SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tenochtitlan

Tenochtitlan known as Mexica-Tenochtitlan, was a large Mexica altepetl in what is now the center of Mexico City. The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear; the date 13 March 1325, was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the city. The city was built on an island in what was Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico; the city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas, it subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Today, the ruins of Tenochtitlan are in the historic center of the Mexican capital; the World Heritage Site of Xochimilco contains. Tenochtitlan was one of two Mexica āltēpetl on the other being Tlatelolco. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean, "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggest the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.

Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2, situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. At the time of Spanish conquests, Mexico City comprised both Tlatelolco; the city extended from north to south, from the north border of Tlatelolco to the swamps, which by that time were disappearing to the west. The city was connected to the mainland by bridges and causeways leading to the north and west; the causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other water traffic to pass freely. The bridges could be pulled away, to defend the city; the city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. Lake Texcoco was the largest of five interconnected lakes. Since it formed in an endorheic basin, Lake Texcoco was brackish. During the reign of Moctezuma I, the "levee of Nezahualcoyotl" was constructed, reputedly designed by Nezahualcoyotl. Estimated to be 12 to 16 km in length, the levee was completed circa 1453.

The levee kept fresh spring-fed water in the waters around Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, to the east. Two double aqueducts, each more than 4 km long and made of terracotta, provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec; this was intended for cleaning and washing. For drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. Most of the population liked to bathe twice a day. According to the context of Aztec culture in literature, the soap that they most used was the root of a plant called copalxocotl, to clean their clothes they used the root of metl; the upper classes and pregnant women washed themselves in a temāzcalli, similar to a sauna bath, still used in the south of Mexico. This was popular in other Mesoamerican cultures; when we saw so many cities and villages built in the water and other great towns on dry land we were amazed and said that it was like the enchantments on account of the great towers and cues and buildings rising from the water, all built of masonry.

And some of our soldiers asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream? I do not know how to describe it, seeing things as we did that had never been heard of or seen before, not dreamed about; the city was divided into camps. There were three main streets that crossed the city, each leading to one of the three causeways to the mainland of Tepeyac and Tlacopan. Bernal Díaz del Castillo reported. Surrounding the raised causeways were artificial floating gardens with canal waterways and gardens of plants and trees; the calpullis were divided by channels used for transportation, with wood bridges that were removed at night. The earliest European images of the city were woodcuts published in Augsburg around 1522; each calpulli had its own tiyanquiztli, but there was a main marketplace in Tlatelolco – Tenochtitlan's sister city. Cortés estimated it was twice the size of the city of Salamanca with about 60,000 people trading daily. Bernardino de Sahagún provides a more conservative population estimate of 20,000 on ordinary days and 40,000 on feast days.

There were specialized markets in the other central Mexican cities. In the center of the city were the public buildings and palaces. Inside a walled square, 500 meters to a side, was the ceremonial center. There were about 45 public buildings, including: the Templo Mayor, dedicated to the Aztec patron deity Huitzilopochtli and the Rain God Tlaloc. Outside was the pal

Gonçalo Anes de Briteiros

Gonçalo Anes de Briteiros or Berredo was a Portuguese nobleman, member of the court of Denis of Portugal. Gonçalo was the son of João Mendes de Briteiros and Urraca Afonso, natural daughter of Afonso III of Portugal and Madragana. In addition to having served King Denis, Gonçalo Anes de Briteiros swore loyalty to Afonso IV of Portugal, serving in his court until his death, he was married to Sancha de Guzmán, daughter of Pedro Nuñez de Guzmán and Inés Fernandes de Lima, belonging to a noble family of Castile. His wife was the granddaughter of Juan Pérez de Guzmán, lord of Gumiel de Mercado

Nema (occultist)

Died January 9, 2018. Nema Andahadna was an occultist and writer best known for her magical writings about the Ma'atian current, she wrote about magick for over twenty-five years. From her experience with Thelemic magick, she developed her own system of magic called Maat Magick which has the aim of transforming the human race, her writings have appeared in many publications, including the Cincinnati Journal of Ceremonial Magick, Aeon and others. In 1974, she channelled, her ideas have been featured in the writings of Kenneth Grant. In 1979, she co-founded the Horus-Maat Lodge. According to Donald Michael Kraig: Nema has been one of the most influential occultists of the last quarter century although most occultists have never read her works. What Nema has done is influence those who have been writers and teachers. They, in turn, influenced the rest of us. Liber Pennae Praenumbra. Cincinnati Journal of Ceremonial Magick. 1974. Nema. Maat Magic: a Guide to Self-Initiation. York Beach, Me.: Samuel Weiser.

ISBN 0-87728-827-5. Nema. Maatian Meditations And Considerations. Black Moon Publishing. P. 38. ISBN 1-890399-10-8; the Way of Mystery: Magick, Mysticism & Self-Transcendence. Llewellyn Publications. 1995. ISBN 0-7387-0290-0 The Evolution of Maat Magick: from Cornfields to Cyberspace in Silverstar, Issue 2, Autumn Equinox, 2004. Pan-Aeonic Magick ACE InterviewsSargent, D. Maat Magick and the Way of Self Initiation: An Interview with Nema in The New Times reprinted in Silverstar, Issue 4, Autumn Equinox, 2005. Reviews Official website The Horus / Maat Lodge, a website containing collective work