Daft Punk are a French electronic music duo formed in Paris in 1993 by Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter. They achieved popularity in the late 1990s as part of the French house movement, had success in the years following, combining elements of house music with funk, disco and synthpop, they have worn ornate helmets and gloves to assume robot personas in most public appearances since 1999 and grant interviews or appear on television. The duo were managed from 1996 to 2008 by the head of Ed Banger Records. After Bangalter and Homem-Christo's indie rock band Darlin' disbanded, they began experimenting with drum machines and synthesisers, their debut studio album Homework was released by Virgin Records in 1997 to positive reviews, backed by singles "Around the World" and "Da Funk". Their second album, had further success, supported by hit singles "One More Time", "Digital Love" and "Harder, Faster, Stronger". In March 2005, Daft Punk released their third album, Human After All, to mixed reviews, though the singles "Robot Rock" and "Technologic" achieved success in the United Kingdom.
Daft Punk toured throughout 2006 and 2007 and released the live album Alive 2007, which won a Grammy Award for Best Electronic/Dance Album. They composed the score for the film Tron: Legacy, released in 2010 alongside its soundtrack album. In 2013, Daft Punk left Virgin for Columbia Records, released their fourth album, Random Access Memories, to acclaim. Random Access Memories won five Grammy Awards in 2014, including Album of the Year and Record of the Year for "Get Lucky". In 2016, Daft Punk gained their first number one on the Billboard Hot 100 with the song "Starboy", a collaboration with The Weeknd; as of 2015, Daft Punk had sold over 12 million albums worldwide. Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo and Thomas Bangalter met in 1987 while attending the Lycée Carnot secondary school in Paris; the two recorded demos with others from the school. This led to the formation of a guitar-based group called Darlin' with Laurent Brancowitz in 1992. Bangalter and Homem-Christo played bass and guitar while Brancowitz was brought on board after the two sought an additional guitarist.
The trio had branded themselves after The Beach Boys song of the same name, which they covered along with an original composition. Both tracks were released on a multi-artist EP under Duophonic Records, a label owned by the London-based band Stereolab, who invited the trio to open for stage shows in the United Kingdom. Bangalter felt that "The rock n' roll thing we did was pretty average, I think, it was so brief, maybe six months, four songs and two gigs and, it." A negative review in Melody Maker by Dave Jennings subsequently dubbed the music "a daft punky thrash." Instead of dismissing the review, they found it amusing. As Homem-Christo stated, "We struggled so long to find Darlin', this happened so quickly." Darlin' soon disbanded. Bangalter and Homem-Christo experimented with drum machines and synthesisers. In September 1993, Daft Punk attended a rave at EuroDisney, where they met Stuart Macmillan of Slam, co-founder of the label Soma Quality Recordings; the demo tape given to Macmillan at the rave formed the basis for Daft Punk's debut single, "The New Wave", a limited release in 1994.
The single contained the final mix of "The New Wave" called "Alive", to be featured on Daft Punk's first album. Daft Punk returned to the studio in May 1995 to record "Da Funk", it became the duo's first commercially successful single the same year. After the success of "Da Funk", Daft Punk looked to find a manager; the duo settled on Pedro Winter, who promoted them and other artists at his Hype night clubs. The band signed with Virgin Records in September 1996 and made a deal through which the duo licensed its tracks to the major label through its production company, Daft Trax. Bangalter stated that while the duo received numerous offers from record labels, they wanted to wait and ensure that Daft Punk did not lose creative control, he considered the deal with Virgin to be more akin to a partnership. In the mid-to-late nineties, Daft Punk performed live without costumes in many places including the United States. In 1996, the duo were featured at an Even Furthur event in Wisconsin, their first public performance in the U.
S. In addition to live original performances, they performed in various clubs using vinyl records from their collection, they were known for incorporating various styles of music into their DJ sets at that time."Da Funk" and "Alive" were included on Daft Punk's 1997 debut album Homework. In February of that year, the UK dance magazine Muzik published a Daft Punk cover feature and described Homework as "one of the most hyped debut albums in a long long time." According to The Village Voice, the album revived house music and departed from the Eurodance formula. As noted by critic Alex Rayner, Homework brought together established club styles and the "burgeoning eclecticism" of big beat. In 1997 Daft Punk launched their Daftendirektour to promote Homework in several cities throughout the world. For this tour the duo opted to utilize their home studio equipment for the live stage; as Bangalter stated, "Everything was synched up -- the bass lines. The sequencer was just controlling the beats and bars.
On top of this structure we built all these layers of samples and various parts that we could bring in whenever we wanted to." 25 May 1997 saw them perform at the Tribal Gathering festival at Luton Hoo, headlining with Orbital an
Lucas MacFadden, better known as Cut Chemist, is an American DJ and record producer. He is Ozomatli, he has collaborated with DJ Shadow on a number of projects. He graduated from University of California, Los Angeles in 1997. Cut Chemist became known through Unity Committee; the group merged with another group, Rebels of Rhythm, to form Jurassic 5. In 2004, Cut Chemist released The Litmus Test, which included his solo tracks and Jurassic 5 tracks, he left Jurassic 5 in 2004. In a 2006 interview with Billboard, he stated that he had left the group in order to get his solo album finished, his first solo studio album, The Audience's Listening, was released on July 11, 2006. In 2015, it was listed by Vice as the 49th greatest dance album of all time. "The Audience Is Listening Theme Song," the song from the album, has been featured in an iPod Nano advertisement. In 2010, he released Sound of the Police, it was recorded using a turntable, a mixer, a loop pedal. His second solo studio album, Die Cut, was released on March 2, 2018.
It featured guest appearances from Chali 2na, Biz Markie, Mr. Lif, Myka 9, among others; the Audience's Listening Die Cut The Audience's Following Going Back to Cali: Cut Chemist's Colombian Crates Remixed Sick Experiment Rare Equations / Cutin' Class The Diabolical Live at Future Primitive Sound Session Brainfreeze Product Placement The Litmus Test Lost and Found: Rockabilly and Jump Blues The Hard Sell The Hard Sell Sound of the Police Funk Off Megamix Madman EP "Bunky's Pick" "Blind Man from L. A. Carnival" "The Audience Is Listening Theme Song" "The Garden" b/w "Storm" "What's the Altitude" "The Audience Is Rural" "Adidas to Addis" "Outro" DJ Shadow - "The Number Song" Liquid Liquid - "Cavern" Ozomatli - Cut Chemist Suite Major Force - "The Re-Return of the Original Art-Form" Ugly Duckling - "Eye on the Gold Chain" Jem - "They" Breakestra - "How Do They Really Feel" Edan - "Torture Chamber" Percee P - "Throwback Rap Attack" Roots Manuva - "Join The Dots" Quantic and His Combo Barbaro - "Un Canto A Mi Tierra" Jurassic 5 - "Unified Rebelution" Jurassic 5 - Jurassic 5 EP Jurassic 5 - Jurassic 5 Jurassic 5 - "Concrete Schoolyard" Jurassic 5 - "Improvise" Jurassic 5 - "Jayou" Blackalicious - "Alphabet Aerobics" from A2G Jurassic 5 - "Quality Control" Jurassic 5 - Quality Control Blackalicious - "Chemical Calisthenics" from Blazing Arrow Jurassic 5 - Power in Numbers Jurassic 5 - "Ducky Boy" Jurassic 5 - "I Am Somebody" b/w "Break" Lyrics Born - "Do That There" MED - "Blind Man" from Bang Ya Head Jurassic 5 - "Acetate Prophets" b/w "Swing Set" Peanut Butter Wolf - "Tale of Five Cities" from My Vinyl Weighs a Ton Incubus - "Battlestar Scralatchtica" from Make Yourself Mumbles - "Caution" Kid Koala - "Here's a Little Story" from Got What You Need Ozomatli - "Lo Que Dice" from Embrace the Chaos Gretchen Lieberum - Brand New Morning DJ Shadow - "Pushin' Buttons Live" from The Private Press Grandmaster Melle Mel and the Furious Five - "The Sugarhill Suite" from Freestyle Lyrics Born - "Do That There Medley" from The Lyrics Born Variety Show Season One "Lesson 4" on Return of the DJ "Lesson 6: The Lecture" on Deep Concentration "Layered Laird" on Audio Alchemy "S.
N. T." on The Funky Precedent "Hidden Crate" on 2001: A Rhyme Odyssey "Live at the 45 Session" on Urban Revolutions: The Future Primitive Sound Collective "Caution" on No Categories 3: A Ubiquity Compilation "Lesson 6: The Lecture" on The Ultimate Lessons "Live Lesson E" on The Ultimate Lessons 2 "Bunky's Pick" on Stones Throw 101 "Day in Day Out" on Re: Generations Scratch Juno Up in the Air Jennifer's Body Official website Cut Chemist discography at Discogs Cut Chemist on IMDb
Pharrell Lanscilo Williams is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer and fashion designer. Williams and Chad Hugo comprise the record production duo The Neptunes, producing hip hop and R&B music, he is the lead vocalist of the band N*E*R*D, that he formed with Hugo and childhood friend, Shay Haley. He released his first solo single, "Frontin'", in 2003 and followed up with his debut solo album, In My Mind, in 2006, his second album, was released in March 2014 and included the commercially successful single, "Happy". As part of the Neptunes, Williams has produced numerous singles for various recording artists. Williams has earned ten Grammy Awards including two with the Neptunes, he is a two-time Academy Award nominee, receiving a 2014 Best Original Song nomination for "Happy" and a 2017 Best Picture nomination as one of the producers of Hidden Figures. Williams owns I Am Other, a multimedia creative collective that serves as an umbrella for all of Pharrell Williams' endeavors, including Billionaire Boys Club.
Williams was born on April 5, 1973, in Virginia Beach, the oldest of three sons of Pharaoh Williams, a handyman, his wife Carolyn, a teacher. His roots extend for generations in Virginia and North Carolina, one of his ancestors journeyed to West Africa in 1831, prompting other relatives to emigrate from America to Liberia in 1832, he met Chad Hugo in a seventh-grade summer band camp where Williams played the keyboards and drums and Hugo played tenor saxophone. They were both members of a marching band. Williams and Hugo attended Princess Anne High School. Hugo attended Kempsville High School. In the MTV show When I Was 17, Pharrell stated that he was a nerd and did things that made him stand out from most of his peers. Williams attended Northwestern University for two years before dropping out. In the early 1990s, Hugo and Williams formed a four-piece "R&B-type" group, the Neptunes, with friends Shay Haley and Mike Etheridge, they entered a high school talent show where they were discovered by Teddy Riley, whose studio was next to Princess Anne High School.
After graduating from high school, the group signed with Riley. Through working with Riley, Williams went on to write a verse and help produce for Wreckx-N-Effect's 1992 hit "Rump Shaker"; that same year, he performed a small rap solo on SWV's second hit, "Right Here". Williams and Hugo met rap duo Clipse in Virginia Beach in 1993, where they were signed to Arista Records through Williams' Star Trak Entertainment imprint. In 1994, Hugo and Williams had established themselves as a production duo under their old name "The Neptunes", assistant-produced "Tonight's The Night" from Blackstreet's self-titled album. Over the next three years they continued to produce and some of the results had little resemblance to the Neptunes' sound later. However, some like Mase's 1997 song "Lookin' at Me" from his album Harlem World, the most definite beginning of the distinctive "Neptunes sound", came with N. O. R. E's "Superthug" in 1998, reaching number 36 on the Billboard Hot 100, gaining them widespread attention for the first time.
In 1999, a mutual friend introduced Williams to Kelis, their resulting collaboration produced her first album Kaleidoscope. At this point the Neptunes were gaining a wide audience. In 2000, they produced the song I Just Wanna Love U for Jay Z's album The Dynasty: Roc La Familia, which released as the album's first single; the song's sound and success sparked the interest of maturing pop artist Britney Spears. Britney wanted to work with the Neptunes for her upcoming album, saying "for this album I was inspired by Jay-Z and The Neptunes, those were the two people I listened to."In 2001, Britney Spears released her album Britney featuring the lead single "I'm a Slave 4 U", produced by The Neptunes. The song was a defining hit in both of their careers, it was The Neptunes' first time having helped create an album that debuted number one in the Billboard 200; the same year, N*E*R*D, consisting of Williams and Haley, released their first album, In Search of... in Europe, where the first Kelis album was better received.
The album sounded much like their previous production work. In 2002 their re-produced album was released worldwide, the Neptunes reached number one in the U. S. with Nelly's single, "Hot in Herre". In August of the same year, the Neptunes were named "Producers of the Year" at both the Source Awards and the Billboard Music Awards. Clipse released their commercial debut album Lord Willin' in August 2002; the album started at number one on the Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart and number four on the Billboard 200, fueled by its first two singles, "Grindin'" and "When the Last Time", which peaked at number 34 and number 19 on the Billboard Hot 100. The Neptunes released a self-credited album called The Neptunes Present... Clones in 2003, with songs and remixes from various artists; this topped the U. S. Billboard 200 Albums Chart; the Neptunes and Williams were kept in public eye due to ties with Jay Z, producing several hit singles for him and two tracks on his The Black Album. The track "Frontin'" was a big hit.
A survey in August 2003 found the Neptunes produced 20 percent of songs played on British radio at the time, a survey in the US had them at 43
Recording Industry Association of Japan
The Recording Industry Association of Japan is an industry trade group composed of Japanese corporations involved in the music industry. It was founded in 1942 as the Japan Phonogram Record Cultural Association, adopted its current name in 1969; the RIAJ's activities include promotion of music sales, enforcement of copyright law, research related to the Japanese music industry. It publishes the annual RIAJ Year Book, a statistical summary of each year's music sales, as well as distributing a variety of other data. Headquartered in Minato, the RIAJ has twenty member companies and a smaller number of associate and supporting members; the association is responsible for certifying platinum albums and singles in Japan. In 1989, the Recording Industry Association of Japan introduced the music recording certification systems, it is awarded based on shipment figures of compact disc or cassette tape, reported by record labels. In principle, the criteria are limitedly applied to the materials released after January 21, 1989.
All music sales including singles, digital download singles are on the same criteria. Unlike many countries, the highest certification is not called "Diamond" or "Platinum", but "Million". Before the unification of criteria and introduction of music videos category in July 2003, a separate scale had been used for certification awards. Certifications for songs and albums released digitally began on September 20, 2006, using download data collected since the early 2000s. From 2006 until 2013, there were three categories for certifications: Chaku-uta, Chaku-uta Full and PC Haishin for songs purchased on services such as iTunes. On February 28, 2014, the Chaku-uta Full and PC categories were merged to create the Single Track category. While digital album certifications are possible, only certain album have received this certification since the beginning of digital certifications, including the 2011 Songs for Japan charity album. and Hikaru Utada's sixth studio album Fantôme among others. Avex Group¹ Avex Entertainment Avex Digital Being Inc.
Dreamusic Incorporated For Life Music Geneon Universal Entertainment¹ King Records¹ Bellwood Records King Records International Nippon Columbia Columbia Marketing Nippon Crown¹ Pony Canyon¹ Exit Tunes Sony Music Entertainment Japan¹ Ariola Japan DefStar Records Epic Records Japan Ki/oon Records SME Records Sony Music Artists Sony Music Associated Records Sony Music Direct Sony Music Distribution Sony Music Japan International Sony Music Records TEICHIKU ENTERTAINMENT, INC.¹ Tokuma Japan Communications¹ Universal Music Group¹ EMI Music Japan¹ VAP Inc.¹ Victor Entertainment¹ Warner Music Group¹ Yamaha Music Communications Yoshimoto R&C Amuse Soft Entertainment HATS Unlimited Johnny and Associates J Storm Johnny's Entertainment Konami Digital Entertainment Bandai Visual Lantis LD&K Records Naxos Records Pryaid Records¹ Stardust Records Space Shower Networks Spiritual Beast Venus Records Village Again Association NBC Universal Entertainment Japan KISS Entertainment Rambling Records Gambit Croix Aniplex Crown-Tokuma Music Free Board Holiday Japan Jei One NPPDevelop T-Toc Records TV Asahi Music Ward Records Toys Factory Aceforce Entertainment Kino Music¹Member, International Federation of the Phonographic Industry.
List of best-selling albums in Japan List of best-selling singles in Japan List of best-selling music artists in Japan Recording Industry Association of America Australian Recording Industry Association List of music recording sales certifications RIAJ Digital Track Chart Global music industry market share data Recording Industry Association of Japan - in English
Kanye Omari West is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer and fashion designer. His musical career has been marked by dramatic changes in styles, incorporating an eclectic range of influences including soul, baroque pop, indie rock, synth-pop and gospel. Over the course of his career, West has been responsible for cultural movements and progressions within mainstream hip hop and popular music at large. Born in Atlanta and raised in Chicago, West first became known as a producer for Roc-A-Fella Records in the early 2000s, producing hit singles for recording artists such as Jay-Z, Ludacris and Alicia Keys. Intent on pursuing a solo career as a rapper, West released his debut album The College Dropout in 2004 to widespread critical and commercial success, founded the record label GOOD Music, he went on to experiment with a variety of musical genres on subsequent acclaimed studio albums, including Late Registration and the polarizing but influential 808s & Heartbreak. He released his fifth album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy in 2010 to further rave reviews, has since succeeded it with Yeezus, The Life of Pablo and Ye, as well as full-length collaborations Watch the Throne and Kids See Ghosts with Jay-Z and Kid Cudi respectively.
West's outspoken views and life outside of music have received significant media attention. He has been a frequent source of controversy for his conduct at award shows, on social media, in other public settings, as well as his comments on the music and fashion industries, U. S. politics, race. His marriage to television personality Kim Kardashian has been a source of substantial media attention; as a fashion designer, he has collaborated with Nike, Louis Vuitton, A. P. C. on both clothing and footwear, have most prominently resulted in the Yeezy collaboration with Adidas beginning in 2013. He is the founder and head of the creative content company DONDA. West is among the most critically acclaimed musicians of the 21st century and one of the best-selling music artists of all time with over 135 million records sold worldwide, he has won a total of 21 Grammy Awards, making him one of the most awarded artists of all time and the most Grammy-awarded artist of his generation. Three of his albums have been included and ranked on Rolling Stone's 2012 update of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time" list and he ties with Bob Dylan for having topped the annual Pazz & Jop critic poll the most number of times with four number-one albums each.
Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2005 and 2015. Kanye Omari West was born on June 1977, in Atlanta, Georgia. After his parents divorced when he was three years old he moved with his mother to Chicago, Illinois, his father, Ray West, is a former Black Panther and was one of the first black photojournalists at The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Ray West was a Christian counselor, in 2006, opened the Good Water Store and Café in Lexington Park, Maryland with startup capital from his son. West's mother, Dr. Donda C. West, was a professor of English at Clark Atlanta University, the Chair of the English Department at Chicago State University, before retiring to serve as his manager. West was raised in a middle-class background, attending Polaris High School in suburban Oak Lawn, after living in Chicago. At the age of 10, West moved with his mother to Nanjing, where she was teaching at Nanjing University as part of an exchange program. According to his mother, West was the only foreigner in his class, but settled in well and picked up the language, although he has since forgotten most of it.
When asked about his grades in high school, West replied, "I got B's. And I'm not frontin'."West demonstrated an affinity for the arts at an early age. His mother recalled that she first took notice of West's passion for drawing and music when he was in the third grade. West started rapping in the third grade and began making musical compositions in the seventh grade selling them to other artists. At age thirteen, West wrote a rap song called "Green Eggs and Ham" and persuaded his mother to pay for time in a recording studio. Accompanying him to the studio and despite discovering it being "a little basement studio" where a microphone hung from the ceiling by a wire clothes hanger, West's mother nonetheless supported and encouraged him. West crossed paths with producer/DJ No I. D. with whom he formed a close friendship. No I. D. soon became West's mentor, it was from him that West learned how to sample and program beats after he received his first sampler at age 15. After graduating from high school, West received a scholarship to attend Chicago's American Academy of Art in 1997 and began taking painting classes, but shortly after transferred to Chicago State University to study English.
He soon realized that his busy class schedule was detrimental to his musical work, at 20 he dropped out of college to pursue his musical dreams. This action displeased his mother, a professor at the university, she commented, "It was drummed into my head that college is the ticket to a good life... but some career goals don't require college. For Kanye to make an album called College Dropout it was more about having the guts to embrace who you are, rather than following the path society has carved out for you." Kanye West began his early production career in the mid-1990s, creating beats for burgeoning local artists developing a style that involved speeding up vocal samples from classic soul records. His first official production credits came at the age of nineteen
Justin Smith, known professionally as Just Blaze, is an American hip hop record producer and DJ. Born in Paterson, New Jersey, Blaze attended Rutgers University for three years before dropping out to pursue his musical career, his stage name was inspired by the character Blaze Fielding from the Streets of Rage video game series. Blaze is best known for producing Jay-Z songs on the albums The Blueprint, The Blueprint 2, The Black Album, his production can be found on Eminem's 2010 album Recovery. He appears in the video for the third single from Recovery entitled "No Love". Blaze is the CEO of Fort Knocks Entertainment, he has composed soundtracks for video games, was a character in NBA Street Vol. 2. Just Blaze discography at MusicBrainz
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t