Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it was not until the 16th century that rackets came into use and the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England; the invention of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been a catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham in England. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated in a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascinated by the game of tennis after watching
James P. Fleissner is an American attorney and a Professor of Law at Mercer University School of Law in Macon, Georgia. While at Mercer, Fleissner has remained Special Assistant United States Attorney and Deputy Special Counsel; as Deputy Special Counsel, Fleissner was lead counsel in litigation regarding motions filed by journalists to quash subpoenas and contempt proceedings in the CIA leak grand jury investigation. See CIA leak grand jury investigation Fleissner is deputy to Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald in the Justice Department investigation into allegations that one or more government officials illegally disclosed the identity of a CIA agent; as Deputy Special Counsel, he briefed and argued the case to the D. C. Circuit and the Supreme Court. Fleissner argued that a First Amendment protection exists for reporters, but only in a limited way, such as for intimidation or bad-faith investigations. Fleissner attended Marquette University High School where he was a championship debater for the school's Webster Club.
After graduating in 1975, he went on to coach the debate team at his alma mater while attending Marquette University. As a debate coach, he became famous for his long distance driving skills to tournaments, became known forever as LDD, he graduated Summa Cum Laude with a B. A. in 1979 and earned a J. D. in 1986 from the University of Chicago Law School. Fleissner has been a member of the Mercer Law Faculty since 1994; the courses he has taught include Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure: Constitutional Dimensions, Criminal Procedure: The Litigation Process, Trial Practice, Evidence. He has been a Visiting Professor at Georgia State University College of Law, Spring 2002 and the DePaul University College of Law, Spring 2004, Summer 2004, Fall 2004, Spring 2005. Before joining the Mercer faculty, Fleissner worked as Assistant United States Attorney in Chicago from 1986-1994. During a leave of absence from Mercer Law School, Fleissner was Assistant United States Attorney and Chief of Appeals, Criminal Division, for the Office of the United States Attorney, Northern District of Illinois.
Now, he is a Deputy Special Counsel in United States Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel. As Deputy Special Counsel, Fleissner managed litigation regarding motions filed by journalists to quash subpoenas and contempt proceedings in the CIA leak grand jury investigation. Fleissner is licensed to practice law in Georgia. After the Oklahoma City bombing, Fleissner appeared on the PBS "Newshour with Jim Lehrer," CNN, MSNBC to discuss the prosecutions and other federal criminal matters. JUDITH MILLER, PETITIONER v. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA MATTHEW COOPER AND TIME INC. PETITIONERS v. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA GOVERNM ENT’S MEMORANDUM IN OPPOSITION TO MATTHEW COOPER’S MEMORANDUM REGARDING THE CONTEMPT SANCTION Extent of press rights debated Washington Times December 08, 2004 Reporter Held in Contempt of Court Again in Leaks Probe Washington Post Susan Schmidt October 14, 2004 Faculty Biography Mercer University School of Law Office of Special Counsel United States Department of Justice Statement of James P. Fleissner concerning certain provisions of H.
R. 1710, the Comprehensive Antiterrorism Act of 1995, June 12, 1995
Lieutenant Commander William George "Bill" Boaks was a British Royal Navy officer who became a political campaigner for road safety. A pioneer of British eccentric political campaigning, he jointly held the record for the fewest votes recorded for a candidate in a British parliamentary election, taking five at a by-election in 1982. Boaks was born into a naval family, his father, was a sales clerk for a fruit merchant. He was educated at Greenwich. Boaks entered the Royal Navy in 1920, aged 16, as a boy seaman, was promoted from acting sub-lieutenant to sub-lieutenant on 1 December 1928, he was granted a temporary commission as a flying officer while on attachment to the Royal Air Force between 2 October 1930 and 7 May 1931, was promoted to lieutenant on 1 December 1931, to lieutenant-commander on 1 December 1939. Boaks was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his part in the Dunkirk evacuation in May 1940, during which his ship HMS Basilisk was sunk, took part in the sinking of the Bismarck while serving as a gunnery officer on board HMS Rodney in May 1941.
He served in the Navy for nearly thirty years, becoming a qualified submarine officer and deep-sea diver. He was amongst the first Allied officers at Hiroshima. Boaks retired from the Navy in May 1949, he moved to Streatham and worked as an executive officer of the Building Apprenticeship Training Council. Boaks' first candidacy for election was at the 1951 general election. Boaks contested Walthamstow East as an independent candidate for Admiral, or the "Association of Democratic Monarchists Representing All Women", he stood for the wrong seat. Boaks' campaign advocated equal pay for women, subsidised apprenticeships and the sale of council houses. Boaks received 174 votes. Following his candidacy at Walthamstow East, Boaks continued a career as an eccentric campaigner. To publicise his campaigns, Boaks used his Vauxhall 12 car, which he named Josephine and painted as a zebra crossing, complete with loudspeakers and placards. In campaigns, owing to a lack of money, Boaks used a 140lb armoured bicycle which concealed an iron bedstead.
The armoured bicycle included a camera for taking photographs of motorists breaking the law and featured an eight-foot flagpole with sloganeering banners. The bike was hijacked and taken to Aberystwyth. In September 1952, Boaks was fined twenty shillings at Bow Street Court for using a motor vehicle for advertising, he was fined a further twenty shillings a year at Mansion House Magistrates Court on the same charge. In the 1950s, Boaks became involved in a series of legal cases in which he launched private prosecutions of public figures, involved in road accidents; these included Lady Attlee, Prince Philip, Princess Anne and R. A. Butler. In the case of the latter, Boaks accused Butler, Home Secretary, of being an accomplice to a policeman who drove Butler to the House of Commons and had committed six traffic offences in Parliament Square. In light of this, Boaks was not interviewed when he applied to be Chief Constable of Berkshire in 1958. On 2 April 1955, before the start of an England-Scotland football match at Wembley Stadium, Boaks stopped his van outside and refused to move until all the spectators had crossed the road in front of it.
Two hours he stopped his car at a roundabout on Cambridge Circus, again refusing to move until pedestrians crossed. He was subsequently convicted of two counts of obstructing the highway and fined £5. On 1 October 1955, Boaks stopped his car at the Strand, was convicted again of obstructing the highway, incarcerated for a week in Brixton Prison. Boaks sought £ 10,000 in damages. Boaks stood again in the 1956 by-election in Walthamstow West, finishing in last place, with 89 votes. On 13 July 1959, Boaks entered the annual Bleriot Race to travel from Marble Arch in London to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris by any form of transport. Boaks opted to enter the race by rollerskate. In February 1961, Boaks unsuccessfully applied for planning permission to build a heliport in his garden. Boaks subsequently submitted further applications to Lambeth London Borough Council, including a proposal to build an underground hangar for eight civil defence helicopters. In June 1963, Boaks attempted to prosecute Ernest Robert Wilkin for dangerous driving.
Boaks had allowed two girls to cross the road at a green light, which had led Wilkin to run over one of them. The court awarded Wilkin fifty guineas. Boaks sued the South London Press for libel after it described him as "nutty" on 27 March 1962, he sued the London Evening News for libel after it falsely claimed he was living on National Assistance on 18 March 1966. In the latter case, he won notional damages of £1, complained to the Court of Appeal that the judge had misdirected the jury. Over the years, Boaks's political label changed. In one election, he stood as the "Trains & Boats & Planes" candidate – the title of a contemporary popular song. After revisions to electoral law allowed candidates to have a six-word description of their candidature on the ballot paper, he settled on "Public Safety Democratic Monarchist White Resident", he would campaign intermittently by cycling around the target constituency, wearing a large cardboard box daubed with his slogans. He was limited to six words of description on