Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Distillation may result in complete separation, or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components in the mixture. In either case, the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of universal importance, but it is a physical separation process, not a chemical reaction. Distillation has many applications. For example: Distillation of fermented products produces distilled beverages with a high alcohol content or separates out other fermentation products of commercial value. Distillation is an traditional method of desalination. In the fossil fuel industry, oil stabilization is a form of partial distillation that reduces vapor pressure of crude oil, thereby making it safe for storage and transport as well as reducing the atmospheric emissions of volatile hydrocarbons.
In midstream operations at oil refineries, distillation is a major class of operation for transforming crude oil into fuels and chemical feed stocks. Cryogenic distillation leads to the separation of air into its components – notably oxygen and argon – for industrial use. In the field of industrial chemistry, large amounts of crude liquid products of chemical synthesis are distilled to separate them, either from other products, from impurities, or from unreacted starting materials. An installation used for distillation of distilled beverages, is called a distillery; the distillation equipment at a distillery is a still. In 1975 Paolo Rovesti a chemist and pharmacist who became known as"father of Phytocosmetics" discovered a terracota distillation apparatus in the Indus valley in West Pakistan which dates from around 3000 BC. Early evidence of distillation was found on Akkadian tablets dated circa 1200 BC describing perfumery operations; the tablets provided textual evidence that an early primitive form of distillation was known to the Babylonians of ancient Mesopotamia.
Early evidence of distillation was found related to alchemists working in Alexandria in Roman Egypt in the 1st century. Distilled water has been in use since at least c. 200, when Alexander of Aphrodisias described the process. Work on distilling other liquids continued in early Byzantine Egypt under Zosimus of Panopolis in the 3rd century. Distillation was practiced in the ancient Indian subcontinent, evident from baked clay retorts and receivers found at Taxila and Charsadda in modern Pakistan, dating back to the early centuries of the Common Era; these "Gandhara stills" were only capable of producing weak liquor, as there was no efficient means of collecting the vapors at low heat. Distillation in China may have begun during the Eastern Han dynasty, but the distillation of beverages began in the Jin and Southern Song dynasties, according to archaeological evidence. Clear evidence of the distillation of alcohol comes from the Arab chemist Al-Kindi in 9th-century Iraq; the process spread to Italy, where it was described by the School of Salerno in the 12th century.
Fractional distillation was developed by Tadeo Alderotti in the 13th century. A still was found in an archaeological site in Qinglong, Hebei province, in China, dating back to the 12th century. Distilled beverages were common during the Yuan dynasty. In 1500, German alchemist Hieronymus Braunschweig published Liber de arte destillandi, the first book dedicated to the subject of distillation, followed in 1512 by a much expanded version. In 1651, John French published The Art of Distillation, the first major English compendium on the practice, but it has been claimed that much of it derives from Braunschweig's work; this includes diagrams with people in them showing the industrial rather than bench scale of the operation. As alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, vessels called retorts became used for distillations. Both alembics and retorts are forms of glassware with long necks pointing to the side at a downward angle to act as air-cooled condensers to condense the distillate and let it drip downward for collection.
Copper alembics were invented. Riveted joints were kept tight by using various mixtures, for instance a dough made of rye flour; these alembics featured a cooling system around the beak, using cold water, for instance, which made the condensation of alcohol more efficient. These were called pot stills. Today, the retorts and pot stills have been supplanted by more efficient distillation methods in most industrial processes. However, the pot still is still used for the elaboration of some fine alcohols, such as cognac, Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey and some vodkas. Pot stills made of various materials are used by bootleggers in various countries. Small pot stills are sold for use in the domestic production of flower water or essential oils. Early forms of distillation involved batch processes using one condensation. Purity was improved by further distillation of the condensate. Greater volumes were processed by repeating the distillation. Chemists carried out as many as 500 to 600 distillations in order to obtain a pure compound.
In the early 19th century, the basics of modern techniques, including pre-heating and reflux, were developed. In 1822, Anthony Perrier developed one of the first continuous stills, in 1826, Robert Stein improved that design to make his patent still. In 1830, Aeneas Coffey got a patent for improving the design f
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
2004 United States presidential election
The 2004 United States presidential election was the 55th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush defeated Democratic nominee John Kerry, a United States Senator from Massachusetts. Bush and incumbent Vice President Dick Cheney were renominated by their party with no difficulty. Former Governor Howard Dean emerged as the early front-runner in the 2004 Democratic primaries, but Kerry won the first set of primaries in January 2004 and clinched his party's nomination in March after a series of primary victories. Kerry chose Senator John Edwards of North Carolina, who had himself sought the party's 2004 presidential nomination, to be his running mate. Bush's popularity had soared early in his first term after the September 11 attacks, but his popularity declined between 2001 and 2004. Foreign policy was the dominant theme throughout the election campaign Bush's conduct of the War on Terrorism and the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Bush presented himself as a decisive leader and attacked Kerry as a "flip-flopper", while Kerry criticized Bush's conduct of the Iraq War. Domestic issues were debated as well, including the economy and jobs, health care, same-sex marriage and embryonic stem cell research. Bush won by a slim margin, taking 286 electoral votes, he swept the South and the Mountain States and took the crucial swing states of Ohio and New Mexico. Some aspects of the election process were subject to controversy, but not to the degree seen in the 2000 presidential election. Bush was the first candidate since George H. W. Bush in the 1988 election to win a majority of the popular vote, as well as the last Republican candidate to have won the popular vote. Bush's victory marked the first time that the Republican nominee won a presidential election without carrying any state in the Northeastern United States. Bush would serve until 2009 and be succeeded by Barack Obama, whereas Kerry would continue to serve in the Senate and go on to become the 68th Secretary of State of the United States during Barack Obama's second term.
George W. Bush won the presidency in 2000 after the Supreme Court's decision in Bush v. Gore remanded the case to the Florida Supreme Court, which declared there was not sufficient time to hold a recount without violating the U. S. Constitution. Just eight months into his presidency, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed Bush into a wartime president. Bush's approval ratings surged to near 90%. Within a month, the forces of a coalition led by the United States entered Afghanistan, sheltering Osama bin Laden, suspected mastermind of the September 11 attacks. By December, the Taliban had been removed, although a ongoing reconstruction would follow; the Bush administration turned its attention to Iraq, argued the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq had become urgent. The Iraq issue gave Bush an antagonist to present to the people. Rallying support against a common enemy rather than gaining voters through ideas or policy. Among the stated reasons were that Saddam's regime had tried to acquire nuclear material and had not properly accounted for biological and chemical material it was known to have possessed.
Both the possession of these weapons of mass destruction, the failure to account for them, would violate the UN sanctions. The assertion about WMD was hotly advanced by the Bush administration from the beginning, but other major powers including China, France and Russia remained unconvinced that Iraq was a threat and refused to allow passage of a UN Security Council resolution to authorize the use of force. Iraq permitted UN weapon inspectors in November 2002, who were continuing their work to assess the WMD claim when the Bush administration decided to proceed with war without UN authorization and told the inspectors to leave the country; the United States invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003, along with a "coalition of the willing" that consisted of additional troops from the United Kingdom, to a lesser extent, from Australia and Poland. Within about three weeks, the invasion caused the collapse of both the Iraqi government and its armed forces. However, the U. S. and allied forces failed to find any weapon of mass destruction in Iraq.
On May 1, George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of "major combat operations" in the Iraq War. Bush's approval rating in May was according to a CNN -- USA Today -- Gallup poll. However, Bush's high approval ratings did not last. First, while the war itself was popular in the U. S. the reconstruction and attempted "democratization" of Iraq lost some support as months passed and casualty figures increased, with no decrease in violence nor progress toward stability or reconstruction. Second, as investigators combed through the country, they failed to find the predicted WMD stockpiles, which led to debate over the rationale for the war. Bush's popularity rose as a wartime president, he was able to ward off any serious challenge to the Republican nomination. Senator Lincoln Chafee from Rhode Island considered challenging Bush on an anti-war platform in New Hampshire, but decided not to run after the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003.
On March 10, 2004, Bush clinched the number of delegates needed to be nominated at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City. He accepted the nomination on September 2, 2004, retained Vice President Dick Cheney as his running mate. During the convention and throughout the campaign, Bush focused on two themes: defending America against terrorism and building an ownership society. Bush us
Middle Tennessee State University
Middle Tennessee State University is a public university in Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Founded in 1911 as a normal school, the university is composed of eight undergraduate colleges as well as a college of graduate studies, together offering more than 80 majors/degree programs through more than 35 departments. MTSU is most prominently known for its Recording Industry, Aerospace and Concrete Industry Management programs; the university has partnered in research endeavors with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps. In 2009, Middle Tennessee State University was ranked among the nation's top 100 public universities by Forbes magazine. MTSU is part of the Tennessee Board of Regents and the State University and Community College System of Tennessee. However, as of May 2017, governance was transferred to an institutional board of trustees. MTSU is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools Commission on Colleges. MTSU athletics programs compete intercollegiately in Conference USA.
The university's president is Sidney A. McPhee. One of the earliest calls for a normal school occurred in 1855 when a Wilson County, politician wanted to build a normal school in Lebanon, Tennessee. Education efforts collapsed shortly with the breakout of the American Civil War. State superintendents and teachers traveled around the state giving speeches about the dire need of teacher preparation. In 1909, the Tennessee General Assembly moved "to provide for the improvement of the system of Public Education of the State of Tennessee, to say, to establish a General Education Fund." The major thrust of this "improvement" embodied in the legislative act, to become known as the General Education Bill of 1909 was the establishment of three normals or teacher-training institutions. Following the intent of the act that one was to be located in each of the grand divisions of the state, the State Board of Education assigned the Middle Tennessee institution to Murfreesboro. Middle Tennessee State Normal School opened on September 11, 1911, with a two-year program for training teachers.
It evolved into a four-year teachers' college by 1925 with the power of granting the Bachelor of Science degree, the institution's name was changed for the first time to Middle Tennessee State Teachers College. The school was abbreviated as "S. T. C." In 1943, the General Assembly designated the institution a state college, changing its name for the second time to Middle Tennessee State College. This new status marked a sharp departure from the founding purpose and opened the way for expanding curricular offerings and programs. In 1965, the institution was advanced to university status, changing its name to Middle Tennessee State University. In October 2010, the Student Government Association at MTSU proposed that the university be renamed to the University of Middle Tennessee, though approval by the university administration and the Tennessee Board of Regents is required. During the progressive movement from a two-year normal to a university, several significant milestones may be identified. In 1936, the Bachelor of Arts program was added.
Responding to the expressed needs of the institution's service area, the Graduate School was established in 1951. To effect better communications and improve administrative supervision, the schools concept was introduced in 1962; as Middle Tennessee State University developed and grew, the Doctor of Arts program was added in 1970 and the Specialist in Education in 1974. These degree programs became attractive centerpieces for other efforts to improve and enhance institutional roles. Library resources were increased and sophisticated computer services were developed to aid instruction and administration. A trained faculty enabled the university to continue growth in program offerings. In 1991, the university's six schools—five undergraduate and the graduate school—became colleges. In 1998, MTSU's Honors program became the first in the state. In 2002, approval was granted to redesignate three D. A. programs to Doctor of Philosophy programs, expanding the progressive institution's offerings. Ph. D. degree offerings now include computational sciences and science education, molecular biosciences, English, human performance, public history and literacy studies.
Since 1911, MTSU has graduated more than 100,000 students. Despite the university's growth from a campus of 100 acres, 125 students and a faculty of 19, to an academic city of more than 500 acres, more than 26,000 students, a faculty of more than 900, the institution is still a "people's university" with a concern for the diverse needs of the area that it serves. In the 1980s and 1990s, the institution dedicated resources to become a leader in technology, both in the classroom and in many services to students. In 1986, James McGill Buchanan became the first MT alumnus to be awarded the Nobel Prize, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his pioneering role in the development of the field of public choice, a way of studying the behavior of politicians and bureaucrats. MTSU is organized into nine colleges: College of Basic and Applied Sciences College of Behavioral and Health Sciences College of Education College of Graduate Studies College of Liberal Arts College of Media and Entertainment Jennings A. Jones College of Business University College University Honors CollegeThe College of Graduate Studies offers master's degrees in nearly 40 areas, the Specialist in Education degree (Administration and Supervision, Curriculum and I
Warren County, Tennessee
Warren County is a county located in the central part of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,839, its county seat is McMinnville. Warren County comprises TN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Warren County was created in 1807 from a portion of White County, named for Joseph Warren, a soldier in the American Revolution; the revised Tennessee State Constitution of 1834 stated that no new county could be within 12 miles of the county seat of the county from which it was formed. The boundaries of five counties formed from Warren— Grundy, Van Buren, Coffee and DeKalb— were 12 miles from Warren's county seat, McMinnville, giving the county its distinctive round shape. Warren County citizens voted to secede from the Union before the American Civil War in February 1861 in a State referendum. However, Tennessee overall decided to remain in the Union in that time, but when Abraham Lincoln demanded that Tennessee provide troops to fight against the Southern state in April 1861, this was viewed as a violation of Article 3, Section 3 of the U.
S. Constitution. At a new referendum in June, 1861, Warren County, along with a majority of Tennessee's counties, voted for independence. Unlike some states, slavery was not mentioned as one of the reasons in Tennessee's secession proclamation. Men from Warren County and surrounding upper Cumberland region formed and served in many units in Tennessee's defense, including the 16th Tennessee Infantry led by McMinnville, TN resident Col. John Houston Savage; the Confederate monument next to the county courthouse is dedicated in the memory of the men who served and died in the 16th and lists their names. Men from Warren County and upper Cumberland area joined the 16th TN Infantry Regiment, among others; this is the flag of the 16th H Company. The flag now resides in the Texas'Civil War' Museum in Fort Worth TX. http://home.freeuk.com/gazkhan/tenn_battle-flags_h-company.htm. Warren County was the site of several saltpeter mines. Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from several local caves.
Hubbards Cave, near Camp Woodlee, was a major operation. Henshaw Cave on Cardwell Mountain and Solomon Saltpeter Cave on Ben Lomond Mountain were small mining operations. Most saltpeter mining occurred in the Civil War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 434 square miles, of which 433 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. The county lies long the Eastern Highland Rim, near the Cumberland Plateau; the Caney Fork forms part of the county's borders with DeKalb counties to the north. The Rocky River, a tributary of the Caney Fork, forms part of the county's western border with Van Buren County; the Collins River a tributary of the Caney Fork, flows through the county, the Barren Fork, a tributary of the Collins, flows through McMinnville. Cardwell Mountain is an imposing natural feature located five miles due east of McMinnville, it is an erosional remnant of the nearby Cumberland Plateau. Cardwell Mountain is noted for Cumberland Caverns, an exceptionally long cave which lies underneath the mountain.
DeKalb County White County Van Buren County Sequatchie County Grundy County Coffee County Cannon County U. S. Route 70S State Route 8 State Route 30 State Route 55 State Route 56 State Route 108 State Route 136 Hubbard's Cave State Natural Area Morrison Meadow State Natural Area Rock Island State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 38,276 people, 15,181 households, 10,824 families residing in the county; the population density was 88 people per square mile. There were 16,689 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.66% White, 3.16% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.56% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 4.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,181 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families.
25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,920, the median income for a family was $37,835. Males had a median income of $28,409 versus $20,863 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,759. About 13.00% of families and 16.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.40% of those under age 18 and 17.20% of those age 65 or over. Rock Island State Park is located on the northeastern border with White County; this park is the site of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Great Falls Dam, includes many hiking trails, offers whitewater rafting.
Cumberland Caverns, located east of McMinnville under Cardwell Mountain, is Tennessee's largest show cave. It is the second longest mapped cave in Tennessee with 27.6 miles of passages, displays some of the largest cave rooms in eastern North America. Cumberland Caverns is the 15th longest cave in the United States. H
Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
2008 United States presidential election
The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American to be elected as president. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment; as neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, other challengers; the Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton.
Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008. Early campaigning focused on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change,"; the campaign was affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic. Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and 1964.
Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964; as of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally won by a presidential candidate. Hillary Clinton, U. S. Senator from New York John Edwards, former U. S. Senator from North Carolina Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico Dennis Kucinich, U. S. Representative from Ohio Joe Biden, U. S. Senator from Delaware Mike Gravel, former U. S. Senator from Alaska Christopher Dodd, U. S. Senator from Connecticut Evan Bayh, U. S. Senator from Indiana Tom Vilsack, former Governor of Iowa Media speculation had begun immediately after the results of the 2004 presidential election were released. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats regained majorities in both houses of the U. S. Congress. Early polls taken before anyone had announced a candidacy had shown Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama as the most popular potential Democratic candidates.
The media speculated on several other candidates, including Al Gore, the runner-up in the 2000 election. Edwards was one of the first to formally announce his candidacy for the presidency, on December 28, 2006; this run would be his second attempt at the presidency. Clinton announced intentions to run in the Democratic primaries on January 20, 2007. Obama announced his candidacy on February 10 in his home state of Illinois. Early in the year, the support for Barack Obama started to increase in the polls, he passed Clinton for the top spot in Iowa. Obama's win was fueled by first time caucus-goers and Independents and showed voters viewed him as the "candidate of change." Iowa has since been viewed as the state that jump-started Obama's campaign and set him on track to win both the nomination and the presidency. After the Iowa caucus, Joe Biden and Christopher Dodd withdrew from the nomination contest. Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire, when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his Iowa victory The Clinton campaign was struggling after a huge loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses.
According to The Vancouver Sun, Campaign strategists had "mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb. 5." In what is considered a turning point for her campaign, Clinton had a strong performance at the Saint Anselm College, ABC, Facebook debates several days before the New Hampshire primary as well as an emotional interview in a public broadcast live on TV. Clinton won that primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her trailing Obama for a few days up to the primary date. Clinton's win was the