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Tenedos

Tenedos, or Bozcaada in Turkish, is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively, the island constitutes the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province. With an area of 39.9 km2 it is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara. In 2011, the district had a population of 2,472; the main industries are wine production and fishing. The island has been famous for its grapes and red poppies for centuries, it is a former present Latin Catholic titular see. As Tenedos, it is mentioned in both the Iliad and the Aeneid, in the latter as the site where the Greeks hid their fleet near the end of the Trojan War in order to trick the Trojans into believing the war was over and into taking the Trojan Horse within their city walls; the island was important throughout classical antiquity despite its small size due to its strategic location at the entrance of the Dardanelles. In the following centuries, the island came under the control of a succession of regional powers, including the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the Delian League, the empire of Alexander the Great, the Kingdom of Pergamon, the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, before passing to the Republic of Venice.

As a result of the War of Chioggia between Genoa and Venice the entire population was evacuated and the town was demolished. The Ottoman Empire established control over the deserted island in 1455. During Ottoman rule, it was resettled by both Turks. In 1807, the island was temporarily occupied by the Russians. During this invasion the town was burnt down and many Turkish residents left the island. Under Greek administration between 1912 and 1923, Tenedos was ceded according to the Treaty of Lausanne to the new Turkish republic that emerged with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1923; the treaty called for a quasi-autonomous administration to accommodate the local Greek population and excluded the Greeks on the two islands of Imbros and Tenedos from the wider population exchanges that took place between Greece and Turkey. Tenedos remained majority Greek until the late 1960s and early 1970s, when many Greeks emigrated because of systemic discrimination and better opportunities elsewhere.

Starting with the second half of the 20th century, there has been immigration from mainland Anatolia from the town of Bayramiç. The island is known in English as both Bozcaada. Over the centuries many other names have been used. Documented ancient Greek names for the island are Leukophrys, Calydna and Lyrnessus; the official Turkish name for the island is Bozcaada,. The name Tenedos was derived, according to Apollodorus of Athens, from the Greek hero Tenes, who ruled the island at the time of the Trojan War and was killed by Achilles. Apollodorus writes that the island was known as Leocophrys until Tenes landed on the island and became the ruler; the island became known as Bozcaada. Tenedos remained a common name for the island along with Bozcaada after the Ottoman conquest of the island with Greek populations and Turkish populations using different names for the island. Tenedos is triangular in shape, its area is 39.9 km2. It is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara Imbros, it is surrounded by small islets, is situated close to the entrance of the Dardanelles.

It is the only rural district of Turkey without any villages, has only one major settlement, the town center. Geological evidence suggests that the island broke away from the mainland producing a terrain, plains in the west with hills in the Northeast, the highest point is 192 metres; the central part of the island is the most amenable to agricultural activities. There is a small pine forest in the Southwestern part of the island; the westernmost part of the island has large sandy areas not suitable for agriculture. The island has a Mediterranean climate with strong northern winds. Average temperature is 14 °C and average annual precipitation is 529 millimetres. There are a number of small streams running from north to south at the southwestern part of the island. Freshwater sources though are not enough for the island. Archeological findings indicate that the first human settlement on the island dates back to the Early Bronze Age II. Archaeological evidence suggests the culture on the island had elements in common with the cultures of northwestern Anatolia and the Cycladic Islands.

Most settlement was on the small bays on the east side of the island. Settlement archaeological work was done and thus did not find definitive evidence of grape cultivation on the island during this period. However, grape cultivation was common on neighboring islands and the nearby mainland during this time. According to a reconstruction, based on the myth of Tenes, Walter Leaf stated that the first inhabitants of the island could be Pelasgians, who were driven out of the Anatolian mainland by the Phrygians. According to the same author, there are possible traces of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek influence in the island. Ancient Tenedos is referred to in Greek and Roman mythology, archaeologists have uncovered evidence of its settlement from the Bronze Age, it would stay prominent through the age of classical Greece, fading by the time of the dominance of ancient Rome. Although a small island, Tenedos's positio

Carlos Díaz (athlete)

Carlos Martín Díaz del Río is a Chilean middle-distance runner who competes in the 1500 metres. He holds a Chilean Record of 3:37.86 minutes for the distance. He was the gold medallist in the event at the South American Championships in Athletics in 2015. Díaz rose through the age categories, taking the South American Youth title in 2010, a South American Junior bronze in 2011 a gold medal at the South American Under-23 Championships in Athletics in 2014; as a senior athlete he is a two-time medallist at the Ibero-American Championships in Athletics and won a bronze at the 2014 Pan American Sports Festival. He came from a sporting background, as his mother Julia del Río had competed internationally for Chile at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, he began to train in distance running with his mother as his coach from a young age. Díaz made his international debut at the 2008 South American Youth Championships in Athletics, where he was ninth, he represented his country at the global level the year after, running in the heats at the 2009 World Youth Championships in Athletics.

He returned to continental level at the 2010 South American Youth Championships in Athletics and had his first success, taking the 1500 m gold on home turf in Santiago de Chile. Another youth level medal came at the 2010 South American Cross Country Championships, where his fourth-place finish led Chile to the team bronze medals, he began to make progress in the under-20 category at the 2011 South American Junior Championships in Athletics, taking a bronze as the youngest 1500 m medallist as well as fourth in the 800 m. He began his 2012 with his first senior medal, taking bronze at the 2012 Ibero-American Championships in Athletics just ahead of his older compatriot Iván López, he became an under-20 global finalist at the 2012 World Junior Championships in Athletics, finishing seventh after a national junior record of 3:43.16 minutes in the qualifiers. He moved up another age category for the 2012 South American Under-23 Championships in Athletics and took the bronze medal, beaten this time by López, as well as Argentine Federico Bruno.

He failed to improve his personal best in 2013, but took a silver medal behind Leandro de Oliveira at the South American Road Mile Championships and was runner-up at the inaugural Chilean National Sports Games. Díaz returned to the track for Chile in 2014. First, he came close to a personal best at the South American Games in the Chilean capital but narrowly missed a medal behind Colombia's Rafith Rodríguez. After a personal best of 3:40.24 minutes in July, he scored two international bronze medals: first repeating his finish at the Ibero-American Championships coming third at the Pan American Sports Festival. In his last outing of the year he topped the podium at the South American Under-23 Championships with a championship record time of 3:44.52 minutes. Díaz was an improved runner at the start of 2015 and set personal bests in the 1500 metres and 3000 metres, he set a new best in the 10K run, defending his title in that section of the Santiago Marathon with a time of 28:45 minutes. At the age of twenty-one, Díaz established himself as one of the region's top middle-distance runners at the 2015 South American Championships in Athletics by securing his first senior gold in the 1500 m. – one of two winners for Chile at the meeting, alongside Víctor Aravena.

In 2018, Díaz made a move up in distance to the half marathon, in his debut, broke the Chilean record by 2 minutes with a time of 1:02:22. 800 metres – 1:50.35 minutes 1500 metres – 3:37.86 minutes 3000 metres – 7:53.37 minutes 5000 metres – 13:59 minutes 10K run – 28:45 minutes Half marathon - 1:02:22 hours 1500 metres Indoor – 3:42.23 minutes 3000 metres Indoor – 7:59.23 minutes Carlos Díaz at World Athletics

Girolamo Maria Gotti

Girolamo Maria Gotti, O. C. D. sometimes erroneously called Giuseppe Gotti, was a friar of the Discalced Carmelite Order, who served in various offices of the Holy See as a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Gotti was born Antonio Giovanni Benedetto Gotti in Genoa part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the second of the five children of Filippo Gotti, a dock worker from Bergamo, Caterina Schiappacassea, he was sent to study at the Jesuit academy in Genoa, after which he entered the novitiate of the Order of Discalced Carmelites in Loano in 1849. On 10 November 1850, he received the religious habit and the religious name of Girolamo Maria dell'Immacolata Concezione. After his religious profession as a member of the Order on 12 November 1851, he began his studies for the priesthood, which he completed in 1856, being ordained a priest on 20 December 1856. In the following decades Gotti was a professor of theology in the local monastery. So able and versatile was he that he taught mathematics at the local naval academy during this period.

He was regarded as a tireless student and scholar, as well as an ascetic who, despite the influence he was having, would always sleep on the floor. At the First Vatican Council in 1870, Gotti served as a peritus to the Prior General of the Discalced Carmelite Order. By 1881 he had become Prior General himself, a position he would retain until 1897, he became a counselor to several curial congregations in Rome during the 1880s and was Apostolic Examiner of the Roman Clergy during this decade. His diplomatic ability caused him to be selected for various special missions to South America, which he fulfilled with success in Brazil. In 1892 Gotti became Titular Archbishop of Internuncio to Brazil. At the consistory of 29 November 1895 he was elevated to cardinal by Pope Leo XIII, being assigned as his titular church the Church of Santa Maria della Scala, in the Trastevere neighborhood of Rome, attached to the General Motherhouse of the Order. Gotti became Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops in 1896, but was transferred to the Propaganda Fide - where most of his curial experience had been concentrated - in July 1902.

His reputation for piety and learning being undiminished meant that, when the ageless Leo XIII seemed in declining health, Gotti was mentioned as a successor though he was seen as a different man from Pope Leo. Gotti was papabile at the 1903 papal conclave, when he was believed to be the most opponent of Pope Leo's Cardinal Secretary of State Mariano Rampolla, some, noting opposition to Rampolla just before Pope Leo's death, had said Gotti was to win. Gotti was Rampolla's main challenger in the first four ballots; when it became clear Rampolla had too many opponents to be able to gain the necessary 42 votes for election, his supporters turned to Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto, after seven ballots Sarto was elected as Pope Pius X. It is noteworthy that there has never been a Carmelite pope: indeed Gotti is the only Carmelite cardinal to have been a serious candidate for the papacy since the Order was founded in the 13th century. Under Pope Pius, Gotti continued in his role as Prefect of the Propaganda Fide until his death in 1916.

Although he participated in the 1914 conclave, Gotti, at eighty years of age, was far too old to have another chance of becoming pope and was not again considered papabile. Gotti died on 29 March 1916 as a result of anemia, his remains were buried in the chapel of the Discalced Carmelite Order in the Campo Verano Cemetery of Rome. On March 21, 1966, his remains were transferred to the Chapel of San Giovanni Battista in the Church of Santa Maria della Scala