteristic flavor profiles on Grenache include red fruit flavors with a subtle, as Grenache ages the wines tend to take on more leather and tar flavors. Wines made from Grenache tend to lack acid and color, Grenache is the dominant variety in most Southern Rhône wines, especially in Châteauneuf-du-Pape where it is typically over 80% of the blend. In Australia it is blended in GSM blends with Syrah. Wine Cannonau di Sardegna is by law 99% local Grenache, Grenache is used to make rosé wines in France and Spain, notably those of the Tavel district in the Côtes du Rhône and those of the Navarra region.
Grenache or Garnacha most likely originated in the region of Aragon in northern Spain, plantings probably spread from the original birthplace to Catalonia and other lands under the Crown of Aragon such as Sardinia and Roussillon in southern France. An early synonym for the vine was Tinto Aragonés, the grape is known as Cannonau in Sardinia, where it is claimed that it originated there and spread to other Mediterranean lands under Aragon rule. Grenache, under its Spanish synonym Garnacha, was well established on both sides of the Pyrenees when the Roussillon region was annexed by France. From there the vine made its way through the Languedoc and to the Southern Rhone region where it was established by the 19th century. Despite its prevalence in nearby Navarra and Catalonia, Garnacha was not widely planted in the Rioja till the early 20th century as vineyards were replanted following the phylloxera epidemic. Early Australian Grenache was a component in the sweet fortified wines that was the lynchpin of the early Australian wine industry.
In the 19th century, California wine growers prized the vines ability to high yields and withstand heat. The grape was extensively planted throughout the hot San Joaquin Valley where it was used as a blending component for pale. The Grenache vine is characterized by its strong wood canopy and upright growth and it has good wind tolerance and has shown itself to be very suited for the dry, warm windy climate around the Mediterranean. The vine buds early and requires a long growing season in order to fully ripen, Grenache is often one of the last grapes to be harvested, often ripening weeks after Cabernet Sauvignon. The long ripening process allows the sugars in the grape to reach high levels, making Grenache based wines capable of substantial alcohol levels and wet climates can increase Grenaches propensity to develop these viticultural dangers
The first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhards early 9th Century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros, there are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar, multicolor (i. e. in contrast to the mountainous lands north of the original County of Navarre. Basque naba, plain + Basque herri, the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a tribe who populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, not so the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks ever completely subjugated the area, the Vascones included neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century.
In AD778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass and that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of King Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, and even a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the Kingdom of Navarre was divided between his sons and it never fully recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom throughout the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads. The native line of kings came to an end in 1234, the Navarrese kept most of their strong laws and institutions. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but keeping a separate status. A Chartered Government was established, and the managed to keep home rule.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a version of home rule was passed in 1839. The relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade, amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in Navarre and the rest of the Basque provinces. The end of the Third Carlist War saw a wave of Spanish centralization directly affecting Navarre. In 1893-1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrids governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat
New Zealand wine
New Zealand wine is largely produced in ten major wine growing regions spanning latitudes 36° to 45° South and extending 1,600 kilometres. They are, from north to south Northland, Waikato/Bay of Plenty, Hawkes Bay, Nelson, Canterbury/Waipara, Wine making and vine growing go back to colonial times in New Zealand. British Resident and keen oenologist James Busby was, as early as 1836, in 1851 New Zealands oldest existing vineyard was established by French Roman Catholic missionaries at Mission Estate in Hawkes Bay. In 1883 William Henry Beetham was recognised as being the first pioneer to plant Pinot Noir, Beetham was supported in his endeavours by his French wife Marie Zelie Hermance Frere Beetham. Their partnership and innovation to pursue winemaking helped form the basis of modern New Zealands viticulture practices, due to economic and cultural factors, wine was for many years a marginal activity in terms of economic importance. Typically, their vineyards produced sherry and port for the palates of New Zealanders of the time, the three factors that held back the development of the industry simultaneously underwent subtle but historic changes in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
In 1973, Britain entered the European Economic Community, which required the ending of historic trade terms for New Zealand meat and this led ultimately to a dramatic restructuring of the agricultural economy. Before this restructuring was implemented, diversification away from traditional protein products to products with potentially higher economic returns was explored. Vines, which produce best in low moisture and low soil fertility environments, were seen as suitable for areas that had previously been marginal pasture. The end of the 1960s saw the end of the New Zealand institution of the six oclock swill, the same legislative reform saw the introduction of BYO licences for restaurants. This had a profound and unexpected effect on New Zealanders cultural approach to wine, finally the late 1960s and early 1970s saw the rise of the overseas experience, where young New Zealanders traveled and lived and worked overseas, predominantly in Europe. In the 1970s, Montana in Marlborough started producing wines which were labelled by year of production, the first production of a Sauvignon blanc of great note appears to have occurred in 1977.
Also produced in that year were superior quality wines of Muller Thurgau, such was the boom that over-planting occurred, particularly in the wrong varietals that fell out of fashion in the early 1980s. In 1984 the Labour Government paid growers to pull up vines to address a glut that was damaging the industry, ironically many growers used the government grant not to restrict planting, but to swap from less economic varieties to more fashionable varieties, using the old root stock. The glut was only temporary in any case, as boom times returned swiftly, New Zealand is home to what many wine critics consider the world’s best Sauvignon blanc. Oz Clarke, a well-known British wine critic, wrote in the 1990s that New Zealand Sauvignon blanc was arguably the best in the world, Sauvignon blanc has been used in many French regions in both AOC and Vin de Pays wine. The most famous had been Frances Sancerre and it is the grape used to make Pouilly Fumé. Following Robert Mondavis lead in renaming Californian Sauvignon blanc Fumé Blanc, the fashion for strong oaky overtones and the name waned
Rioja is a wine region in Spain, with Denominación de Origen Calificada. Rioja wine is made from grapes grown in the communities of La Rioja and Navarre. Rioja is further subdivided into three zones, Rioja Alta, Rioja Baja and Rioja Alavesa, many wines have traditionally blended fruit from all three regions, though there is a slow growth in single-zone wines. The harvesting of wine in La Rioja has an ancient lineage with origins dating back to the Phoenicians, as was the case in many Mediterranean lands in mediaeval times, monks were the main practitioners of winemaking in La Rioja and great advocates of its virtues. In the thirteenth century, Gonzalo de Berceo, clergyman of the Suso Monastery in San Millán de la Cogolla and Spains earliest known poet, in the year 1063, the first testimony of viticulture in La Rioja appears in the Carta de población de Longares. The King of Navarra and Aragon gave the first legal recognition of Rioja wine in 1102, from the 15th century on, the Rioja Alta specialized in wine growing.
In 1560, harvesters from Longares chose a symbol to represent the quality of the wines, in 1635, the mayor of Logroño prohibited the passing of carts through streets near wine cellars, in case the vibrations caused a deterioration of the quality of the wine. Several years later, in 1650, the first document to protect the quality of Rioja wines was drawn up, the Society was established to promote the cultivation and commercialisation of Rioja wines and 52 Rioja localities participated. In 1852, Luciano Murrieta created the first fine wine of the Duque de la Victoria area, in 1892, the Viticulture and Enology Station of Haro was founded for quality-control purposes. In 1902, a Royal Decree determining the origin of Rioja wines is promulgated, the Consejo Regulador was created in 1926 with the objective of limiting the zones of production, expanding the warranty of the wine and controlling the use of the name Rioja. This Council became legally structured in 1945 and was inaugurated in 1953. In 1970 the Regulations for Denominación de Origen were approved as well as Regulations for the Regulating Council, in 1991, the prestigious Calificada nomination was awarded to La Rioja, making it Spains first Denominación de Origen Calificada.
In 2008, the Regulatory Council for the La Rioja Denomination of Origin created a new logo to go on all bottles of wine produced under this designation, from now on bottles of wine from the La Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin will no longer bear the familiar logo. In an attempt to appeal to younger wine-lovers, the logo will now be replaced with a brighter. The aim is to reflect the new, modern aspects of wine-growing in La Rioja without detracting from the traditional wines, in theory, the new logo represents a Tempranillo vine symbolising “heritage and dynamism”. Consumers should start seeing the labels in October 2008, the Joven from 2008, Crianza from 2006, Reserva from 2005, and Gran Reserva from 2003 being released this year should bear the new label, in theory. Located south of the Cantabrian Mountains along the Ebro river, La Rioja benefits from a continental climate, the mountains help to isolate the region which has a moderating effect on the climate. They protect the vineyards from the winds that are typical of northern Spain
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, vinegar. Grapes are a type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters. The cultivation of the grape began 6, 000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC, by the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians. The growing of grapes would spread to regions in Europe, as well as North Africa.
Vitis vinifera cultivars were imported for that purpose, Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. White grapes are actually green in color, and are derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid, most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Vitis riparia, a vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking. It is native to the entire Eastern U. S. Vitis rotundifolia, the muscadines, used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. Vitis amurensis is the most important Asian species, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization,75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes.
Approximately 71% of world production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit