In mythology and the Shinto religion of Japan, Tenjin is the patron kami of academics and learning, the intelligentsia. Tenjin is the deification of Sugawara no Michizane, the famous scholar and politician of the Heian period. Ten means jin means god or deity; the original meaning of Tenjin, sky deity, is the same as that of Raijin. In Japanese history, Sugawara no Michizane rose high in the government of the country in the late 9th century, but at the beginning of the 10th century he fell victim to the plots of a rival, a member of the Fujiwara clan, was demoted and exiled to Kyushu, he died in exile in 903. On July 21, 930, the capital city was struck by heavy rain and lightning, many of the leading Fujiwara died, while fires caused by lightning and floods destroyed many of their residences; the court of the Emperor drew the conclusion that the disturbances were caused by Michizane's angry spirit, and, to placate it, the Emperor restored all Michizane's offices, burned the official order of exile, ordered that the poet be worshiped under the name Tenjin, which means sky deity.
A shrine was established at Kitano. For the first few centuries Tenjin was seen as a god of natural disasters, worshiped to placate him and avoid his curses. However, Michizane was a famous poet and scholar in his lifetime, one of the greatest of the Heian period, in the Edo period scholars and educators came to regard him as a patron of scholarship. By the present day, this view has eclipsed natural disasters in popular worship. Tenjin's influence is now regarded as strong in passing exams, so many school students, their parents, pray for success at his shrine before important entrance exams, return afterwards, if appropriate, to give thanks for success. Michizane was fond of ume trees, writing a famous poem from exile in which he lamented the absence of a particular tree he had loved in the capital. Legend states that it flew from Kyoto to Dazaifu in Kyushu to be with him, the tree is still on show at his shrine there; as a result, shrines to Tenjin are planted with many ume trees. By coincidence, these trees blossom in February, the same time of year as exam results are announced, so it is common for Tenjin shrines to hold a festival around this time.
The animal associated with Tenjin is the bull because, according to legend, during Michizane's funeral procession, the bull pulling the cart bearing his remains refused to go any further than a certain spot, built up into his shrine. The main shrines to this kami are Kitano Tenman-gū in Kyoto and Dazaifu Tenman-gū in Fukuoka Prefecture, the top three are rounded out by Egara Tenjin Shrine in Kamakura, but there are many other shrines dedicated to him across Japan; these shrines are called Tenman-gū. A group of three notable shrines has been called the Three Great Tenjin Shrines. Benzaiten: A Japanese Kami of Intelligentsia. Omoikane: A Japanese Kami of Intelligentsia. Minamoto no Yoshiie: A samurai who, like how Sugawara no Michizane became Tenjin, became Hachimantaro. Benedict of Nursia: patron of students and scholars. Imhotep: An ancient Egyptian polymath, deified. Shintō no Iroha, Jinja Shinpōsha, 2004. Mihasi, Ken, Wa ga ya no Shūkyō: Shintō, Daihōrin-Kaku, 2003
In mathematics, computer science, telecommunication, information theory, searching theory, error-correcting codes with feedback refers to error correcting codes designed to work in the presence of feedback from the receiver to the sender. Alice wishes to send a value x to Bob; the communication channel between Alice and Bob is imperfect, can introduce errors. An error-correcting code is a way of encoding x as a message such that Bob will understand the value x as intended by Alice if the message Alice sends and the message Bob receives differ. In an error-correcting code with feedback, the channel is two-way: Bob can send feedback to Alice about the message he received. In an error-correcting code without noisy feedback, the feedback received by the sender is always free of errors. In an error-correcting code with noisy feedback, errors can occur in the feedback, as well as in the message. An error-correcting code with noiseless feedback is equivalent to an adaptive search strategy with errors.
In 1956, Claude Shannon introduced the discrete memoryless channel with noiseless feedback. In 1961, Alfréd Rényi introduced the Bar-Kochba game, with a given percentage of wrong answers, calculated the minimum number of randomly chosen questions to determine the answer. In his 1964 dissertation, Elwyn Berlekamp considered error correcting codes with noiseless feedback. In Berlekamp's scenario, the receiver chose a subset of possible messages and asked the sender whether the given message was in this subset, a'yes' or'no' answer. Based on this answer, the receiver chose a new subset and repeated the process; the game is further complicated due to noise. Deppe, Christian, "Coding with Feedback and Searching with Lies", in Imre Csiszár. H. Katona. Hill, Searching with lies, Cambridge London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, Surveys in Combinatorics, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 41–70, ISBN 0-521-49797-3. Noisy channel coding theorem
Ashley Avis is an American screenwriter and producer. She is known for the feature films Deserted and the upcoming Black Beauty starring Kate Winslet and Mackenzie Foy. Avis was born in Illinois to Richard Avis and Victoria Woods, she has Richard Avis. At five years old, Avis' family relocated from Chicago to St. Petersburg, Florida where Avis grew up, she was a competitive equestrian from the age of seven to seventeen, competing on the hunter/jumper circuit in Florida. In 2003, Avis traveled to Ghana, West Africa for the Model of the Universe pageant, winning the title of Miss Teen Model of the Universe. Avis has expressed that she always wanted to become a writer, thought she would become a young adult author or novelist, she attended college in New York, double majoring in International Business and Marketing at Manhattan College in Riverdale, graduated in three years in 2008. She worked as a real estate agent, a web designer, at Nielsen Media as a journalist being promoted to regional editor during her college years.
After trying theater in Manhattan, she became attracted to writing screenplays. In 2009, Avis relocated from New York to Los Angeles, saving up money to produce her first pilot for a series called The Cynical Life; because she didn't have the funds to hire a producer or a director, she took on those roles herself. The project caught the attention of Lionsgate founder Frank Giustra, who executive produced three episodes. From there, Avis directed and produced the classical music documentary Opus X, featuring Lone Madsen and Caroline Campbell, which Giustra executive produced. Avis formed her production company Alchemy Pictures in 2010, began directing and producing branded commercial content landing clients such as Mercedes-Benz, Coca-Cola, Red Bull and the Cali Group, she wrote and directed multiple spots for technology client Miso Robotics featuring the AI robot "Flippy", which has garnered over 1 billion impressions to date, has been featured on websites such as Forbes, TechCrunch, The Wall Street Journal.
In 2013, Avis was hired by producer Todd Labarowski of Dreambridge Films to write the screenplay adaptation of the novel The Cybil Raven Chronicles, based on the novel by Tony Timbol and Crystal Craven. In 2015, Avis made her directorial debut with the psychological thriller Deserted, starring Mischa Barton, Winter Ave Zoli, Trent Ford, Jake Busey, Sebastian Bach, Gerry Bednob, she wrote the original screenplay and produced the film, edited by Douglas Crise. In 2016, she directed her second feature, the coming of age story Adolescence, starring India Eisley, Elisabeth Rohm, Tommy Flanagan and Jere Burns; the film features the original music of Zac Brown Band member John Driskell Hopkins. In 2017, Avis was hired to direct the holiday film The Trouble With Mistletoe for Tosca Musk's streaming platform Passionflix, based on the New York Times best selling series by Jill Shalvis. In 2016, Avis traveled to Cape Town, South Africa for the Bokeh South African International Film Festival, where she won the Mercedes-Benz award for her film Bespoke starring Cuban model and recording artist Natalia Barulich, actor Miklos Banyai.
She will next write the screenplay, as well as direct the modern day reprisal of Anna Sewell's classic novel Black Beauty for Constantin Film. In 2013, Avis met producing partner Edward Winters, they became engaged in 2014 in Cape Town, South Africa, were married on June 6, 2015