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Australian casualties of World War II

Over 27,000 Australians were killed and 23,000 wounded in action during World War II. In addition, hundreds more servicemen and women were injured in accidents during the war; the following table is taken from The Final Campaigns by Gavin Long. It excludes illnesses from natural causes, including disease; the Australian Army suffered 1,165 killed and died of injuries in operational areas and a further 33,396 soldiers were wounded or injured. Casualties in non-operational areas were significant, with 2,051 soldiers being killed or dying of injuries and 121,800 being wounded or injured; these figures exclude deaths and illnesses from natural causes. The RAN suffered 177 non-battle casualties and the RAAF 6,271. Beaumont, Joan. Australian Defence: Sources and Statistics; the Australian Centenary History of Defence. Volume VI. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554118-9. Long, Gavin; the Final Campaigns. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army. Canberra: Australian War Memorial

Fairie Festival

The Fairie Festival is a music and arts festival held annually in Glen Rock, that began in 1991. The festival's primary theme is to "celebrate the beginning of spring and all of the faerie and nature spirits' return to the warm world"; the May Day Fairie Festival is the brainchild of Rob and Lucy Wood, owners of Spoutwood Farm, an organic farm in the Community Supported Agriculture movement. It began as a tea party for about 100 friends and their children, attendance has grown to over 16,000 “friends” annually. A one-day festival, a second day was added in 1997; the festival features artists and authors from around the world and international musicians and crafters whose work is connected to or inspired by folklore faerie lore. On 1/10/ 2018 Rob and Lucy Wood announced that May 2018 will be the last Fairie Festival to be held at Spoutwood Farm due to the stress it puts on the farm. In short the festival has grown too big for the farm. A new location was sought out for the future, announced and held at Marshy Point Nature Center, located at 7130 Marshy Point Rd, Baltimore, MD 21220.

The May Day Fairie Festival is now known as the Summer Solstice Faerie Festival presented in partnership by Spoutwood Farm Center, Marshy Point Nature Center and the Baltimore County Park System. With the close of the May Day Fairie Festival, there has been an insurgence of new Faerie Festivals in the local area; these festivals are a welcome addition to the FAEMILY, however they should not be confused with the May Day Fairie Festival and are in no way affiliated with Spoutwood Farm Center. These festivals are being held in New Freedom and York Pennsylvania; the May Day Fairie Festival, now in its 27th year, was the first festival in the United States devoted to faerie and nature spirits. It has been held on the grounds of Spoutwood Farm Center since 1991; the festival expects, each year, performances by musicians and dancers, participatory maypole dancing, fairie craft activities such as wand and garland making. It provides 70 juried arts and crafts vendors, food vendors; the Nature Place offers a place for environmental, animal interest and other groups to share their vision.

Alongside the traditional May Day crowning of the May Queen may be seen the crowning of the May King and Princess. The Fairie Chautauqua offers the opportunity for attendees to delve more into the lore and arts of Fairie, in workshops led by scholars, artists and crafters; each year, the Fairie Festival benefits the Spoutwood Farm Center CSA, which in turn provides organically produced food to over 150 families in the community. The Fairie Festival maintains an example of ecologically sound entertainment in the fantasy genre. In 2000, the Fairie Festival instituted a "Zero Waste" policy, requiring all vendors to haul out their own trash, all food vendors to provide compostable materials to their customers; the compostable materials are added to a special compost pile located at the entrance to the CSA, is part of the educational programs offered to attendees. In 2010, after a three-day event attended by over 17,000 people, a total of 23 plastic bags worth of non-recyclables and non-compostables were collected and disposed of by Waste Management of York County.

Attendance is international, with vendors and attendees coming from England and Japan. The Fairie Festival was the subject of a 2010 documentary entitled "Glen Rock Fae: The Spoutwood Fairie Festival" on the Internet Movie Database. Fairy Investigation Society Glen Rock Carolers List of fairy and sprite characters May Day The Fairy witch trials of Sicily National Public Radio audio commentary on the 2001 Fairie Festival, by Marion Winik. NPR article, with link to audio file Official Fairie Festival website Official Spoutwood Farm Center website "Glen Rock Fae: The Spoutwood Fairie Festival" on IMDB

Steve Smith (basketball)

Steven Delano Smith is an American retired basketball player, a basketball analyst for Turner Sports. After a collegiate career with Michigan State, he played with several teams in his 14-season National Basketball Association career, including the Miami Heat, the Portland Trail Blazers and the San Antonio Spurs, but is best known for his five-year stint with the Atlanta Hawks which included an All-Star Game appearance in 1998, he won a championship with the Spurs in 2003. Smith was regarded as an excellent three-point shooter, is one of three players to make seven 3-pointers in a quarter, he joined the USA men's national basketball team in the 1994 FIBA World Championship winning the gold medal. He won another gold medal at the 1999 Tournament of the Americas and an Olympic gold medal with the USA men's national basketball team at the 2000 Summer Olympics with eleven other NBA All-Stars. Smith finished his four-year career as the all-time leading scorer in Michigan State history, with 2,263 points.

He ranks fifth in rebounds. For his college career Smith averaged 18.5 points, 6.1 rebounds and 3.7 assists per contest in 122 games. He was named a First Team All-American as a senior. Smith led the Spartans to a Big Ten Championship and Sweet Sixteen appearance in 1990 and hit a game-winning, last-second three-pointer to beat Wisconsin–Green Bay in the first round of the 1991 NCAA Tournament, he was inducted into Michigan State's Athletics Hall of Fame in 2001. Smith was selected fifth overall in the 1991 NBA draft by the Miami Heat, a young expansion team which featured other young players such as Glen Rice, Rony Seikaly and Brian Shaw. Smith played in 61 games in his rookie season, starting in 59 with averages of 12 points a game and 4.6 assists. The young team made the playoffs to face the top seeded defending champion Chicago Bulls, who swept the Heat in 3 games in the first round. Smith averaged 16 points a game for the series. Injuries limited Smith 48 games in the 1992–93 season, but he increased his scoring average to 16 points a game.

Miami did not make the playoffs that year. The 1993–94 season would prove to be Smith's best in Miami, as he averaged 17.3 points a game with 5.1 assists as the Heat won 42 games and entered the first round of the playoffs against the Atlanta Hawks. The series went to 5 games. Smith led the team in scoring during the series with 19.2 points and shot 40 percent from beyond the three-point line. Smith would play just two games to start the 1994–95 season before being traded along with Grant Long to Atlanta for Kevin Willis, a deal, universally regarded as a one-sided heist by Atlanta, that led the Heat to hire Pat Riley as their coach and VP of Basketball Operations. Smith started in 59 of 78 games for Atlanta and averaged 16 points during the regular season and 19 points in the playoffs, as the Hawks lost in a first round sweep to the Indiana Pacers, he would go on to average a career-high 18.1 points a game in 80 starts in the 1995–96 season, forming a formidable backcourt one-two punch with Mookie Blaylock.

The team under head coach Lenny Wilkens would win 46 games and defeat Indiana in the first round in 5 games before falling to the Orlando Magic in the conference semifinals in 6 games. Smith averaged 21.7 points in 10 playoff games, including a 35-point performance in a game 4 win against the Magic. The following season would feature another career high scoring average for Smith, as he continued to serve as the Hawks' main option on offense; the team featured players such as Christian Laettner and Dikembe Mutombo, would go on to win 56 games before meeting and defeating the Detroit Pistons in a 5-game first round series. Smith played well against Detroit and held his own against Michael Jordan and the defending champion Chicago Bulls, who defeated the Hawks in 5 games in the semifinals; the following season would be similar to Smith as he once again averaged 20.1 points a game, but this time managed to be named an NBA All-Star as he scored 14 points in 16 minutes of action in the 1998 NBA All-Star Game.

The Hawks would disappoint in the playoffs yet again however, this time losing to the Charlotte Hornets 3 games to 1 in the conference semifinals despite a 24.8 ppg scoring average by Smith for the series. The 1998–99 season would be limited to 50 games as a result of a league wide lockout, in 36 games Smith averaged 18.7 points a game and led the Hawks to another 5 game first round victory over Detroit. The Hawks had no answer, for the New York Knicks, again the Hawks were eliminated in the semifinals. Smith averaged 17.3 points a game in the 1999 playoffs. In the offseason, the Hawks traded Smith in a 4 player trade to the Portland Trail Blazers which included Isaiah Rider, who had served as Portland's starting shooting guard and who Smith would now replace. Portland was a loaded team that had reached the Western Conference Finals in the 1999 playoffs and featured star forward Rasheed Wallace as well as the newly acquired Scottie Pippen. Smith would no longer be required to carry the offensive load, averaged 14.9 points a game in 81 starts as the Trail Blazers secured the second best record in the Western Conference.

Smith would increase his scoring average to 17.1 in the playoffs, as Portland would defeat the Minnesota Timberwolves in the first round before beating the Utah Jazz in the semifinals. Up next would be the league best Los Angeles Lakers, who took a 3–1 series lead over Portland before the Trail Blazers won game 5 on the road and game 6 at home as Smith scored 26 points to set up a game 7 matchup. Despite leading by double digits heading into the fourth quarter

Royal Perth Yacht Club

The Royal Perth Yacht Club is an Australian yacht club in Perth, Western Australia. It is the third oldest yacht club in Australia after the Royal Yacht Club of Victoria and the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron, it is based at the Crawley Marina on Pelican Point and at the Fremantle Annexe in Challenger Harbour. Royal Perth Yacht Club is a member of the International Council of Yacht Clubs; the Royal Perth Yacht Club can trace its origins to 1841 when a group of sailors staged a modest regatta to celebrate Foundation Day. In 1865 this original group of pioneer sailors formalised the Perth Yacht Club. Early regattas at the club included yacht races and gig rowing races. Duck hunting was popular at this time. In 1880 a jetty was built at the foot of William Street on Perth Water; the clubhouse opened in 1889 and in 1890 it received the Royal charter and the Lords of the Admiralty granted the club the Royal Warrant to fly a blue ensign. In 1920, the clubhouse was extended and the club formed the Royal Australian Naval Volunteer Reserve in Western Australia.

The club shifted to Crawley on Melville Water in 1953 when the William Street site, through siltation, became unusable. RPYC fielded the yacht Southern Cross in the 1974 America's Cup, the first aluminium yacht to compete in the regatta, the yacht Australia in the 1977 America's Cup and the 1980 America's Cup. In 1983 an Australian syndicate representing the Royal Perth Yacht Club fielded the Australia II, skippered by John Bertrand, against defender Liberty, skippered by Dennis Conner. Australia II won the match races to win the America's Cup - the first winning challenge to the New York Yacht Club, which had defended the cup over a period of 132 years. RPYC hosted the 1987 defence off Fremantle Harbour at a newly established annex during the Australian summer months between October 1986 and February 1987; the American challenger Stars & Stripes 87, sailed by Dennis Conner, beat the Australian defender Kookaburra III, sailed by Iain Murray, four wins to nil in the best of seven series. This regatta marked the last time.

The entrance road to RPYC in Crawley was commemoratively renamed Australia II Drive. To mark the 30th anniversary of the America's Cup victory, the second mast of the Australia II was permanently installed by the foreshore outside the clubhouse from which the undefaced Blue ensign and Club burgee are flown. A number of sailors from RPYC have competed in the Summer Olympics and Paralympics; these include: Noel Robbins Jamie Dunross Graeme Martin Elise Rechichi Tessa Parkinson Rachel Cox Colin Harrison Russel Boaden In 1979, the RPYC organised the 20,000 kilometre Parmelia Race from Plymouth, England to Perth in order to mark the 150th anniversary of Western Australia. Competitors were invited to recreate the 1829 voyage of the merchant barque Parmelia bringing the first British settlers to the Swan River Colony. Jon Sanders was the first sailor to circumnavigate Antarctica solo, circling the continent twice from 1981 to 1982. Sanders is the record-holder for the longest distance sailed continuously by any vessel following his triple non-stop solo circumnavigation of the globe from 1986 to 1988.

RPYC hosted the 2011 ISAF Sailing World Championships, a significant qualifying event for the 2012 Summer Olympics. At a general meeting in 1891, the old blue PYC burgee was replaced with a triangular St George's Cross with a St Edward's Crown in the upper canton. Uren, Malcolm Sails on the Swan: The History of the Royal Perth Yacht Club, 1865-1965. Perth: Royal Perth Yacht Club

Lead selenide

Lead selenide, or lead selenide, a selenide of lead, is a semiconductor material. It forms cubic crystals of the NaCl structure, it is a grey crystalline solid material. It is used for manufacture of infrared detectors for thermal imaging, operating at wavelengths between 1.5–5.2 μm. It performs better at lower temperatures; the peak sensitivity varies between 3.7 -- 4.7 μm. Single crystal nanorods and polycrystalline nanotubes of lead selenide have been synthesized via controlled organism membranes; the diameter of the nanorods were approx. 45 nm and their length was up to 1100 nm, for nanotubes the diameter was 50 nm and the length up to 2000 nm. Lead selenide nanocrystals embedded into various materials can be used as quantum dots, for example in nanocrystal solar cells. Lead selenide is a thermoelectric material; the material was identified as a potential high temperature thermoelectric with sodium or chlorine doping by Alekseva and co-workers at the A. F. Ioffe Institute in Russia. Subsequent theoretical work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA predicted that its p-type performance could equal or exceed that of the sister compound, lead telluride.

Several groups have since reported thermoelectric figures of merit exceeding unity, the characteristic of a high performance thermoelectric. The mineral clausthalite is a occurring lead selenide, it may be formed by direct reaction between its constituent elements. PbSe is one of the first materials sensitive to the infrared radiation used for military applications. Early research works on the material as infrared detector were carried out during the 1930s and the first useful devices were processed by Germans and British during and just after World War II. Since PbSe has been used as an infrared photodetector in multiple applications, from spectrometers for gas and flame detection to infrared fuzes for artillery ammunition or Passive Infrared Cueing systems; as a sensitive material to the infrared radiation, PbSe has unique and outstanding characteristics: it can detect IR radiation of wavelengths from 1.5 to 5.2 μm, it has a high detectivity at room temperature, due to its quantum nature, it presents a fast response, which makes this material an excellent candidate as detector of low cost high speed infrared imagers.

PbSe is a photoconductor material. Its detection mechanism is based on a change of conductivity of a polycrystalline thin-film of the active material when photons are incident; these photons are absorbed inside the PbSe micro-crystals causing the promotion of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band. Though it has been extensively studied, today the mechanisms responsible of its high detectivity at room temperature are not well understood. What is accepted is that the material and the polycrystalline nature of the active thin film play a key role in both the reduction of the Auger mechanism and the reduction of the dark current associated with the presence of multiple intergrain depletion regions and potential barriers inside the polycrystalline thin films. Two methods are used nowadays to manufacture infrared detectors based on PbSe. CBD is the classic manufacturing method, it was developed in USA during the'60s and is based on the precipitation of the active material on a substrate rinsed in a controlled bath with selenourea, lead acetate, potassium iodine and other compounds.

CBD method has been extensively used during last decades and is still used for processing PbSe infrared detectors. Because of technological limitations associated to this method of processing, nowadays the biggest CBD PbSe detector format commercialized is a linear array of 1x256 elements; this new processing method has been developed in Spain. It is based on the deposition of the active material by thermal evaporation, followed by specific thermal treatments; this method has an intrinsic advantage compared with the CBD method, the compatibility with preprocessed substrates, like silicon CMOS-technology wafers, the possibility of processing complex detectors, such as the focal plane arrays for imagers. In fact, this has been the most important milestone in the last decades concerning the manufacturing of PbSe detectors, as it has opened the technology to the market of uncooled MWIR high-resolution imaging cameras with high frame rates and reduced costs. Industrial Gas analysis Flame analysis Infrared spectroscopy Industrial process and quality control: Glass Plastic Petrochemical Automotive Railway Coal Steel Hot spot detection High speed infrared imaging: Turbo jet combustion Electrical failures Welding Spot laser characterization Waste sorting Food industry Fire detection Environmental control Defense Passive Infrared Cueing Systems Active protection systems Low cost seekers Proximity fuzes Sniper detection Sensor Fuzed Weapons DIRCM VPD method New Infrared Technologies CBD method Laser Components Agiltron Cal Sensor (Company/ Web Site New England Photoconductor Teledyne Judson Technologies (Company Web Site Infrared Materials Inc.

Infrared detector Black-body radiation Hyperspectral imaging Infrared camera Infrared filter Infrared homing Infrared signature Infrared solar cells Infrared spectroscopy Other infrared detector materials: Indium antimonide, Indium arsenide, Lead sulfide, QWIP, QD