Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
California Army National Guard
The California Army National Guard is the land force component of the California National Guard, one of the reserve components of the United States Army and is part of the National Guard of the United States. The California Army National Guard is composed of 18,450 soldiers. Nationwide, the Army National Guard comprises one half of the US Army's available combat forces and one third of its support organization. National coordination of various state National Guard units are maintained through the National Guard Bureau. Due to the non-exclusive, non-rival nature of the Army National Guard and U. S. military as a whole, the California Army National Guard operates as a public good. California Army National Guard units are equipped as part of the United States Army; the same enlisted and officer ranks and insignia are used and National Guardsmen are eligible to receive all United States military awards. The California Army National Guard bestows a number of state awards for local services rendered in or to the state of California.
40th Infantry Division 79th Infantry Brigade Combat Team 1st Battalion, 160th Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 184th Infantry Regiment 1st Squadron, 18th Cavalry Regiment 1st Battalion, 143rd Field Artillery Regiment 578th Brigade Engineer Battalion 40th Brigade Support Battalion 40th Combat Aviation BrigadeCompany C, 1st Battalion, 168th Aviation Regiment 1st, Battalion, 140th Aviation Regiment HHC and Company A, 3rd Battalion, 140th Aviation Regiment 640th Aviation Support Battalion 100th Troop Command 223rd Military Intelligence Battalion 250th Expeditionary Military Intelligence Battalion 1st Battalion, 144th Field Artillery Regiment 1st Battalion, 185th Infantry Regiment 49th Military Police Brigade 185th Military Police Battalion 143rd Military Police Battalion 579th Engineer Battalion 224th Sustainment Brigade 223rd Regimental Training Institute 115th Area Support Group Special Operations Detachment-North Company A, 5/19th Special Forces Group The California Army National Guard was formed with the passing of the Militia Act of 1903 known as the Dick Act.
Prior to that time, the California Army Guard originated from the state militia established by the Constitution of California in 1849. On April 4, 1850, the first California Legislature in San Jose adopted enabling legislation formally establishing a militia of volunteer or independent companies; the law required every free, able-bodied male citizen of the State to perform military duty or to pay a $2 fee for nonperformance of this duty. Such payment exempted the person from duty except in case of war, invasion, assistance to the sheriff, or a requisition of the militia, it provided that a judge of the superior court of a county should cause a suitable person to open a book, enter the names of persons who apply and are able to perform military duty. After required notice, the volunteers were to be organized, their officers and non-commissioned officers selected by election; the volunteer or independent companies were to be armed and equipped as in the Army of the United States. The units were to adopt a constitution and by-laws as well as rules and regulations for the government of its personnel and determination of fines and penalties to enforce them.
The legislature provided for the organization of these enrolled state militia, volunteers or independent companies into four divisions, each commanded by a major general and consisting of two brigades, with a statewide adjutant general responsible to the Governor of California. From 1852, the Quartermaster General of California was subsumed under the office of Adjutant General of California, when William H. Richardson resigned and Quartermaster General William Chauncey Kibbe became adjutant general by a law of 1852; the first unit, known as the First California Guard, was formed from volunteers in San Francisco, California under Captain Henry Morris Naglee on July 27, 1849, as a territorial militia. It was the first company organized under state authority. Under these regulations, 307 volunteer or independent companies were organized in the early years of the states history to oppose the Indians, hunt down bandits, quell riots or Vigilantes, protect officials, intervene in mining claim disputes and other civil disturbances.
During 1850, Governor Burnett called out the militia two times. The first was prompted by incidents involving the Yuma Indians at the confluence of the Gila and Colorado rivers on April 23, 1850; the second instance occurred in October 1850, when Governor Burnett ordered the sheriff of El Dorado County to muster 200 men. The commanders were instructed to “proceed to punish the Indians engaged in the late attacks in the vicinity of Ringgold, along the emigrant trail leading from Salt Lake to California.”From 1850 to 1851 the Mariposa Battalion was raised to fight the Mariposa War in the Sierras. In 1851, the Garra Revolt occurred in San Diego County and the Governor called for troops, the Fitzgerald Volunteers were raised in San Diego to defend the County and conducted an expedition to Warners Ranch. Two companies of Rangers were organized in San Francisco from members of the three militia companies that existed in that city then: First California Guard, Washington Guard and Empire Guard. However, by the time transportation to San Diego was arranged the revolt had been suppressed, the now idle volunteers caused more trouble in San D
Alabama Air National Guard
The Alabama Air National Guard is the air force militia of the State of Alabama, United States of America. It is, along with the Alabama Army National Guard, an element of the Alabama National Guard; as state militia units, the units in the Alabama Air National Guard are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command unless federalized. They are under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Alabama though the office of the Alabama Adjutant General unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States; the Alabama Air National Guard is headquartered in Montgomery, its commander is Major General Sheryl E. Gordon. Under the "Total Force" concept, Alabama Air National Guard units are considered to be Air Reserve Components of the United States Air Force. Alabama ANG units are trained and equipped by the Air Force and are operationally gained by a Major Command of the USAF if federalized. In addition, the Alabama Air National Guard forces are assigned to Air Expeditionary Forces and are subject to deployment tasking orders along with their active duty and Air Force Reserve counterparts in their assigned cycle deployment window.
Along with their federal reserve obligations, as state militia units the elements of the Alabama ANG are subject to being activated by order of the governor to provide protection of life and property, preserve peace and public safety. State missions include disaster relief in times of earthquakes, hurricanes and forest fires and rescue, protection of vital public services, support to civil defense; the Alabama Air National Guard consists of the following major units: 117th Air Refueling WingEstablished 21 January 1922. Its mission is to train and equip combat ready aircrews and support personnel to perform worldwide aerial refueling and airlift missions.187th Fighter WingEstablished 1 October 1947. The Alabama Air National Guard origins date to 27 August 1917 with the establishment of the 106th Aero Squadron as part of the World War I American Expeditionary Force; the 106th served in France on the Western Front after the 1918 Armistice with Germany was demobilized in 1919. The Militia Act of 1903 established the present National Guard system, units raised by the states but paid for by the Federal Government, liable for immediate state service.
If federalized by presidential order, they fall under the regular military chain of command. On 1 June 1920, the Militia Bureau issued Circular No.1 on organization of National Guard air units. The squadron was reformed on 21 January 1922 as the 125th Squadron, Alabama National Guard, received federal recognition as a Corps Aviation unit. Maj. James A. Meissner, a World War I ace who had flown with Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker, led the effort to form the unit and served as its first commander, it is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II. The 106th Observation Squadron was ordered into active service on 125 November 1940 as part of the buildup of the Army Air Corps prior to the United States entry into World War II. On 24 May 1946, the United States Army Air Forces, in response to dramatic postwar military budget cuts imposed by President Harry S. Truman, allocated inactive unit designations to the National Guard Bureau for the formation of an Air Force National Guard.
These unit designations were allotted and transferred to various State National Guard bureaus to provide them unit designations to re-establish them as Air National Guard units. The modern Alabama ANG received federal recognition on 25 November 1946 as the 106th Bombardment Squadron at Birmingham MAP, it was assigned to Tactical Air Command. 18 September 1947, however, is considered the Alabama Air National Guard's official birth concurrent with the establishment of the United States Air Force as a separate branch of the United States military under the National Security Act. On 1 October 1947 the 117th Fighter Group allotted by the National Guard Bureau, extended federal recognition and activated at Birmingham, with the 106th Bomb Squadron being assigned to the unit; the 160th Fighter Squadron at Montgomery was authorized by the National Guard Bureau and recognized on 1 October 1947. The 160th was equipped with the F-51D Mustang and its mission was the air defense of the state. On 15 October 1962, the 160th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron was authorized to expand to a group level, the 187th Tactical Reconnaissance Group was established by the National Guard Bureau.
The 160th TRS becoming the group's flying squadron. In 2007, the Alabama legislature requested the National Guard B
Army National Guard
The Army National Guard, in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States. They are part of two different organizations, the Army National Guard of the several states and the District of Columbia, the Army National Guard of the United States, part of the United States National Guard; the Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, the District of Columbia, operates under their respective governors. The foundation for what became the Army National Guard occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts in 1692, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area; the Army National Guard as authorized and organized operates under Title 10 of the United States Code when under federal control, Title 32 of the United States Code and applicable state laws when under state control. The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state or territorial governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder.
The District of Columbia Army National Guard is a federal militia, controlled by the President of the United States with authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense, through him to the Secretary of the Army. Members or units of the Army National Guard may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the United States. If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, a reserve component of the United States Army. Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors. Governors cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency; the President may call up members and units of the Army National Guard, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws. The Army National Guard of the United States is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard of the United States.
The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Because the Army National Guard is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the Army National Guard "commands" it; this function is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the District of Columbia National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the Army National Guard serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the Army National Guard in each state and territory, administer federal programs and resources for the National Guard; the Army National Guard's portion of the president's proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2018 is $16.2 billion to support an end strength of 343,000, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, equipment maintenance and other activities.
Of the 45 individuals to serve as President of the United States as of 2017, 33 had military experience. Of those 33, 21 served in Army National Guard. George Washington, commissioned a Major in the Virginia Militia in 1753, he attained the rank of colonel before resigning his commission at the end of the French and Indian War. Thomas Jefferson and commander of the Albemarle County Militia at the start of the American Revolution James Madison, colonel in the Orange County Militia at the start of the American Revolution and aide to his father, James Madison, Sr., the commander. James Monroe, served in the militia while attending the College of William and Mary. After being wounded at the Battle of Trenton while serving in the Continental Army, he returned to Virginia to recruit and lead a regiment as a militia lieutenant colonel, but the regiment was never raised. In 1780 the British invaded Richmond and Jefferson commissioned Monroe as a colonel to command the militia raised in response and act as liaison to the Continental Army in North Carolina.
Andrew Jackson, commander of the Tennessee Militia as a Major General prior to the War of 1812. William Henry Harrison, commander of Indiana Territory's militia and Major General of the Kentucky Militia at the start of the War of 1812. John Tyler, commanded a company called the Charles City Rifles, part of Virginia's 52nd Regiment, in the War of 1812. James Polk, joined the Tennessee Militia as a captain in a cavalry regiment in 1821, he was subsequently appointed a colonel on the staff of Governor William Carroll. Millard Fillmore, served as inspector of New York's 47th Brigade with the rank of major. Commanded the Union Continentals, a militia unit raised to perform local service in Buffalo, New York, during the American Civil War. Franklin Pierce, appointed aide de camp to Governor Samuel Dinsmoor in 1831, he remained in the militia until 1847 and attained the rank of colonel before becoming a brigadier general in the Army during the Mexican–American War. James Buchanan, a member of the Pennsylvania Militia.
His dragoon unit took part in the defense of Baltimore, during the War of 1812. Abraham Lincoln, served in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War, he commanded a company i
Alaska Department of Military and Veterans Affairs
The Alaska Department of Military and Veterans Affairs manages military and veterans affairs for the U. S. state of Alaska. It comprises a number of subdepartments, including the Alaska National Guard, Veterans Affairs, the Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, Alaska Naval Militia, others; the Alaska National Guard is Alaska's component of the National Guard of the United States and comprises the Alaska Army National Guard and the Alaska Air National Guard. Current strength is 2,309 air guardsmen; the Governor may call individuals or units of the Alaska National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." The Alaska Army National Guard operates a launch site for a U. S. anti-missile system at Fort Greely, about 100 miles south of Fairbanks.
The military department's Alaska Military Youth Academy is run by the National Guard. The Alaska State Defense Force is a military entity authorized by both the State Code of Alaska and Executive Order; the State Defense Force is the state's authorized militia and assumes the state mission of the Alaska National Guard in the event the Guard is mobilized. It is separate from the National Guard and reports to the Governor of Alaska as ex officio commander; the SDF is composed of retired active and reserve military personnel and selected professional persons who volunteer their time and talents in further service to their state. The Alaska Naval Militia is Alaska's naval equivalent of the Air National Guard, it is composed of members of the Navy Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve members who, like the National Guard, have a dual federal and state obligation. Official website Alaska National Guard website Warriors magazine, published for the National Guard Bibliography of Alaska Army National Guard History compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History