A cotton gin is a machine that and separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are processed into various cotton goods such as linens, while any undamaged cotton is used for textiles like clothing; the separated seeds may be used to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in the Indian subcontinent since at earliest AD 500 and in other regions; the Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented sometime around the 16th century, according to Lakwete, remained unchanged up to the present time. A modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793 and patented in 1794. Whitney's gin used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams, it revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers increased.
The invention has thus been identified as an inadvertent contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War. Modern automated cotton gins use multiple powered cleaning cylinders and saws, offer far higher productivity than their hand-powered precursors. Eli Whitney invented his cotton gin in 1793, he began to work on this project after moving to Georgia in search of work. Given that farmers were searching for a way to make cotton farming profitable, a woman named Catharine Greene provided Whitney with funding to create the first cotton gin. Whitney created two cotton gins: a small one that could be hand-cranked and a large one that could be driven by a horse or water power. A single-roller cotton gin came into use in India by the 5th century. An improvement invented in India was the two-roller gin, known as the "churka", "charki", or "wooden-worm-worked roller". Cotton fibers are produced in the seed pods of the cotton plant where the fibers in the bolls are interwoven with seeds. To make the fibers usable, the seeds and fibers must first be separated, a task, performed manually, with production of cotton requiring hours of labor for the separation.
Many simple seed-removing devices had been invented, but until the innovation of the cotton gin, most required significant operator attention and worked only on a small scale. The earliest versions of the cotton gin consisted of a single roller made of iron or wood and a flat piece of stone or wood. Evidence for this type of gin has been found in Africa and North America; the first documentation of the cotton gin by contemporary scholars is found in the fifth century AD, in the form of Buddhist paintings depicting a single-roller gin in the Ajanta Caves in western India. These early gins required a great deal of skill. A narrow single roller was necessary to expel the seeds from the cotton without crushing the seeds; the design was similar to that of a mealing stone, used to grind grain. The early history of the cotton gin is ambiguous, because archeologists mistook the cotton gin's parts for other tools. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century.
This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power. The worm gear roller gin, invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th to 14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire sometime around the 16th century, is still used in the Indian subcontinent through to the present day. Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared sometime during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire; the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin led to expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era. It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce 250 pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as 750 people did formerly.
The Indian roller cotton gin, known as the churka or charkha, was introduced to the United States in the mid-18th century, when it was adopted in the southern United States. The device was adopted for cleaning long-staple cotton, but was not suitable for the short-staple cotton, more common in certain states such as Georgia. Several modifications were made to the Indian roller gin by Mr. Krebs in 1772 and Joseph Eve in 1788, but their uses remained limited to the long-staple variety, up until Eli Whitney's development of a short-staple cotton gin in 1793. Eli Whitney applied for a patent of his cotton gin on October 28, 1793. Whitney's patent was assigned patent number 72X. There is slight controversy over whether the idea of the modern cotton gin and its constituent elements are attributed to Eli Whitney; the popular image of Whitney inventing the cotton gin is attributed to an article on the subject written in the early 1870s and reprinted in 1910 in The Library of Southern Literature. In this article, the author claimed Catharine Littlefield Greene suggested to Whitney the use of a brush-like component instrumental in separating out the seeds and cotton.
To date, Greene's role in the invention of the gin has not been verified independently. Whitney's cotton gin model was capable of clea
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Yoakum County, Texas
Yoakum County is a county located in the far western portion of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,879, its county seat is Plains. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1907, it is named for a Texas historian. Until the passage of a liquor sales referendum held on May 11, 2013, Yoakum had been one of nineteen remaining prohibition or dry counties within the state of Texas. Voters in Denver City approved a separate referendum to permit liquor sales within that community. In 1965, Recorded Texas Historic Landmark Number 5927 was placed at the county courthouse, acknowledging the creation of the county in 1876; until after 1900, the county contained nomadic buffalo hunters and a few scattered ranchers. Yoakum County was organized in 1907, the population increased to 602 because of the sale of state land deeds. Early tribes included Suma-Jumano, Comanche and Kiowa; the Texas legislature established Yoakum County from Bexar County in 1876. The county was organized in 1907, Plains became the county seat.
In 1900, the area had only twenty-six residents. There was only one ranch in the county that year devoted to cattle, rather than crops. Sale of state land after 1900 brought an increase in population. By 1910, there were 107 farms or ranches in the area, the population had increased to 602. By 1920, there were 109 ranches or farms in the area, but the population had fallen to 504. More than 21,000 cattle were reported that year. During the 1920s the county experienced a minor expansion of crop farming, cotton became the most important crop. There were 239 farms, the population had increased to 1,263; the first oil well in the county gushed in 1935. Denver City benefited with a resulting boom economy. By January 1, 1991 1,664,036,000 barrels of oil had been taken from county lands since 1936. Irrigation in the county led to more acres being planted on sorghum, alfalfa and castor beans. In 1982, 93 percent of the land in Yoakum County was in farms and ranches, 44 percent of the farmland was under cultivation.
Some 110,000 acres were irrigated. About 95 percent of agricultural revenue was derived from crops cotton, wheat and corn. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 800 square miles all of, land. U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 380 State Highway 83 State Highway 214 Cochran County Terry County Gaines County Lea County, New Mexico As of the census of 2000, there were 7,322 people, 2,469 households, 2,007 families residing in the county; the population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 2,974 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.62% White, 1.39% Black or African American, 0.71% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 25.48% from other races, 1.65% from two or more races. 45.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,469 households out of which 43.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.80% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.70% were non-families.
17.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.34. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.10% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 94.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,672, the median income for a family was $36,772. Males had a median income of $32,188 versus $19,913 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,504. About 17.60% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.00% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over. Denver City Plains Allred Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Yoakum County Dry counties Youkum County government’s website Yoakum County from the Handbook of Texas Online TxGenWeb Yoakum County Memories Yoakum County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Hockley County, Texas
Hockley County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 22,935, its county seat is Levelland. The county was created in 1876, but not organized until 1921, it is named for a secretary of war of the Republic of Texas. Hockley County comprises the Levelland Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Lubbock–Levelland Combined Statistical Area. Hockley County was formed in 1876 from portions of Young Counties, it was named for George Washington Hockley, the commander of artillery in the Battle of San Jacinto and Secretary of War of the Republic of Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 909 square miles, of which 908 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 62/U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 385 State Highway 114 Lamb County Lubbock County Terry County Cochran County Yoakum County Bailey County Hale County Lynn County As of the census of 2000, 22,716 people, 7,994 households, 6,091 families resided in the county.
The population density was 25 people per square mile. The 9,148 housing units averaged 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.38% White, 3.72% Black or African American, 0.82% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 18.68% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races. About 37.24% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 7,994 households, 38.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.80% were not families, 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was distributed as 29.10% under the age of 18, 11.80% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.30 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,085, for a family was $35,288. Males had a median income of $29,735 versus $20,671 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,022. About 14.80% of families and 18.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.10% of those under age 18 and 12.60% of those age 65 or over. Anton Levelland Ropesville Opdyke West Smyer Sundown Oklahoma Flat Pep Pettit Roundup Whitharral Llano Estacado South Plains College U. S. Route 84 West Texas Yellow House Draw Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Hockley County Hockley County from the Handbook of Texas Online Hockley County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties Photos of West Texas and the Llano Estacado
U.S. Route 82 in Texas
In the U. S. state of Texas, U. S. Route 82 is a U. S. Highway that begins on the New Mexico border and heads east through West Texas and Lubbock to the Arkansas border at Texarkana. US 82 crosses into Texas from New Mexico at Texas Farm to Market Road 769, turning northeastward toward Plains, where it merges with US 380. US 82 is co-signed with US 380 from Plains to Brownfield, where it joins US 62, US 380 leaves the route. US 82/62 continues northeastward toward Lubbock. In Lubbock, US 82 and US 62 split, where US 82 has been upgraded to a full access freeway, named the Marsha Sharp Freeway, in honor of retired Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball coach Marsha Sharp. On the east side of the city, US 82 travels as a surface street along Parkway Drive and it once again merges with US 62 where it continues eastward through Ralls, where US 62 makes a sharp turn to the north and leaves the route. US 82 continues eastward across the level plains of the Llano Estacado to Crosbyton and dips downward as it crosses the White River of Blanco Canyon, where the Texas Department of Transportation maintains the Silver Falls Rest Area with facilities and hiking trails.
After climbing out of Blanco Canyon, US 82 exits the Llano Estacado and enters the rolling plains near Dickens. US 82/SH 114 continues eastward as a co-signed route until Seymour, where it merges with U. S. Highways 183, 277 and 283, with US 183 and 283 leaving the route at Mabelle. US 82/277 continues eastward to Wichita Falls, merging with I-44 and US 287 just south of downtown at Mile marker 0. US 82 leaves US 287 at Henrietta and continues east towards the small towns of Nocona, St. Jo and Muenster and crossing I-35 in Gainesville at a partial cloverleaf interchange; the highway continues east towards Whitesboro and Sherman where it crosses US Highway 75 at a three-level diamond interchange. Prior to the 1990s, the two highways ran concurrently on the route of SH 56 before being rerouted northeast of Sherman on its present-day route; the highway continues east to Bells where US 82 cross US Route 69. In Bonham, Texas, US 82 crosses SH 121 while the route runs parallel with SH 56 until Honey Grove where SH 56 ends.
US 82 enters Paris at a diamond interchange where it runs concurrent with Loop 286 on the north side of the city as a Business Route runs through the center of the city before rejoining on the east side of Paris. At a diamond interchange on the north side of Paris, US 82/TX Loop 286 meets with US 271 where both highways run concurrent on the northeast side of town before US 82 branches off at another diamond interchange on the east side of Paris. After passing around Clarksville and other smaller towns the highway is crossed by Interstate 30 east of New Boston at a partial cloverleaf and continues to run parallel to IH 30 into Arkansas through downtown Texarkana. US 82 was first designated in Texas in 1939; the highway was extended from Lubbock to the New Mexico state line in 1963. Between 1974 and 1994, US 82 was re-routed from Whitesboro to Honey Grove; the highway was re-routed from Allendale Road to US 281/US 287 through Wichita Falls in 1998 with a bypass built around Holliday in 2005. US 82 was re-routed around Clarkesville in 2006, creating a concurrency with SH 37.
The highway was re-routed south of Guthrie in 2007, with part of the former route becoming Spur 729. The Marsha Sharp Freeway, named for former Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball coach Marsha Sharp, was built along US 82 in Lubbock, with construction beginning in May 2003, with development going back to the 1980s. In 1998, funding was first received; the five-phase project was scheduled to be completed in 2015. Phase 2 of the project was scheduled to be completed in December 2008 at a cost of $140 million, it involved construction of the freeway from Salem Avenue to Avenue L and erecting interchanges at 19th Street, Quaker Avenue, Fourth Street, Avenue Q in Lubbock. Construction on the freeway has started from Milwaukee Ave. to Upland Ave. and on the intersection of Spur 327 and U. S. 62/82. The section of freeway between West Loop 289 and Avenue L was widened from four lanes to six lanes between March 6, 2017 and March 5, 2018 marking the end of the freeway's construction. TxDOT began upgrading U.
S. 82 in Grayson and Fannin County in 2013. The four-lane divided highway upgrade between Sherman and Bonham was completed in 2015. TxDOT plans to continue this upgrade to the Fannin and Lamar County line by 2020. Long term planning calls for U. S. 82 to be a four-lane divided highway system the entire length between Wichita Falls and Texarkana as a potential alternate route through north Texas in order to bypass the overcrowded Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. It is being upgraded to a 4 lane divided highway west of Nocona, a partial bypass is planned to run south of Gainesville
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com