Terni is a city in the southern portion of the region of Umbria in central Italy. The city is the capital of the province of Terni, located in the plain of the Nera river, it is 104 kilometres northeast of Rome. It was founded as an Ancient Roman town. During the 19th century, steel mills were introduced and led the city to have a role in the second industrial revolution in Italy; because of its industrial importance, the city was bombed during World War II by the Allies. It still remains an industrial hub and has been nicknamed "The Steel City". Terni is known as the "City of Lovers", as its patron saint, Saint Valentine, was born and became a bishop here, the remains are preserved in the basilica-sanctuary in his honour; the city was founded around the 7th century BC by the Umbrians Naharti, in a territory inhabited as early as the Bronze Age. The Iguvine Tablets describe these Naharti as a strong, numerous people and as the most important enemy of the Umbrian people of Gubbio. In the 3rd century BC, Terni was conquered by the Romans and soon became an important municipium lying on the Via Flaminia.
The Roman name was Interamna, meaning "in between two rivers". During the Roman Empire the city was enriched with several buildings, including aqueducts, walls, an amphitheater, a theater and bridges. After the Lombard conquest in 755 Terni lost prominence when it was reduced to a secondary town in the Duchy of Spoleto. In 1174 it was sacked by Archbishop Christian of Mainz. In the following century Terni was one of sites visited by St. Francis to give sermons. In the 14th century Terni issued its own constitution, from 1353 the walls were enlarged, new channels were opened; as with many of the Italian communes of the Late Middle Ages, it was beset by civil unrest between the partisans of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, between the Nobili and Banderari. It joined the Papal States. In 1580 an ironwork, the Ferriera, was introduced to work the iron ore mined in Monteleone di Spoleto, starting the traditional industrial connotation of the city. In the 17th century, the population of Terni declined further due to plagues and famines.
In the 19th century, Terni took advantage of the Industrial Revolution and of plentiful water sources in the area. New industries included a steelwork, a foundry, as well as weapons and wool factories. In 1927 Terni became capital of the province; the presence of important industries made the city a favorite target for the Allied bombardments in World War II. On August 11, 1943, a raid by 44 USAAF bombers, which dropped 213 tons of bombs, devastated the city, killing 564 people, it was the first of the 57 air strikes that destroyed or damaged 40% of Terni's buildings and killed 1,018 civilians. Despite this, industrial environment increased after the war; the city has three important industrial hubs: the first one is the Stainless Steel Area, called AST and is a wide area located in the east part of Terni. West of the town, there is a second industrial hub, known as "Area Polymer", with four different chemical multinational industries; the third industrial hub is Italeaf, which controls TerniEnergia, a company listed on STAR segment of Borsa Italiana, active in the renewable energy sector, promotes and develops technological star-ups in cleantech sector.
Terni is connected with the A1 motorway, the European route E45 and National Road Flaminia by the RATO, a motorway junction. Terni railway station is part of the Ancona–Orte railway, is a junction station for two secondary lines, the Terni–Sulmona railway and the Terni–Sansepolcro railway. One of the most important national freight stations is located nearby; the local urban and suburban transport service, ATC, runs 90 bus lines. In the north of the city, there are works in progress on the line from Perugia to enable it to be used as a Light rail line. Roman amphitheater, once capable of 10,000 spectators, built in 32 BC. Porta Sant'Angelo, one of the four Ancient Roman Gates to the city, much restored. Terni Cathedral. Built over one of the most ancient Christian edifices of the city, it has today Baroque lines. In the interior is one organ designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini; the belfry is from the 18th century. The façade has two mediaeval gates: one of them has the profile of a sabot once used to measure the citizen's shoes in order to ensure that they did not exceed a fixed limit of decency.
San Francesco – 13th-century church The Basilica of S. Valentino. Palazzo Mazzancolli is one of the few remains of the Middle Ages past of the city. Palazzo Gazzoli, housing the City's Gallery with works by Pierfrancesco d'Amelia, Benozzo Gozzoli, Gerolamo Troppa and Orneore Metelli. Palazzo Spada, designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, it is the current Town Hall. Lancia di Luce, by the sculptor Arnaldo Pomodoro; the Romanesque churches: Sant'Alò. San Martino. San Salvatore. Nearby, at the confluence of the Velino and Nera Rivers, is the Cascata delle Marmore, a 165-metre-high waterfall. Ternana Calcio is the main football club in the city; the club have twice played in Italy's first division Serie A. Ternana is playing in Serie B; the club play at the 22,000-seat Stadio Libero Liberati, named after Italian motorcycle racer Libero Liberati, born in Terni, won the 500cc World Championship in 1957, died while he was training wi
Gregory Kamateros was a senior Byzantine official. Of low birth but well educated, he reached high office under Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and became logothetes ton sekreton, de facto prime minister, under both Alexios and John II Komnenos. Through his marriage with Irene Doukaina, an imperial relative, he founded the bureaucratic dynasty of the Doukai–Kamateroi. There are several scattered references to a "Gregory Kamateros" in documents and seals of the late 11th/early 12th century. Most scholars consider them to refer to the same person, with the notable exception of the historian Vitalien Laurent, who cast doubt on this identification. According to the historian Niketas Choniates, Gregory Kamateros was of lowly and undistinguished birth, he was distinguished by his great erudition, said to encompass all fields of knowledge. He first appears as a logariastes of the genikon department; the same document gives the name of his father as Basil. At the time of the failed conspiracy of Nikephoros Diogenes against Alexios I Komnenos in 1094, he was a "recently appointed" secretary to the emperor, participated in the interrogation of Diogenes.
A seal attests to his having held the office of governor, with the title of praetor, of the joint themes of the Peloponnese and Hellas. This is when, according to Choniates, he became rich from tax farming in the provinces; the wealth he accumulated allowed him to marry Irene Doukaina. Archbishop Theophylact of Ohrid, who maintained friendly relations with Gregory and addressed five letters to him, implies that he was influential at court. 1094, Theophylact congratulates Gregory on his promotion to the rank of nobilissimus and the position of protasekretis. The protasekretis was the head of the imperial chancery, but according to the historian Paul Magdalino, Gregory Kamateros may have been the first protasekretis to head the tribunal with which the office was chiefly associated in the 12th century, he was promoted to the rank of sebastos, the position of logothetes ton sekreton. The latter post was a creation of Alexios I tasked with coordinating the various government departments, but which by the turn of the 12th century had established itself as a de facto prime minister.
Indeed, the monody written on the occasion of Gregory's funeral by the court poet Theodore Prodromos portrays him as the virtual ruler of the empire. After the accession of John II Komnenos, it appears that Gregory was sidelined for a while, as the government was headed by John's favourites, the parakoimomenos John Komnenos and the protovestiarios Gregory Taronites; as the latter proved ineffective, Gregory Kamateros was recalled, but, as Magdalino remarks not "in his full former capacity". Towards the end of his life, both he and his wife Irene entered a monastery; the exact date of Gregory's death is unknown, but it is placed between 1126 and 1132 on account of a reference to the appearance of a comet in Prodromos' funeral monody. Another court poet, Nicholas Kallikles wrote a poem on the occasion of Gregory's death. Gregory Kamateros married Irene Doukaina a daughter of the protostrator Michael Doukas and hence niece of Alexios I. Irene Doukaina outlived her husband; the union led to the emergence of the Doukas-Kamateros line, which held high office under the Komnenian emperors throughout the 12th century.
Most of the couple's children are unknown. A son named Michael died young, a contemporary Theodore Kamateros was likely a son of the couple; the best known of Gregory's children are the high official John Kamateros, the high official and theologian Andronikos Kamateros. The latter's son Basil Doukas Kamateros was a high official, while his daughter Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera became empress to Alexios III Angelos. Guilland, Rodolphe. "Les Logothètes: Etudes sur l'histoire administrative de l'Empire byzantin". Revue des études byzantines. 29: 5–115. Doi:10.3406/rebyz.1971.1441. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. Magdalino, Paul; the Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52653-1. Polemis, Demetrios I.. The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography. London: The Athlone Press. Shandrovskaya, Valentina Samoilovna. "Григорий Каматир и его печать в собрании Государственного Эрмитажа".
Византийский Временник. Российской Академии Наук. 16: 173–182. Skoulatos, Basile. Les personnages byzantins de l'Alexiade: Analyse synthèse. Louvain-la-Neuve and Louvain: Bureau du Recueil Collège Érasme and Éditions Nauwelaerts. OCLC 8468871
The Wall Street Journal Economic Survey known as the Wall Street Journal Economic Forecasting Survey, could refer to either the monthly or the semi-annual survey conducted by the Wall Street Journal of over 50 economists on important indicators of the economy of the United States. Records of the monthly survey on the Wall Street Journal website go back to December 2002 and records of the semiannual survey range between the years 2003 and 2007. However, the survey dates back to at least 1986; the Wall Street Journal Economic Survey has been cited and used in some academic research on forecast accuracy and the nature of expectations. Forecasts made in the Wall Street Journal Economic Survey are discussed by other financial press and blog articles. Best on the Street, a similar survey of financial analysts by the Wall Street Journal, used to rank the relative performance of the analysts. Economic forecasting Survey of Professional Forecasters ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters Livingston Survey Blue Chip Economic Indicators OECD Main Economic Indicators OECD Economic Outlook Consensus Economics Consensus forecast Official website