New Riders of the Purple Sage
New Riders of the Purple Sage is an American country rock band. The group emerged from the psychedelic rock scene in San Francisco, California, in 1969, its original lineup included several members of the Grateful Dead, their best known song is "Panama Red". The band is sometimes referred to as the New Riders, or as NRPS; the roots of the New Riders can be traced back to the early 1960s Peninsula folk/beatnik scene centered on Stanford University's now-defunct Perry Lane housing complex in Menlo Park, where future Grateful Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia played gigs with like-minded guitarist David Nelson. The young John Dawson played some concerts with Garcia and their compatriots while visiting relatives on summer vacation. Enamored of the sounds of Bakersfield-style country music, Dawson would turn his older friends on to the work of Merle Haggard and Buck Owens and provided a vital link between Timothy Leary's International Federation for Internal Freedom in Millbrook, New York and the Menlo Park bohemian coterie nurtured by Ken Kesey.
Inspired by American folk music and roll, blues, Garcia formed the Grateful Dead with blues singer Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, while Nelson joined the inclined New Delhi River Band shortly thereafter. Although they lacked the managerial acumen and cultural cachet of the Grateful Dead and elected to remain in East Palo Alto, California unlike the former group, who soon relocated to the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, the New Delhi River Band were considered to be the house band of The Barn in Scotts Valley, California by late 1966; the group continued to enjoy a cult following in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties through the Summer of Love until their dissolution in early 1968. After a period of inactivity, Nelson contributed to the Grateful Dead's Aoxomoxoa sessions and served as the caretaker of Big Brother and the Holding Company's rehearsal space while guitarist Peter Albin and drummer David Getz undertook a European tour with Country Joe & the Fish following the schismatic departure of Janis Joplin and Sam Andrew from the former band in December 1968.
During this period and Garcia played intermittently in an early iteration of High Country, a traditional bluegrass ensemble formed by the remnants of the Peninsula folk scene. It is believed that Nelson would have been lead guitarist in the reconstituted lineup of Big Brother that coalesced in 1969 and thus may have contributed to some of the recordings on Be a Brother during this transitional period. Dawson—who dropped out of Occidental College in December 1965 and remained in Los Angeles for several years thereafter, "hanging out with musicians and weirdos"—had returned to Los Altos Hills by early 1969, allowing him to contribute to the Aoxomoxoa sessions and enroll at Foothill College. After a mescaline experience at Pinnacles National Park with Torbert and Matthew Kelly, he began to compose songs on a regular basis; some were traditional country pastiches. "Henry", a traditional shuffle with contemporary lyrics about marijuana smuggling dates from this period. Dawson's vision was prescient, as 1969 marked the emergence of country rock via Bob Dylan, The Band, The Flying Burrito Brothers, the Dillard & Clark Band, the Clarence White-era Byrds.
Around this time, Garcia was inspired to take up the pedal steel guitar, an informal line-up including Dawson and Peninsula folk veteran Peter Grant began playing coffeehouse and hofbrau concerts together when the Grateful Dead were not touring. Their repertoire included country standards, traditional bluegrass, Dawson originals, a few Dylan covers. By the summer of 1969 it was decided that a full band would be formed and David Nelson was recruited to play lead guitar. In addition to Nelson and Garcia, the original line-up of the band that came to be known as the New Riders of the Purple Sage consisted of Alembic Studios engineer Bob Matthews on electric bass and Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead. Lyricist Robert Hunter rehearsed with the band on bass in early 1970 before the permanent hiring of Torbert in April of that year; the most commercially successful configuration of the New Riders would come to encompass Dawson, Torbert, Spencer Dryden, Buddy Cage. After a few warmup gigs throughout the Bay Area in 1969, Dawson and Torbert began to tour in May 1970 as part of a tripartite bill advertised as "An Evening with the Grateful Dead".
An acoustic Grateful Dead set that included contributions from Dawson and Nelson would segue into New Riders and electric Dead sets, obviating the need to hire external opening acts. By the time the New Riders recorded their first album in late 1970, change was in the air. Due to an incipient opiate addiction that affected his performance, Hart was temporarily fired by the Grateful Dead in February 1971. Although he contributed to two tracks
A set list, or most setlist, is a handwritten or printed document, created as a blueprint for a performance that lists the order of songs, stories or other performance elements that an artist intends to play, or has played, during a specific performance.. A setlist can be made of nearly any material that can be written or printed on, but are most made with paper, cardboard, or cardstock, they are often laminated as well for outdoor stage settings. The set list is taped directly to the stage in front of the performers, or somewhere the musicians can see it, such as to a monitor or amplifier. Artists use setlists for a variety of reasons beyond just being a reminder of the order in which their material is to be played during a performance, they are most used to help the artist or band to create the overall mood of a live performance by allowing them to create a memorable sense of range and variety in the tone and dynamics within their performance, a factor in creating great performances that fans will talk about for years if not generations.
They are used to create sets for a specific audience or location, an popular idea, aided by the use of today's technologies like the use of instant polling on social media and websites, where fans can choose the material to be performed. Many performers craft their playlists in ways that highlight other elements of their stage shows such as the visual ambiance of the stage, choreography, or in an order that defines things like different albums or eras of their career. Music fans refer to the set list in the non-physical sense of what a performing artist chooses to play. For many artists, the same set list is played for every performance on a given concert tour. For others, this is not the case, for their devoted fan bases who follow the artist around on tour, the most variety in the setlist from night to night is longed for; the Grateful Dead is one example, having never played the same set list twice in the band's entire existence. Some such artists have predetermined "slots" in an otherwise fixed show where different songs can be swapped in and out.
There are websites that track and report information on such things as the venue and bands on the bill of each date, as well as which band members were in attendance, copies of the show posters and other memorabilia available, most the actual setlist used for that particular event. This is done to provide a more accurate record of each individual show, used to differentiate between performances during a tour, as many artists will change their setlist from one night to another. In the pre-smartphone era, devoted followers attending concerts of popular artists such as Bruce Springsteen or Led Zeppelin, which have large fan bases spanning the globe took on the task of tracking which songs were played and in what order, creating their own handwritten version of the correct setlist for the event to be shared with other fans through fan clubs and other forums; when early cellular phones became commonplace with the general public, people began using text-messaging to report the songs played in real-time to a friend or fellow fan who would update a running setlist on one or more Internet forums devoted to the performer of the night.
When internet-connected smartphones came about, fans began to post the setlists directly to these forums and websites themselves as part of a running play-by-play commentary of their concert experiences on social media sites such as Myspace and Twitter. Collecting setlists has become nearly as popular for music fans as collecting ticket stubs and show posters, with the actual physical setlist becoming a treasured and uniquely rare souvenir for concert goers and fans of music, in general. Fans wait around after a concert just so they can grab one off the stage after a performance or so they can try requesting one from a roadie or other event staff. Crew members sometimes keep items like original setlists, guitar picks and other items used during a performance as keepsakes or to sell in the memorabilia market or on auction websites such as eBay, where collectors and concert attendees who are looking to the highlight their own experience of a particular show can purchase them for their own collection.
In some cases, so great is the urge for a fan to obtain a setlist that they don't always wait for a show to end before trying to get their hands on a setlist. Setlist.fm – the setlists wiki setlist.com – Online archive for setlists setlisting.com – Setlists and Statistics for all Artists setlisthelper.com – Helping musicians build and arrange setlists setlist.mx – Japanese setlists Archive setlistart.com – Artwork based on setlists setlists.net – Searchable Online archive for Grateful Dead setlists livetracklist.com – EDM setlists Archive
Abbey Road Studios
Abbey Road Studios is a recording studio at 3 Abbey Road, St John's Wood, City of Westminster, England. It was established in November 1931 by the Gramophone Company, a predecessor of British music company EMI, which owned it until Universal Music took control of part of EMI in 2013. Abbey Road Studios is most notable as being the 1960s' venue for innovative recording techniques adopted by the Beatles, Pink Floyd, the Hollies, as well as others. One of its earliest world-famous-artist clients was Paul Robeson, who recorded there in December 1931 and went on to record many of his best-known songs there. Towards the end of 2009, the studio came under threat of sale to property developers. However, the British Government protected the site, granting it English Heritage Grade II listed status in 2010, thereby preserving the building from any major alterations. A nine-bedroom Georgian townhouse built in 1831 on the footpath leading to Kilburn Abbey, the building was converted to flats where the most well-known resident was Maundy Gregory.
In 1929, the Gramophone Company converted it into studios. The property benefited from a large garden behind the townhouse, which permitted a much larger building to be constructed to the rear. Pathé filmed the opening of the studios in November 1931 when Edward Elgar conducted the London Symphony Orchestra in recording sessions of his music. In 1934, the inventor of stereo sound, Alan Blumlein, recorded Mozart's Jupiter Symphony, conducted by Thomas Beecham at the studios; the neighbouring house is owned by the studio and used to house musicians. During the mid-20th century, the studio was extensively used by leading British conductor Sir Malcolm Sargent, whose house was just around the corner from the studio building; the Gramophone Company merged with Columbia Graphophone Company to form Electric and Musical Industries in 1931, the studios became known as EMI Recording Studios. In 1936 cellist Pablo Casals became the first to record Johann Sebastian Bach's Cello Suites No. 1 & 2 at the command of EMI head Fred Gaisberg.
The recordings went on to spur a revolution among Bach cellists alike. In 1958, Studio Two at Abbey Road became a centre for rock and roll music when Cliff Richard and the Drifters recorded "Move It" there, pop music material. Abbey Road Studios is associated with the Beatles, who recorded all of their albums and hits there between 1962 and 1970 using the four-track REDD mixing console designed by Peter K. Burkowitz; the Beatles named their 1969 album Abbey Road, after the street. The studio was renamed Abbey Road Studios in 1970. Iain Macmillan took the album's cover photograph outside the studios, with the result that the nearby zebra crossing has become a place of pilgrimage for Beatles fans, it has been a tradition for visitors to pay homage to the band by writing on the wall in front of the building though it is painted over every three months. December 2010, the zebra crossing at Abbey Road was given a Grade II listed status. Pink Floyd recorded most of their late 1960s to mid-1970s albums here, returning only in 1988 for mixing and overdubbing subsequent albums.
Notable producers and sound engineers who have worked at Abbey Road include George Martin, Geoff Emerick, Norman "Hurricane" Smith, Ken Scott, Mike Stone, Alan Parsons, Peter Vince, Malcolm Addey, Peter Brown, Richard Langham, Phil McDonald, John Kurlander, Richard Lush and Ken Townsend, who invented the groundbreaking studio effect known as automatic double tracking. The chief mastering engineer at Abbey Road was Chris "Vinyl" Blair, who started his career as a tape deck operator. In 1979, EMI commissioned the British jazz fusion band Morrissey-Mullen to record Britain's first digitally recorded single record at Abbey Road Studios. From 18 July to 11 September 1983, the public had a rare opportunity to see inside the legendary Studio Two where the Beatles made most of their records. While a new mixing console was being installed in the control room, the studio was used to host a video presentation called The Beatles at Abbey Road; the soundtrack to the video had a number of recordings that were not made commercially available until the release of The Beatles Anthology project over a decade later.
The Red Hot Chili Peppers used a photograph of the band walking across the zebra crossing naked on the front of The Abbey Road E. P., released in 1988. In September 2005, American hip-hop artist Kanye West, backed by a 17-piece female string orchestra, performed songs derived from his first two studio albums at Abbey Road Studios. Recordings of these live renditions formed his live album, Late Orchestration, released in April 2006; the cover art for the album makes use of the famous zebra crossing with West's trademark'Dropout Bear' seen walking across it. In June 2011, South Korean boy band Shinee performed at the studio as part of its Japanese debut showcase in partnership with EMI and the group's local record label SM Entertainment, becoming the first-ever Asian artist to perform in the studio. In November 2011, Australian recording artist Kylie Minogue recorded some of her most famous songs with a full orchestra at Abbey Road Studios; the album called The Abbey Road Sessions was released October 2012.
In September 2012, with the takeover of EMI, the studio became the property of Universal Music. It was not one of the entities. In February 2017, a rare BTR-3 tape recorder used at Abbey Road, was found by members of
The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Ranging from quintet to septet, the band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, country, blues, modal jazz, experimental music and space rock, for live performances of lengthy instrumental jams, for their devoted fan base, known as "Deadheads". "Their music", writes Lenny Kaye, "touches on ground that most other groups don't know exists". These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world"; the band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and a recording of their May 8, 1977, performance at Cornell University's Barton Hall was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2012; the Grateful Dead have sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s.
The founding members were Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Phil Lesh, Bill Kreutzmann. Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions and the Warlocks. Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks. Drummer Mickey Hart and non-performing lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967. With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history; the other official members of the band are Tom Constanten, John Perry Barlow, Keith Godchaux, Donna Godchaux, Brent Mydland, Vince Welnick. Bruce Hornsby was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as a guest with the band on occasion before and after the tours. After the death of Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with other musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998, 2000, 2002, the Dead in 2003, 2004, 2009. In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the band's 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together.
There have been several spin-offs featuring one or more core members, such as Dead & Company, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh and Friends, RatDog, Billy & the Kids. The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, California jug band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions; the band's first show was at Magoo's Pizza located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, on May 5, 1965. They continued playing bar shows as the Warlocks, but changed its name after finding out that the Velvet Underground had put out a record under the same name; the first show under the name Grateful Dead was in San Jose on December 4, 1965, at one of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests. Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have been recorded by the band's fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8, 1966; that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, an early psychedelic rock concert.
The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. According to Phil Lesh, in his autobiography, "... picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...... In that silvery elf-voice he said to me,'Hey, how about the Grateful Dead?'" The definition there was "the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial". According to Alan Trist, director of the Grateful Dead's music publisher company Ice Nine, Garcia found the name in the Funk & Wagnalls Folklore Dictionary, when his finger landed on that phrase while playing a game of Fictionary. In the Garcia biography, Captain Trips, author Sandy Troy states that the band was smoking the psychedelic DMT at the time; the term "grateful dead" appears in folktales of a variety of cultures. Other supporting personnel who signed on early included Rock Scully, who heard of the band from Kesey and signed on as manager after meeting them at the Big Beat Acid Test. "We were living off of Owsley's good graces at that time....
Trip was he wanted to design equipment for us, we were going to have to be in sort of a lab situation for him to do it", said Garcia. One of the group's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple; the Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple. The band's first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released on Warner Brothers in 1967. Classically trained trumpeter Phil Lesh performed on bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played r
Robert Hall Weir is an American musician and songwriter best known as a founding member of the rock band Grateful Dead. After the Grateful Dead disbanded in 1995, Weir performed with The Other Ones known as The Dead, together with other former members of the Grateful Dead. Weir founded and played in several other bands during and after his career with the Grateful Dead, including Kingfish, the Bob Weir Band and the Midnites, Scaring the Children, RatDog, Furthur which he co-led with former Grateful Dead bassist Phil Lesh. In 2015, along with former Grateful Dead members Mickey Hart and Bill Kreutzmann, joined with Grammy-winning singer/guitarist John Mayer to form the band Dead & Company; the band remains active. During his career with the Grateful Dead, Weir played rhythm guitar and sang many of the band's rock-n-roll and country & western tunes. In 1994, he was inducted into The Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Grateful Dead. Weir was born in San Francisco, California to John Parber and a fellow college student, who gave him up for adoption.
He began playing guitar at age thirteen after less successful experimentation with the piano and the trumpet. He had trouble in school because of undiagnosed dyslexia and he was expelled from nearly every school he attended, including Menlo-Atherton High School in Atherton and Fountain Valley School in Colorado, where he met future Grateful Dead lyricist John Perry Barlow. On New Year's Eve, 1963, 16-year-old Weir and another underage friend were wandering the back alleys of Palo Alto, looking for a club that would admit them, when they heard banjo music, they followed the music to Dana Morgan's Music Store. Here, a young Jerry Garcia, oblivious to the date, was waiting for his students to arrive. Weir and Garcia spent the night playing music together and decided to form a band; the Beatles influenced their musical direction. "The Beatles were why we turned from a jug band into a rock'n' roll band," said Bob Weir. "What we saw them doing was impossibly attractive. I couldn't think of anything else more worth doing."
Called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions, the band was renamed The Warlocks and the Grateful Dead. Weir played rhythm guitar and sang a large portion of the lead vocals through all of the Dead's 30-year career. In the fall of 1968, the Dead played some concerts without Ron "Pigpen" McKernan; these shows, with the band billed as "Mickey and the Hartbeats", were intermixed with full-lineup Grateful Dead concerts. In his biography of Jerry Garcia, Blair Jackson notes, "Garcia and Lesh determined that Weir and Pigpen were not pulling their weight musically in the band… Most of the band fights at this time were about Bobby's guitar playing." Late in the year, the band took Weir and Pigpen back in full-time. The incident led to a period of significant growth in Weir's guitar playing. Phil Lesh said that when drummer Mickey Hart left the band temporarily in early 1971, he was able to hear Weir's playing more than and "I found myself astonished and excited beyond measure at what Bobby was doing." Lesh described Weir's playing as "quirky and goofy" and noted his ability to play on the guitar chord voicings that one would hear from a keyboard.
In the late 1970s, Weir began to experiment with slide guitar techniques and perform certain songs during Dead shows using the slide. His unique guitar style is influenced by the hard bop pianist McCoy Tyner and he has cited artists as diverse as John Coltrane, the Rev. Gary Davis, Igor Stravinsky as influences. Weir's first solo album Ace appeared in 1972, with the Grateful Dead performing as the band on the album, though credited individually. Included in this line-up were Keith Godchaux and his wife Donna, both of whom would be in the band by the time of the album's release. A live version of the album's best-known song, "Playing in the Band", had been issued on the Skull & Roses album of the previous year. While continuing to perform as a member of the Grateful Dead, in 1975 and 1976 Weir played in the Bay Area band Kingfish with friends Matt Kelly and Dave Torbert, he contributed to Kelly's 1987 album A Wing and a Prayer, on Relix Records. In 1978 he fronted the Bob Weir Band with Brent Mydland, who joined the Grateful Dead the following year.
In 1980 he formed another side band and the Midnites. Shortly before Garcia's death in 1995, Weir formed another band, RatDog Revue shortened to RatDog. In RatDog Weir sings covers by The Beatles, Bob Dylan, Chuck Berry, Willie Dixon while performing many Grateful Dead songs. In addition, Ratdog performs many of their own originals, most of which were released on the album Evening Moods. In 2002, most notably bassist Robin Sylvester replaced founding bassist Rob Wasserman. Weir has participated in the various reformations of the Grateful Dead's members, including 1998, 2000, 2002 stints as The Other Ones and in 2003, 2004 and 2009 as The Dead. In 2008 he performed in the two Deadheads for Obama concerts. In 2009 Bob Weir and Phil Lesh formed a new band called Furthur—so-named in honor of Ken Kesey's famous psychedelically-painted bus. In 2011, Weir founded the Tamalpais Research Institute known as TRI Studios. TRI is a high-tech recording studio and virtual music venue, used to stream live concerts over the internet in high-definition.
In 2012, Weir toured with Chris Robinson of the Black Crowes, singer/songwriter Jackie Greene as the Weir, Robinson, & Greene Acoustic Trio. Weir resuscitated Ratdog in March 2013; the Ratdog Q
Funk rock is a fusion genre that mixes elements of funk and rock. James Brown and others declared that Little Richard and his mid-1950s road band, The Upsetters, were the first to put the funk in the rock and roll beat, with a biographer stating that their music "spark the musical transition from fifties rock and roll to sixties funk". Funk rock's earliest incarnation on record was heard in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s by acts such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Eric Burdon and War, Rick Derringer, David Bowie, Wild Cherry, Average White Band, Gary Wright, The Bar-Kays, Black Merda, Parliament-Funkadelic, Betty Davis and Mother's Finest. During the 1980s and 1990s funk rock music experienced a surge in popularity, with bands such as Tom Tom Club, Pigbag, INXS, Talking Heads, the Fine Young Cannibals and Cameo dabbling in the sound. Groups including Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against the Machine, Incubus, Mr. Bungle and Faith No More notably combined funk rock with metal, hip hop and experimental music, leading to the emergence of the genre known as funk metal or "punk-funk".
Funk rock is a fusion of rock. Many instruments may be incorporated into the music, but the overall sound is defined by a definitive bass or drum beat and electric guitars; the bass and drum rhythms are influenced by funk music but with more sonic intensity, while the guitar can be funk- or rock-influenced with distortion, similar to overdrive or fuzz. Jimi Hendrix was the first well-known recording artist to combine the rhythms and riffs of early funk with his rock sound; the earliest example is his "Little Miss Lover". The live album Band of Gypsys features funky riffs and rhythms throughout and his unfinished album included a couple of funk rock songs such as "Freedom", "Izabella" and "Straight Ahead". George Clinton has been considered the godfather of this genre since 1970. Clinton created the name "P-Funk" for the innovative new concepts of funk that he culled from former members of James Brown's band and new young players such as Eddie Hazel, his groups and Parliament defined funk since the release of the influential funk rock Funkadelic classic Maggot Brain.
Funk rock albums by the group include Cosmic Slop, Standing on the Verge of Getting It On, Hardcore Jollies and Let's Take It to the Stage. Albums such as One Nation Under a Groove and Electric Spanking of War Babies had a bit more radio-friendly sound but still preserved much of group's funk rock approach; this work served as the primary influence on an entire generation of funk and hip hop artists from the Red Hot Chili Peppers to Snoop Dogg. Other pioneers evolved in the 1970s in the form of British rock band Trapeze and post-punk act A Certain Ratio, American artists Rick Derringer, The Bar-Kays, Black Nasty and Mother's Finest. "We called ourselves funk rock," recalled Mother's Finest singer Glenn "Doc" Murdock. "I think. We had a house where we all lived and we named it'Funk Rock, Georgia'. We felt. We played with Lynyrd Skynyrd and AC/DC; those bands had a lot of funk in their music. The real problem for us was, they told us we were too loud."Grand Funk Railroad pioneered the bass driven hard rock funk style in 1970 so well portrayed in their song "Inside Looking Out" and picked up by Rage Against the Machine.
Singer-model Betty Davis recorded important funk rock albums. The iconoclast composer and guitarist Frank Zappa demonstrated the merge of styles in albums like Overnite Sensation, in themes such as "I'm the Slime", covered decades by Funkadelic. Funk rock acts were not favored by R&B recording companies. For example, guitarists of Chic wanted to be a glam funk rock band like Kiss, but they became a disco act after being turned down by recording companies. Despite its considerable influence on popular music, funk rock was not a visible phenomenon during the 1970s. Only a few funk rock acts could be seen on record charts, notably David Bowie, The Rolling Stones, Gary Wright and Wild Cherry; when Glenn Hughes left Trapeze and joined Deep Purple along with David Coverdale, Deep Purple's next two albums contained elements of funk and soul. When Ritchie Blackmore left Deep Purple in 1975, the band's next album Come Taste the Band with Tommy Bolin was more funky than its predecessor Stormbringer. However, Deep Purple broke up in 1976 and Tommy Bolin died from a drug overdose.
British guitarist Robin Trower's albums In City Dreams and Caravan to Midnight, produced by veteran R&B producer Don Davis and featuring former Sly & The Family Stone bassist Rustee Allen, are pioneering funk rock albums. In the late 1970s Iggy Pop released Bowie-produced LP The Idiot. From the start of the 1980's, funk musicians Rick James and Cameo as well as new wave band Blondie and post-punk band Talking Heads each created their own brand of funk rock. One famous disco & rock song of the period was "Another One Bites the Dust" by British rock icons Queen. In the 1980s, some synth-funk and synthpop bands such as Thomas Dolby, Scritti Politti, Howard Jones made the basic funk beats along with elements of new wave which makes this a basic synth-funk song; the funk rock genre's representatives from the 1980s to present day include INXS, the Fine Young Cannibals, Jane's Addiction, Faith No
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet was a Scottish historical novelist, poet and historian. Many of his works remain classics of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor. Although remembered for his extensive literary works and his political engagement, Scott was an advocate and legal administrator by profession, throughout his career combined his writing and editing work with his daily occupation as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an active member of the Highland Society, served a long term as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and was a Vice President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; as Encyclopædia Britannica argues: "Scott gathered the disparate strands of contemporary novel-writing techniques into his own hands and harnessed them to his deep interest in Scottish history and his knowledge of antiquarian lore.
The technique of the omniscient narrator and the use of regional speech, localized settings, sophisticated character delineation, romantic themes treated in a realistic manner were all combined by him into a new literary form, the historical novel. His influence on other European and American novelists was immediate and profound, though interest in some of his books declined somewhat in the 20th century, his reputation remains secure." Walter Scott was born on 15 August 1771. He was the ninth child of a Writer to the Signet and Anne Rutherford, his father was a member of a cadet branch of the Scott Clan, his mother descended from the Haliburton family, the descent from whom granted Walter's family the hereditary right of burial in Dryburgh Abbey. Via the Haliburton family, Walter was a cousin of the pre-eminent contemporaneous property developer James Burton, a Haliburton who had shortened his surname, of his son, the architect Decimus Burton. Walter subsequently became a member of the Clarence Club, of which the Burtons were members.
Five of Walter's siblings died in infancy, a sixth died when he was five months of age. Walter was born in a third-floor flat on College Wynd in the Old Town of Edinburgh, a narrow alleyway leading from the Cowgate to the gates of the University of Edinburgh, he survived a childhood bout of polio in 1773 that left him lame, a condition, to have a significant effect on his life and writing. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live in the rural Scottish Borders at his paternal grandparents' farm at Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower, the earlier family home. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to Edinburgh, that summer went with his aunt Jenny to take spa treatment at Bath in England, where they lived at 6 South Parade. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt at a water cure at Prestonpans during the following summer.
In 1778, Scott returned to Edinburgh for private education to prepare him for school, joined his family in their new house built as one of the first in George Square. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh, he was now well able to explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, poems and travel books, he was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and writing, learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland with emphasis on the Covenanters. After finishing school he was sent to stay for six months with his aunt Jenny in Kelso, attending the local grammar school where he met James and John Ballantyne, who became his business partners and printed his books. Scott began studying classics at the University of Edinburgh in November 1783, at the age of 12, a year or so younger than most of his fellow students. In March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his father's office to become a Writer to the Signet. Whilst at both high school and university, Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, the son of Professor Adam Ferguson who hosted literary salons.
Scott met the blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macpherson's Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott met Robert Burns at one of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting; when Burns noticed a print illustrating the poem "The Justice of the Peace" and asked who had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne, was thanked by Burns. Scott describes this event in his memoirs where he whispers the answer to his friend Adam who tells Burns Another version of the event is described in Literary Beginnings When it was decided that he would become a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking classes in moral philosophy and universal history in 1789–90. After completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh; as a lawyer's clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction. He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792, he had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, who married Scott's friend Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet.
As a boy and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral traditions of the Scottish Borders. He was an obsessive collector of stories, developed an innovative method of recording what he heard at the feet of local story-tellers using carvings on twigs, to avoid