Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Zibo is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, China. It borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the west and Tai'an to the southwest, Linyi to the south, Weifang to the east, Dongying to the northeast, Binzhou to the north. Zibo governs 5 districts and each of these Chinese districts has a distinct downtown area of its own; the T-shaped city has a total area of 5,938 km2, including the counties of Huantai and Yiyuan. Zibo's total population is 4.53 million according to the 2010 census, of which 4,412,016 inhabitants live in the metro area comprising the 5 urban districts, Huantai county and now Zouping County situated in the municipality of Binzhou being conurbated. Zibo was the centre of the ancient State of Qi, whose capital Linzi was the most populous city in the east about 3000 years ago. Zibo is the birthplace of ancient football Cuju, which according to FIFA, was the earliest form of the sport. Pu Songling, a well-known writer of the Qing Dynasty, is one of the most famous people from Zibo.
As the birthplace of Qi culture, Zibo is a notable tourist city. Manufacturing holds an important place of the city's economy, in particular ceramics manufacturing. Other key industries include the petrochemical industry, metallurgy, construction materials and textile. High and new-technology industries, such as new materials, fine chemicals and information, biological medicines are developing rapidly. According to the 2007-08 Global City Competitiveness Report released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Zibo was among the top 20 cities in the world that experienced the fastest economic growth between 2001 and 2005. According to the Oriental Outlook MagazineIssue No.1, 2009, Zibo ranks No. 1 on the list of cities that have reasonable real estate prices in China ranking No. 2 on the list of cities with good public security. In 2009, the city received the award of "Best 10 Harmonious Cities that enjoy Sustainable Development in China". Zibo is considered as one of the birthplaces of the Han Chinese.
The remains of three major Neolithic cultures in ancient China, Beixin culture, Dawenkou culture, Longshan culture have been found in Zibo. Zibo was once the capital of the ancient State of Qi, the most prosperous state during the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods over 2,000 years ago in China. Duke Huan of Qi, ruler of Qi, appointed Guan Zhong, the famous thinker and economist, as his prime minister, adopted Guan's thoughts and policies to administer his country, reform the economic system and develop relations with other states, After many years, Qi became the strongest state due to its economic and military strength, was named as the "state with one thousand chariots" and the "head of the five strongest states"; the culture and education undertakings were rather developed in Qi. Both poetry and music were at a high level. Linzi remained its capital for as long as 638 years, was the biggest city in East Asia; as the birthplace of the Qi Culture, Zibo has many cultural scenic spots.
In the national city of history and culture, the Linzi District, the ruins of the ancient Qi city, the pit for burying the funerary horses and chariots and other famous cultural relics and historic sites, have been discovered and unearthed. All of them exemplify the past prosperity of the Qi State; the ancient city of Qi was one of the first places, assigned to be a "cultural relics site" in China so it has been protected from demolition since. As such, it is rich in cultural relics and historical sites and is referred to as the "Underground Museum". Zibo made significant contributions to the prosperity of the Silk Road. Zibo was one of the biggest suppliers of silk products. Zhoucun, one of the townships in Zibo, was considered one of the four'dry ports' during that period alongside Foshan and Zhuxian; the major trade streets such as'Dajie','Sishijie','Yinzijie' are well preserved to this date. In 2004, FIFA President Sepp Blatter visited Zibo to celebrate FIFA's 100th anniversary. FIFA has since recognized the city as the birthplace of football.
The prefecture-level city of Zibo administers 8 county-level divisions, including 5 districts and 3 counties. Zibo is located near the center of Shandong Province, neighboring Mt. Tai in the south and backing the Yellow River in the north. Toward the east are the coastal cities of Qingdao and Weihai; the capital of Shandong, Jinan is to its west. Zibo is located in the transition zone between mountainous area in central Shandong and the North China Plain, its southern area is covered with mid-sized mountains. The city's northern territory descends into plains; the ratio among mountains and plains are 42%, 29.9% and 28.1%, respectively. With the Yihe River originating itself in the southern mountain area, Yellow River flowing across the northern area, the city has comparatively abundant water resources; the workable reserve of ground water is 1.24 tons/day. Zibo is located in a warm, temperate zone, bears a semi-humid and semi-dry continental climate. Like other major cities in North China, Zibo has four distinct seasons.
January and July are the coldest and hottest months during the year. Zibo enjoys 180 to 220 frost-free days and the average annual hours of sunshine are 2542.6 to 2832.6. The annual average precipitation of Zibo is 25.2 inches. As of 2006, 4,181,260 people lived in Zibo, of which 2,102,819 were male and 2,078,441 were female; the sex male to female ratio was 101.17, death rate was 5.92%, birth rate was 8.81%. The natural growth rate o
Gangcheng is one of ten districts of the city of Jinan, in central Shandong province, China. It has an area of around 240,000 inhabitants, it is named for its production of steel. Laiwu Steel Corporation, the largest subsidiary of Shandong Iron and Steel Group, is headquartered in Gangcheng District. In January 2019, the Shandong provincial government announced in a decision that Laiwu Prefecture Municipality was absorbed by Jinan and Gangcheng District will be under Jinan's administration. Information page
Chengyang District is a district of Qingdao, People's Republic of China. It has an area of around 740,000 inhabitants; the district is located at the northern outskirts of Qingdao City proper. Qingdao Liuting Airport is located near the urban area of the district. Chengyang features sizable agriculture. Qingdao Airlines has its headquarters in the district. Malvern College Qingdao is located in this district. Information page
Laoshan District is an urban district of Qingdao, Shandong. It has an area of 858 square kilometres and had 379,500 inhabitants as of 2010, it is home to Mount Lao. Laoshan District is located in the south of the Shandong Peninsula, facing the Yellow Sea in the east and south, it covers 858 km2 with 103.7 km2 of coastline. The mountain ranges of Laoshan cover most of the eastern part of the district; the district belongs with a monsoon-influenced temperate climate. There is severe cold in winter. Most of the district is highland with the average altitude of 55m and surface water of 3m. There is abundant high quality ground water. In fact, Laoshan mineral water is sold China-wide. Natural resources are abundant, with granite being the prevalent mineral in the area. Laoshan District is home to tourism and a large service-based industry. In terms of Hi-Tech, the focus is laid on IT, Marine Biological Pharmacy and new materials. Emphasis has been put on sustainable development and green technology, taking advantage of the still-intact mountain forests and the seaside.
The Qingdao International Convention And Exhibition Center with an area of 250,000 m2 is remains the largest venue for exhibition and convention purposes in Shandong province. It was put into use in April, 2001 and since has marked a rapid development phase of Qingdao exhibition and convention economy. Tourism is essential to the district, with a wide variety of recreational, seaside sight-seeing tourism facilities including the Polar Ocean World and Shilaoren Sightseeing Garden; the district is home to several well-known festivals, including the Qingdao International Beer Festival, Laoshan Tea Festival and Laoshan Tourism Culture Festival, all of which attract visitor from China as well as abroad. The main tourist attraction within the district is Mount Lao itself, a 5A tourist destination. With about 176,000 tourists visiting during the 2012 Golden Week. Other tourist destinations include the Qingdao Museum （青岛市博物馆）, Haier Museum, Qingdao Grand Theatre and the Beach at Old Stone Man. Laoshan is well known for its famous green tea.
It has a unique character gained as a result of being grown at a higher latitude than any other tea within China. The high latitude makes it all the more difficult for the tea plants to grow which gives the tea a full and complex taste. Laoshan District is home to over 65 institutions of higher education, it is host to three major universities, most notably the main campus of both the Ocean University of China and the Qingdao University of Science and Technology, as well as a branch campus of Qingdao University. Notable secondary and international schools include Qingdao No.2 Middle School, Qingdao Amerasia International School, Overseas Chinese School, International School of Qingdao, Qingdao Senior Vocational School. People's Government of Laoshan District, Qingdao City website
Tianqiao District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core. It has an area of 258.71 km2 and has 688,415 permanent residents as of 2010. It borders Jiyang County to the north, Licheng District to the east, Lixia District to the southeast, Shizhong District to the south, Huaiyin District to the southwest, as well as the prefecture-level city of Dezhou to the northwest. Everbright International has its Jinan office in Tianqiao District. Official home page
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China referred to as the Chinese Communist Party, is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front, it was founded in 1921, chiefly by Li Dazhao. The party grew and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army. The CPC is organised on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist theoretician Vladimir Lenin which entails democratic and open discussion on policy on the condition of unity in upholding the agreed upon policies; the highest body of the CPC is the National Congress, convened every fifth year. When the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee is the highest body, but since the body meets only once a year most duties and responsibilities are vested in the Politburo and its Standing Committee.
The party's leader holds the offices of General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and State President. Through these posts, the party leader is the country's paramount leader; the current paramount leader is Xi Jinping, elected at the 18th National Congress held in October 2012. The CPC is committed to communism and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties each year. According to the party constitution, the CPC adheres to Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, socialism with Chinese characteristics, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era; the official explanation for China's economic reforms is that the country is in the primary stage of socialism, a developmental stage similar to the capitalist mode of production. The command economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy, the current economic system, on the basis that "Practice is the Sole Criterion for the Truth".
Since the collapse of Eastern European communist governments in 1989–1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the CPC has emphasised its party-to-party relations with the ruling parties of the remaining socialist states. While the CPC still maintains party-to-party relations with non-ruling communist parties around the world, since the 1980s it has established relations with several non-communist parties, most notably with ruling parties of one-party states, dominant parties in democracies and social democratic parties; the CPC has its origins in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, during which radical Western ideologies like Marxism and anarchism gained traction among Chinese intellectuals. Other influences stemming from the Bolshevik revolution and Marxist theory inspired the Communist Party of China. Li Dazhao was the first leading Chinese intellectual who publicly supported Leninism and world revolution. In contrast to Chen Duxiu, Li did not renounce participation in the affairs of the Republic of China.
Both of them regarded the October Revolution in Russia as groundbreaking, believing it to herald a new era for oppressed countries everywhere. The CPC was modeled on Vladimir Lenin's theory of a vanguard party. Study circles were, according to Cai Hesen, "the rudiments ". Several study circles were established during the New Culture Movement, but "by 1920 skepticism about their suitability as vehicles for reform had become widespread."The founding National Congress of the CPC was held on 23–31 July 1921. With only 50 members in the beginning of 1921, the CPC organization and authorities grew tremendously. While it was held in a house in the Shanghai French Concession, French police interrupted the meeting on 30 July and the congress was moved to a tourist boat on South Lake in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province. Only 12 delegates attended the congress, with neither Li nor Chen being able to attend, the latter sending a personal representative in his stead; the resolutions of the congress called for the establishment of a communist party and elected Chen as its leader.
The communists dominated the left wing of the KMT, a party organized on Leninist lines, struggling for power with the party's right wing. When KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to overthrow the warlords, Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China. Ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by communist militias. Although the communists welcomed Chiang's arrival, he turned on them, massacring 5000 with the aid of the Green Gang. Chiang's army marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by CPC General Ye Ting and his troops. Chiang's allies attacked communists; that May, tens of thousands of communists and their sympathizers were killed by nationalists, with the CPC losing 15,000 of its 25,000 members.
The CPC continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government, but on 15 July 1927 the Wuhan government expelled all communis