Albania the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2, it possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast; the area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire.
In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans; the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour; the country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.
Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy, it provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC, it is an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean; the term Albania is the medieval Latin name of the country. It may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, who drafted a map in 150 AD, which shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of the city of Durrës.
The term may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon or Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place. In his history written in the 10th century, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë. Nowadays, Albanians call their country Shqipëria; as early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles"; the first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë close to Sarandë and Dajti near Tiranë. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture.
The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece. Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. The name Illyrians seems to be the name applied to a specific Illyrian tribe, the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, causing the name Illyrians to be applied pars pro toto to all people of similar language and customs.
The territory known as Illyria corresponded to the area east of the Adriatic sea, extending in the south to the mouth of the Vjosë river. The first accou
Socialist Party of Albania
The Socialist Party of Albania, is a social-democratic political party in Albania. The party seated 66 MPs in the 2009 Albanian parliament, it achieved power in 1997 following governmental realignment. At the 2001 parliamentary election the party secured 73 seats, which enabled it to form a government. At the general election of 3 July 2005, the Socialist Party lost its majority and the Democratic Party of Albania formed the new government, having secured, with its allies, a majority of 81 seats; the Socialist Party of Albania is an associate of the Party of European Socialists and a member of the Socialist International. The official party newspaper is Zëri i Popullit, the organ of its predecessor, the Communist Party of Labour of Albania; the party, formed in November 1941, has been known as the Socialist Party since 1991, when it survived in the wake of the dramatic changes that had taken place in Albania since 1989. The Communist Party of Labour of Albania, the only ruling party since the end of World War II, was the most rigid Stalinist party in Europe under its founder and longtime leader, Enver Hoxha.
However, Hoxha's successor, Ramiz Alia, was forced to introduce limited reforms in the late 1980s. On 11 December 1990, Alia announced that the PPSh had given up its monopoly of power; the PPSh won the Constitutional Assembly elections of March 1991—the first free elections held in the country in 80 years. By this time, however, it was no longer a Marxist–Leninist party. At an extraordinary congress on 10–13 June 1991, in its efforts to survive in the new system, the PPSh voted to change its name to PS. Fatos Nano, a man from the intelligentsia, was elected the new chairman. Nano made it a member of the Socialist International. On 1 September 2005 Nano resigned as the chairman of the Socialist Party, after losing the elections, he was succeeded by Edi Rama. Fatos Nano was the head of Socialist Party of Albania from 1991-2005. In 2005, after a defeat at the election, he resigned from his post. PS's current leader is Edi Rama, former Mayor of Tirana. Gramoz Ruçi, Interior Minister of the last cabinet of the communist regime and is well known for his loyalty to the party, is the head of the Socialist Group, which has 64 MPs.
Ben Blushi is a important party politician that has criticised the way Edi Rama is leading the Socialist Party. Niko Peleshi was the mayor of Korce and the Deputy Prime Minister. Vice-coordinators of the group are Erjon Braçe, Vasilika Hysi, Saimir Tahiri, Eduard Shalsi and Taulant Balla. Arta Dade is the party secretary for international affairs, she is assisted by Arben Ahmetaj, Taulant Balla, Olta Xhaçka, Ditmir Bushati and Qemal Minxhozi. Ahmetaj and Balla deal with PS relationships with the other left-wing parties in Europe with the Greek Panhellenic Socialist Movement, with whom PS is close. Blendi Klosi, is seen as a important politician in PS, as well as Fatmir Xhafaj; the party has pledged in its 2013 party platform to replace the flat-rate personal income tax with more progressive taxation. The party supports universal health care funded by taxation; the party leader Edi Rama has indicated that he supports domestic partnerships. Political Academy of the Socialist Party of Albania Notes Media related to Socialist Party of Albania at Wikimedia Commons
Gjirokastër is a city in southern Albania, on a valley between the Gjerë mountains and the Drino, at 300 metres above sea level. Its old town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, described as "a rare example of a well-preserved Ottoman town, built by farmers of large estate"; the city is overlooked by Gjirokastër Fortress, where the Gjirokastër National Folklore Festival is held every five years. It is the birthplace of former Albanian communist leader Enver Hoxha and notable writer Ismail Kadare; the city appears in the historical record dating back in 1336 by its Greek name, Αργυρόκαστρο - Argyrokastro, as part of the Byzantine Empire. It became part of the Orthodox Christian diocese of Dryinoupolis and Argyrokastro after the destruction of nearby Adrianoupolis. Gjirokastër was contested between the Despotate of Epirus and the Albanian clan of John Zenevisi before falling under Ottoman rule for the next five centuries. Throughout the Ottoman era Gjirokastër was known in Ottoman Turkish as Ergiri and Ergiri Kasrı.
During the Ottoman period conversions to Islam and an influx of Muslim converts from the surrounding countryside made Gjirokastër go from being an overwhelmingly Christian city in the 16th century into one with a large Muslim population by the early 19th century. Gjirokastër became a major religious centre for Bektashi Sufism. Taken by the Hellenic Army during the Balkan Wars of 1912–3 on account of its large Greek population, it was incorporated into the newly independent state of Albania in 1913; this proved unpopular with the local Greek population, who rebelled. It was definitively awarded to Albania in 1921. In more recent years, the city witnessed anti-government protests that lead to the Albanian civil war of 1997. Along with Muslim and Orthodox Albanians, the city is home to a substantial Greek minority; the city together with Sarandë, is considered one of the centers of the Greek community in Albania, there is a consulate of Greece. The city appeared for the first time in historical records under its medieval Greek name of Argyrocastron, as mentioned by John VI Kantakouzenos in 1336.
The name comes from the Medieval Greek ἀργυρόν, meaning "silver", κάστρον, derived from the Latin castrum, meaning "castle" or "fortress". Byzantine chronicles used the similar name Argyropolyhni, meaning silvertown; the theory that the city took the name of the Princess Argjiro, a legendary figure about whom 19th-century author Kostas Krystallis wrote a short novel and Ismail Kadare wrote a poem in the 1960s, is considered folk etymology, since the princess is said to have lived in the 15th century. The definite Albanian form of the name of city is Gjirokastra, while in the Gheg Albanian dialect it is known as Gjinokastër, both of which derive from the Greek name. Alternative spellings found in Western sources include Girokastra. In Aromanian the city is known as Ljurocastru, while in modern Greek it is known Αργυρόκαστρο. During the Ottoman era, the town was known in Turkish as Ergiri. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that during the Bronze Age, the region was inhabited by populations who spoke a northwestern Greek dialect.
Archaeologists have found pottery artifacts dating to the early Iron Age, crafted in a style that first appeared in the late Bronze Age in Pazhok, Elbasan County, is found throughout Albania. The earliest recorded inhabitants of the area around Gjirokastër were the Greek-speaking tribe of the Chaonians, which belonged to the Epirote group; the city's walls date from the third century. The high stone walls of the Citadel were built from the sixth to the twelfth century. During this period, Gjirokastër developed into a major commercial center known as Argyropolis or Argyrokastron; the city was part of the Despotate of Epirus and was first mentioned by the name Argyrokastro by John VI Kantakouzenos in 1336. The first mention of Albanian nomadic groups occurred in the early 14th century, where they were searching for new pasture lands and ravaging settlements in the region; these Albanians had entered the region and took advantage of the situation after the Black death had decimated the local Epirote population.
During 1386–1417 it was contested between the Despotate of Epirus and the Albanian clan of John Zenevisi. In 1399 the Greek inhabitants of the city joined the Despot of Epirus, Esau, in his campaign against various Albanian and Aromanian tribesmen. In 1417 it became part of the Ottoman Empire and in 1419 it became the county town of the Sanjak of Albania. During the Albanian Revolt of 1432–36 it was besieged by forces under Thopia Zenevisi, but the rebels were defeated by Ottoman troops led by Turahan Bey. In 1570s local nobles Manthos Papagiannis and Panos Kestolikos, discussed as Greek representative of enslaved Greece and Albania with the head of the Holy League, John of Austria and various other European rulers, the possibility of an anti-Ottoman armed struggle, but this initiative was fruitless. According to Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi, who visited the city in 1670, at that time there were 200 houses within the castle, 200 in the Christian eastern neighborhood of Kyçyk Varosh, 150 houses in the Byjyk Varosh, six additional neighborhoods: Palorto, Dunavat, Haxhi Bey, Memi Bey, extending on eight hills around the castle.
According to the tr
The Drino or Drinos is a river in southern Albania and northwestern Greece, tributary of the Vjosë. Its source is near the village Delvinaki, it flows southwest northwest and crosses the Albanian border near Ktismata. It continues northwest through Gjirokastër and flows into the Vjosë near Tepelenë
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Bergen-Belsen, or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Established as a prisoner of war camp, in 1943, parts of it became a concentration camp; this was an "exchange camp", where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas. The camp was expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps. After 1945 the name was applied to the displaced persons camp established nearby, but it is most associated with the concentration camp. From 1941 to 1945 20,000 Soviet prisoners of war and a further 50,000 inmates died there. Overcrowding, lack of food and poor sanitary conditions caused outbreaks of typhus, typhoid fever and dysentery, leading to the deaths of more than 35,000 people in the first few months of 1945, shortly before and after the liberation; the camp was liberated on April 1945, by the British 11th Armoured Division. The soldiers discovered 60,000 prisoners inside, most of them half-starved and ill, another 13,000 corpses, including those of Anne and Margot Frank, lying around the camp unburied.
The horrors of the camp, documented on film and in pictures, made the name "Belsen" emblematic of Nazi crimes in general for public opinion in many countries in the immediate post-1945 period. Today, there is a memorial with an exhibition hall at the site. In 1935 the Wehrmacht began to build a large military complex close to the village of Belsen, a part of the town of Bergen, in what was the Province of Hanover; this became the largest military training area in Germany of the time and was used for armoured vehicle training. The barracks were finished in 1937; the camp has been in continuous operation since and is today known as Bergen-Hohne Training Area. It is used by the NATO armed forces; the workers who constructed the original buildings were housed in camps near Fallingbostel and Bergen, the latter being the so-called Bergen-Belsen Army Construction Camp. Once the military complex was completed in 1938/39, the workers' camp fell into disuse. However, after the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Wehrmacht began using the huts as a prisoner of war camp.
The camp of huts near Fallingbostel became known as Stalag XI-B and was to become one of the Wehrmacht's largest POW camps, holding up to 95,000 prisoners from various countries. In June 1940, Belgian and French POWs were housed in the former Bergen-Belsen construction workers' camp; this installation was expanded from June 1941, once Germany prepared to invade the Soviet Union, becoming an independent camp known as Stalag XI-C. It was one of three such camps in the area; the others were at Wietzendorf. By the end of March 1942, some 41,000 Soviet POWs had died in these three camps of starvation and disease. By the end of the war, the total number of dead had increased to 50,000; when the POW camp in Bergen ceased operation in early 1945, as the Wehrmacht handed it over to the SS, the cemetery contained over 19,500 dead Soviet prisoners. In the summer of 1943, Stalag XI-C was dissolved and Bergen-Belsen became a branch camp of Stalag XI-B, it served as the hospital for all Soviet POWs in the region until January 1945.
Other inmates/patients were Italian military internees from August 1944 and, following the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising in October 1944, around 1,000 members of the Polish Home Army were imprisoned in a separate section of the POW camp. In April 1943, a part of the Bergen-Belsen camp was taken over by the SS Economic-Administration Main Office, it thus became part of the concentration camp system, run by the SS Schutzstaffel but it was a special case. Having been designated a Zivilinterniertenlager, in June 1943 it was redesignated Aufenthaltslager, since the Geneva Conventions stipulated that the former type of facility must be open to inspection by international committees; this "holding camp" or "exchange camp" was for Jews who were intended to be exchanged for German civilians interned in other countries, or for hard currency. The SS divided this camp into subsections for individual groups. Between the summer of 1943 and December 1944 at least 14,600 Jews, including 2,750 children and minors were transported to the Bergen-Belsen "holding" or exchange camp.
Inmates were made to work, many of them in the "shoe commando" which salvaged usable pieces of leather from shoes collected and brought to the camp from all over Germany and occupied Europe. In general the prisoners of this part of the camp were treated less harshly than some other classes of Bergen-Belsen prisoner until late in the war, due to their perceived potential exchange value. However, only around 2,560 Jewish prisoners were actually released from Bergen-Belsen and allowed to leave Germany. In March 1944, part of the camp was redesignated as an Erholungslager, where prisoners too sick to work were brought from other concentration camps, they were in Belsen to recover and return to their original camps and resume work, but many of them died in Belsen of disease, starvation and lack of medical attention. In August 1944, a new section was created and this became the so-called "women's camp". By November 1944 this camp received around young girls. Most of those who were able to work stayed only for a short while a
Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943)
The Italian protectorate of Albania known as Greater Albania, existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy. It was a union between Italy and Albania led by Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III and its government: Albania was led by Italian governors, after being militarily occupied by Italy, from 1939 until 1943. During this time, Albania ceased to exist as an independent country and remained as an autonomous part of the Italian Empire led by Italian government officials, who intended to make Albania part of a Greater Italy by assimilating Albanians as Italians and colonizing Albania with Italian settlers from the Italian Peninsula to transform it into an Italian land. In the Treaty of London during World War I, the Triple Entente had promised to Italy and southern Albania as a possession. In June 1917, after Italian soldiers seized control of substantial areas of Albania, Italy formally declared a protectorate over central and southern Albania. Italy was enraged with the minimal gains that it received from peace negotiations, which it regarded as having violated the Treaty of London.
Italian Fascists claimed that Albanians were ethnically linked to Italians through links with the prehistoric Italiotes and Roman populations, that the major influence exerted by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania justified Italy's right to possess it. Italy justified the annexation of Albania on the basis that because several hundred thousand people of Albanian descent had been absorbed into society in southern Italy that the incorporation of Albania was a reasonable measure that would unite people of Albanian descent into one state. Italy supported Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in Yugoslavia and Epirus in Greece the border area of Chameria, inhabited by the Cham Albanian minority. Prior to direct intervention in World War I, Italy occupied the port of Vlorë in Albania in December 1914. Upon entering the war, Italy spread its occupation to region of southern Albania beginning in the autumn 1916. Italian forces in 1916 recruited.
Italy with permission of the Allied command, occupied Northern Epirus on 23 August 1916, forcing the Greek Army to withdraw its occupation forces from there. In June 1917, Italy proclaimed central and southern Albania as a protectorate of Italy while Northern Albania was allocated to the states of Serbia and Montenegro. By 31 October 1918, Italian forces expelled the Austro-Hungarian Army from Albania. After World War I ended, Italy withdraw its military forces on 2 September 1920 from Albania as a result of foreign pressure and defeat in the Vlora War; the Italian Fascist regime had politically and economically penetrated and dominated Albania during Zog's rule and was planning for annexation of Albania years prior to the event. Albania became a de facto protectorate of Italy after the signing of the Treaties of Tirana of 1926 and 1927. Under Zog, Albania's economy was dependent on multiple financial loans given from Italy since 1931. In August 1933, Mussolini placed stringent demands on Zog in exchange for Italy's continued support of Albania, including demands that all new appointments to leading positions in the Albanian government had to have received an "Italian education".
In 1934 when Albania did not deliver its scheduled payment of one loan to Italy, Italian warships arrived off the coast of Albania to intimidate Albania to submit to Italian goals in the region. However, the British opposed Italy's actions and under pressure, Italy backed down and claimed that the naval exercise was a "friendly visit". On 25 August 1937, Italian foreign minister Count Ciano wrote in his diary of Italy's relations with Albania in the following: "We must create stable centres of Italian influence there. Who knows what the future may have in store? We must be ready to seize opportunities. We are not going to withdraw this time, as we did in 1920. In the south we have absorbed several hundred thousand Albanians. Why shouldn’t the same thing happen on the other side of the entrance to the Adriatic.". On 26 March 1938, Ciano wrote in his diary of annexing Albania like Germany did with Austria shortly prior: "A report from Jacomoni on the situation in Albania. Our penetration is becoming more intense and more organic.
The programme which I traced after my visit is being carried out without a hitch. I am wondering whether the general situation – the Anschluss – does not permit us to take a step forward towards the more complete domination of this country, which will be ours." and days on 4 April of that year wrote "We must underline the protectorate element of our relations with Albania". In spite of Albania's long-standing protection and alliance with Italy, on 7 April 1939 Italian troops invaded Albania, five months before the start of the Second World War; the Albanian armed resistance proved ineffective against the Italians and, after a short defense, the country was occupied. On 9 April 1939 the Albanian king
Fier is a city and a municipality in Fier County in southwest Albania. The population of the municipality at the 2011 census was 85,845. Geographically, it is located on the center of the country surrounded by hills; the city is located 100 kilometres south of Tirana. Fier is 11 km from the ruins of the ancient city of Apollonia; the city was founded in 588 BCE by Greek colonists from Corfu and Corinth, on a site occupied by Illyrian tribes. The name comes from Albanian meaning fern. A hypothesis is that the name of the city comes from the Italian word fiera, meaning trade fair in English; the history of Fier is bound up with that of the oil and bitumen deposits nearby. The presence of asphalt and burning escapes of natural gas in the vicinity was recorded as early as the 1st century AD. Dioscorides, in Materia Medica, describes lumps of bitumen in the adjacent river Seman, the concentrated pitch on the banks of the Vjosë river Strabo, writing in about AD 17 states: On the territory of the people of Apolonia in Illyria there is what is called a nymphaeum.
It is a rock. Below it are springs flowing with hot water and asphalt... the asphalt is dug out of a neighboring hill: the parts excavated are replaced by fresh earth, which in time is converted to asphalt. In the 14th and 15th century the location was used by the Venetian traders as a marketplace to purchase agricultural products from the Myzeqe lowlands; the settlement took city status in 1864 when Kahreman Pasha Vrioni, the local governor, asked from some French architects to project a future city as an artisan and trade center. During the 1864–1865 period a market for 122 merchants was built along the Gjanica river; the first inhabitants of the city were the servants of Kahreman Pasha Vrioni and members of Vlach families that had lived in the area since the early 19th century period. Twelve kilometres away from Fier is situated Apollonia, one of the two most important ancient Illyrian colonial settlements in present-day Albania, it was founded in 600 BC on a hill near the sea, near what was the course of Vjosë river by settlers from Corfu and Corinth.
At the time before the changes in land formation and the Adriatic coastline caused by an earthquake in the 3rd century AD, the harbour af Apollonia could accommodate as many as 100 ships. The site is thought to be on the southern boundary of a native Illyrian settlement, being mentioned in Periplus, a sailor's account of the Adriatic written in the middle of the 4th century BC by a Greek writer, it was near the territory occupied by the Illyrian tribes and close to the Greek tribe of the Chaonians. The colony was said to have been named Gylaceia after its Corinthian founder and changed its name to that of city of the God Apollo. According to archaeological investigations for 100 years Greek and Illyrian have lived in separate communities; the economic prosperity of Apolonia grew on the basis of trade in slaves, the local rich pastoral agricultural. In the middle of the 5th century BC, a workshop for minting coins was set up here. Through trade and commercial transactions these coins spread throughout Illyria and beyond its boundaries.
In the years 214 BC onwards, the city was involved in the war between the Illyrian Taulantii and Cassander, the king of Macedonia, in 229 BC came under Roman control. In 168 BC, its loyalty to Rome was rewarded. For 200 years, it was of central importance in the Roman effort to colonize the east and may have been an original terminus of the Egnatian Way, it was a vital stronghold for Caesar in the civil war between Julius Caesar. In 45 and 44 BC, Octavian to become the Emperor Augustus, studied for 6 months in Apolonia, which had established a high reputation as a center of Greek learning the art of rhetoric, it was noted in the Philippics, as ` magna urbs et gravis' a great and important city. Under the Empire, Apolonia remained a prosperous center, but began to decline as the Vjosë silted up and the coastline changed after the earthquake; the first attempts to conduct excavations in Apolonia were made during the first World War, by Austrian archaeologists who unearthed and explored the walls that encircled the city.
Systematic excavations began in 1824 by a French archaeological mission directed by Leon Rey, who brought to light a complex of monuments at the center of the city. Many excavations have been made by Albanian archaeologists during the last 40 years. Many objects are exhibited in the museum, the monastery of St. Mary; this monument decorated the center of the city. The structure had the form of a semicircle and served as an assembly place of the council of the city - the Bule; the front part of the structure was decorated in a special manner: there are 6 pillars crowned with capitals of the Corinthian style. An inscription dating from the middle of the 2nd century AD tells that the building was constructed by high-ranking officers of the city, a monument with the purpose of commemorating the death of his soldier brother. On the day of the inauguration of the monument, a show was staged in the city with the participation of 25 couples of gladiators. On the western side, from the top of the monumental structure, the tourists can see the ruins of the small temple of Artemis.
At the eastern side there is a street. On the opposite side of the monument of the Agonothetes, there is a colonnade decorated with marble statues; this structure rises behind the colonnade. Opposite the monument of Aganothetes stands ` small theatre' for 200 spectators; the building had an orchestra and tiers. There they gave musical shows and held oratorical and philosophical disc