Ten Essentials

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A simple dry magnetic pocket compass
A trowel that can be used to dig a cathole

The Ten Essentials are survival items that hiking and Scouting organizations recommend for safe travel in the backcountry.

The Ten Essentials first appeared in print in the third edition of Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills (January 1974). Many regional organizations and authors recommend that hikers, backpackers, and climbers rigorously ensure they have the ten essentials with them. However, personal preferences and differences in conditions may dictate otherwise and with experience most adventurers add and subtract from the list depending on the situation;[1] some ultralight backpackers do not always carry all of the items and believe it is an acceptable risk they take in order to travel light and fast.[2]


According to the eighth edition of Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills (2010) book there are ten essentials.[3]

  1. Navigation. Topographic map and assorted maps in waterproof container plus a magnetic compass, optional altimeter or GPS receiver.
  2. Sun protection. Sunglasses, sunscreen for lips and skin, hat, clothing for sun protection.
  3. Insulation. Jacket, hat, gloves, rain shell, and thermal underwear.
  4. Illumination. Headlamp, flashlight, batteries. LED bulb is preferred to extend battery life.
  5. First-aid supplies, plus insect repellent.
  6. Fire. Butane lighter, matches in waterproof container.
  7. Repair kit and tools. Knives, multi-tool, scissors, pliers, screwdriver, trowel/shovel, duct tape, cable ties.
  8. Nutrition. Add extra food for one additional day (for emergency). Dry food is preferred to save weight and usually needs water.
  9. Hydration. Add extra 2 liters of water for one additional day (for emergency).
  10. Emergency shelter. Tarp, bivouac sack, space blanket, plastic tube tent, jumbo trash bags, insulated sleeping pad.[4]

This book recommends supplementing the above with:

Other lists[edit]

Other outdoor organizations have variations of the Ten Essentials pertinent to local conditions.

Boy Scouts of America's "Scout Basic Essentials" are quite similar (Map and Compass, Sun Protection, Extra Clothing, Flashlight, First-Aid Kit, Matches and Fire-starters, Pocketknife, Trail Food, Water Bottle, and Rain Gear.)[5]

Utah's Wasatch Mountain Club lists extra water in place of food, as Utah is mostly desert terrain, and water is more difficult to find.[6]

The Spokane Mountaineers list "thirteen essentials", which supplement the list with emergency shelter such as a space blanket, signaling device, and toilet paper and trowel (for sanitary disposal of human waste; the toilet paper also doubles as tinder for starting a fire).[7]

The "Ten Essential Groups" is an alternative approach to essential gear selection.[8] Items from each group should be chosen depending on the season, geographic location, and trip duration. In 2011, Columbia Sportswear adopted the "Ten Essential Groups" concept for their iOS app "Take Ten to the Greater Outdoors".[9]

Central Arizona Mountain Rescue Association promotes the 12 Essentials, which includes Signaling Devices and Personal Items.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Ten Essentials". Great Outdoor Recreation Pages. Archived from the original on 2015-11-25. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  2. ^ Jardine, Ray (2000). Beyond Backpacking: Ray Jardine's Guide to Lightweight Hiking. AdventureLore Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780963235930.
  3. ^ Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills (8th ed.). Mountaineers Books. 2010. ISBN 9781594851377.
  4. ^ "Ten Essentials". National Park Service.
  5. ^ "Packing Checklists for Camping Trips". 16 May 2017.
  6. ^ "Precipitation in Utah". Retrieved 2009-06-06.
  7. ^ "The 13 Essentials of the Spokane Mountaineers". Spokane Mountaineers. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
  8. ^ "The Ten Essential Groups". Dallas Sierra Club. Archived from the original on 2011-06-02. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
  9. ^ "Take Ten to the Greater Outdoors". Columbia Sportswear. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
  10. ^ "Central Arizona Mountain Rescue Association". 2018-03-20.

External links[edit]