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Ternate

Ternate is the largest city in the Indonesian province of North Maluku and an island in the Maluku Islands. It was the capital of the former Sultanate of Ternate and de facto provincial capital of North Maluku before being moved to Sofifi in 2010, it is off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. The city has a population of just under 200,000 on some 111.39 km2. Like its neighbouring island, Ternate is a visually dramatic cone-shape; the two are ancient Islamic sultanates with a long history of bitter rivalry. The islands were once the world's single major producer of cloves, a commodity that allowed their sultans to become amongst the wealthiest and most powerful of all sultans in the Indonesian region. In the precolonial era, Ternate was the dominant political and economic power over most of the "Spice Islands" of Maluku; the "Ternate Essay" was a pioneering account of evolution by natural selection written on the island by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858 and famously sent to Charles Darwin.

Darwin at once responded by publishing Wallace's essay alongside his own accounts of the theory. Ternate and neighbouring Tidore were the world's major producer of cloves upon which their rulers became among the wealthiest and most powerful sultans in the Indonesian region. Much of their wealth, was wasted fighting each other. Up until the Dutch completed the colonization of Maluku in the 19th century, the sultans of Ternate ruled empires that claimed at least nominal influence as far as Ambon and Papua; the peak of its power came near the end of the sixteenth century, under Sultan Baabullah, when it had influence over most of the eastern part of Sulawesi, the Ambon and Seram area, parts of Papua. It engaged in fierce competition for control of its periphery with the nearby sultanate of Tidore. According to historian Leonard Andaya, Ternate's "dualistic" rivalry with Tidore is a dominant theme in the early history of the Maluku Islands. In part as a result of its trade-dependent culture, Ternate was one of the earliest places in the region to which Islam spread coming from Java in the late 15th century.

The faith was restricted to Ternate's small ruling family, spread only to the rest of the population. The first Europeans to stay on Ternate were part of the Portuguese expedition of Francisco Serrão out of Malacca, shipwrecked near Seram and rescued by local residents. Sultan Abu Lais of Ternate heard of their stranding, seeing a chance to ally himself with a powerful foreign nation, he brought them to Ternate in 1512; the Portuguese were permitted to build a fort on the island, construction of which began in 1522. Relations between the Ternateans and Portuguese were strained from the start. An outpost far from Europe only attracted the most desperate and avaricious, such that the poor behaviour of the Portuguese combined with feeble attempts at Christianisation, strained relations with Ternate's Muslim ruler, as did their efforts to monopolise the spice trade and dominate local politics. In 1535 King Tabariji was sent to Goa by the Portuguese, he changed his name to Dom Manuel. After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne.

He had, bequeathed the island of Ambon to his Portuguese godfather Jordão de Freitas. When Sultan Hairun was executed and his head exhibited on a pike in 1570, Muslim Ternateans rebelled against the Portuguese who were besieged in their castle until 1575 when a new Sultan made the castle his palace. Ambon became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-Portuguese state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. In 1580, the sultan entertained the English adventurer and circumnavigator Sir Francis Drake, who much to the surprise of the Ternateans had no interest in buying cloves as his ship, the Golden Hind, was too full of stolen Spanish-American gold to carry cloves; as the Portuguese battles in the Indian Ocean against Muslim Powers raged on, Ternate became a site of interest for the Ottomans, who had gained much information about Maritime Southeast Asia from the Sultanate of Aceh, in fact Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis, the Ottoman Admiral, intended to reach both Java and Ternate but was engaged in battle and was outnumbered against the Portuguese Fleet in Sumatra.

Spanish and Dutch traders competing for control over the lucrative clove trade played Ternate off against Tidore. The Dutch became the dominant European power although the sultanates were in place continually until today. Spanish forces captured the former Portuguese fort from the Ternatese in 1606, deported the Ternate Sultan and his entourage to Manila, a city which the Spanish captured from the Sultanate of Brunei by siding with the subjugated Kingdom of Tondo, the state which Manila displaced when Brunei invaded Luzon; the Spanish set up Manila as a Captaincy-General under the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain and Spanish Ternate in turn was ruled under the Governor-General based in Manila. In 1607 the Dutch came back in Ternate; the Spaniards occupied the southern part of the island where they had their main settlement the town of Ciudad del Rosario. The island was divided between the two powers: the Spaniards were allied with Tidore and the Dutch with their Ternaten allies. For the Ternatean rulers, the Dutch were a useful, if not welcome, presence that gave them military advantages against Tidore and the Spanish.

Under Sultan Hamzah, Ternate expanded its ter

Andrew Carnegie Library (Corona, California)

The Andrew Carnegie Library in Corona, California in Riverside County, California, at 8th and Main Streets, was a Carnegie library built in 1905–06. Known as the Old Corona Public Library, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977; the building was demolished in 1978, but still remains listed on the National Register. The demolition of the building long remained a sore point, with many who fought for the building's preservation; the suggested alternative use for the property was as a fish-fry restaurant, never built. In 2010, the property was still an empty lot, it was a Classical Revival work of architect Franklin Pierce Burnham, was Corona's only example of Classical Revival style. The building served as Corona's public library from 1906 until 1971. A new 19,000 square feet library was opened in 1971 at Main Streets; the library was expanded following a bond vote in 1988. A 1971 photo available from the Corona Public Library shows a library interior from the modern replacement building.

Its architectural significance "was acknowledged by its placement on the National Register of Historic Places. However, the building stood'boarded up and vacant while the city raged about what was to be done with the building' from 1971 to 1978, it was demolished in 1978 and the Heritage Room at the new library was'started as a compromise between keeping the city's history alive and having a new library building.' Corona's library history dates from an 1893 WCTU reading room, replaced by an 1895 YMCA library, in its turn taken over by the Women's Improvement Club and transferred to the city in 1900. The early libraries occupied a succession of rented rooms until Carnegie funding of $10,000 was obtained in March,1905; this was increased to $11,500 due to the intercession of J. A. Flagler of New York, who had ties in Corona in addition to being a close friend of Andrew Carnegie. Ground was broken in August and the building was dedicated July 2, 1906; the building was demolished in 1978." List of Carnegie libraries in California

Madhusudan Yadav

Madhusudan Yadav is an Indian Politician from Bharatiya Janta Party. He was a member of the 15th Lok Sabha of India representing the Rajnandgaon constituency of Chhattisgarh, he won this seat, defeating his Congress rival Devvrat Singh by a margin of more than 100,000 votes Yadav was first elected to 15th Lok Sabha by defeating Devwrat Singh of Indian National Congress by margin of 1,15,878 in 2009 Indian general election. In 2015, he became Mayor of Rajnandgaon Municipal Corporation, he contested 2018 Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly election from Dongargaon Vidhan Sabha but lost from Daleshwar Singh Sahu of Indian National Congress. In December 2011, Madhusudan Yadav advocated inclusion of Group C employees under the proposed Lokpal Bill List of members of the 15th Lok Sabha of India