A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment. The term is used by groups challenging the legitimacy of the detention of a prisoner. Supporters of the term define a political prisoner as someone, imprisoned for his or her participation in political activity. If a political offense was not the official reason for the prisoner's detention, the term would imply that the detention was motivated by the prisoner's politics; some understand the term political prisoner narrowly, equating it with the term prisoner of conscience. Amnesty International campaigns for the release of prisoners of conscience, which include both political prisoners as well as those imprisoned for their religious or philosophical beliefs. To reduce controversy, as a matter of principle, the organization's policy applies only to prisoners who have not committed or advocated violence. Thus, there are political prisoners; the organisation defines the differences as follows: AI uses the term "political prisoner" broadly.
It does not use it, as some others do, to imply that all such prisoners have a special status or should be released. It uses the term only to define a category of prisoners for whom AI demands a prompt trial. In AI's usage, the term includes any prisoner whose case has a significant political element: whether the motivation of the prisoner's acts, the acts in themselves, or the motivation of the authorities. "Political" is used by AI to refer to aspects of human relations related to "politics": the mechanisms of society and civil order, the principles, organization, or conduct of government or public affairs, the relation of all these to questions of language, ethnic origin, sex or religion, status or influence. The category of political prisoners embraces the category of prisoners of conscience, the only prisoners who AI demands should be and unconditionally released, as well as people who resort to criminal violence for a political motive. In AI's use of the term, here are some examples of political prisoners: a person accused or convicted of an ordinary crime carried out for political motives, such as murder or robbery carried out to support the objectives of an opposition group.
Governments say they have no political prisoners, only prisoners held under the normal criminal law. AI however describes cases like the examples given above as "political" and uses the terms "political trial" and "political imprisonment" when referring to them, but by doing so AI does not oppose the imprisonment, except where it further maintains that the prisoner is a prisoner of conscience, or condemn the trial, except where it concludes that it was unfair. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has a much tighter definition: A person deprived of his or her personal liberty is to be regarded as a'political prisoner': In the parlance of many political movements that utilize armed resistance, guerrilla warfare, other forms of political violence, a political prisoner includes people who are imprisoned because they are awaiting trial for, or have been convicted of, actions which states they oppose describe as terrorism; these movements may consider the actions of political prisoners morally justified against some system of governance, may claim innocence, or have varying understandings of what types of violence are morally and ethically justified.
For instance, French anarchist groups call the former members of Action Directe held in France political prisoners. While the French government deemed Action Directe illegal, the group fashioned itself as an urban guerilla movement, claiming a legitimate armed struggle. In this sense, "political prisoner" can be used to describe any politically active prisoner, held in custody for a violent action which supporters deem ethically justified; some libertarians include all convicted for treason and some convicted of espionage in the category of political prisoners. There is still much controversy and debate around how to define this term and which cases to include or exclude. Political prisoners can be imprisoned with no legal veneer by extrajudicial processes; some political prisoners need not be imprisoned at all. Supporters of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima in the 11th Panchen Lama controversy have called him a "political prisoner", despite the fact that he is not accused of a political offense, he is held under secluded house arrest.
Political prisoners are arrested and tried with a veneer of legality where false criminal charges, manufactured evidence, unfair trials are used to disguise the fact that an individual is a political prisoner. This is common in situations which may otherwise be decried nationally and internationally as a human rights violation or suppression of a political dissident. A political prisoner can be someone, denied bail unfairly, denied parole when it would reasonably have been given to a prisoner charged with a comparable crime, or special powers may be invoked by the judiciary. In this latter situation, whether an individual is regarded as a political prisoner may depend upon subjective political perspective or interpretation of the evidence. In the Soviet Union, dubious psychiatric diagnoses were sometimes used to confine political prisoners in the so-called "psikhushkas". In Nazi German
Harry Bourlon Illingsworth, professionally known as Harry Worth, was an English comedy actor and ventriloquist. Unlike the brash humour of other comedians at the time, Worth portrayed a charming and genial character bemused by life, creating comedic confusion wherever he went. Worth was born in West Riding of Yorkshire, the youngest child of a miner, he had ten siblings. When he was only five months old his father died from injuries resulting from an industrial accident, he was a miner for eight years. He worked near the lift in the mine, he joined the Royal Air Force in 1941. As a teenager he was in the Tankersley Amateur Dramatics Society and taught himself ventriloquism from a book he borrowed from the local library, buying his first dummy in 1936. During the Second World War, he performed in an RAF variety show in India and had extra material written for him by the show's director, Wallie Okin. Worth warned his audience beforehand that he was not good: according to ITMA impressionist Peter Cavanagh, this was the start of his apologetic and inept style.
He was a variety act for many years before he became well known and was at the bottom of any'bill'. Having left the RAF, adamant he would never go down the mines again, he started in show business with his first booking at the Bradford Mechanics' Institute in 1946. In 1947 he married his wife Kay and in 1948, like many other comedians from the forces, he got an audition at London's Windmill Theatre. Of 40 in the audition, he passed, along with Tony Hancock, he did six shows a day as comedian between fan dancers. In 1948 he made his first radio appearance in a show New to You, he now had two dummies for his ventriloquist act and Clarence, but meanwhile developed his performing voice. He toured for two years with Hardy towards the end of their careers, he said he could always go in and talk with them and they told him about Hollywood and their work there. When Oliver Hardy watched his show in Nottingham in 1952, he persuaded Worth to drop the ventriloquist routine and concentrate on becoming a comedian, which he did.
His first stage act without ventriloquism was in Newcastle. He continued to include ventriloquism in his cabaret act through his career, performing much of the material that he had used during the war; this included three appearances in the Royal Variety Show. After appearing a number of times on Variety Bandbox, Worth gained his own radio show, Thirty Minutes Worth, he took his scripts and did not ad lib. He said he built a style of dithering in his shows without realising it. Worth's first television appearance was a five-minute standup on Henry Hall's Guest Night in 1955, he became well known to the public and appeared at the London Palladium, after which he took the show to Manchester, the main place for variety in those days, for 8 weeks. In 1960, the television programme The Trouble With Harry was broadcast. John Ammonds and Worth wrote the pilot script in three to four weeks. A series of six programmes was commissioned, was written by Vince Powell, Ronnie Taylor and Frank Roscoe, he made this style his own by creating a character with.
He once said, "If Harry looked directly at the camera, or the audience, it would all be over". The character was Harry and everyone saw Harry as Harry, he is now best remembered for his 1960s series Here's Harry re-titled Harry Worth, which ran for 10 years and over 100 episodes. The opening titles of Harry Worth featured Worth stopping in the street to perform an optical trick involving a shop window: raising one arm and one leg which were reflected in the window, thus giving the impression of levitation. Reproducing this effect was popularly known as "doing a Harry Worth", he starred in Thirty Minutes Worth and My Name is Harry Worth. The shop window sequence first used in Here's Harry was filmed at St Ann's Square, Manchester, at Hector Powes tailor's shop; the idea for this was suggested by Vince Powell as a child. One famous comic sketch involved Worth and his family preparing for a royal visit to the area, during which the Queen was to visit his house, his fussing about the house drove his family mad.
Just before the Queen was due to arrive, a beggar arrived at the door and kept coming back as an frustrated Worth tried to get him to go away. When a knock came on the door one more time Worth grabbed a bucket of filthy water and threw it out of the door at the caller, only to find that it was not the beggar but the Queen standing there, he had just soaked her. Another sketch involved Worth complaining to a policeman outside the Houses of Parliament that Big Ben clock was slow because Jimmy Young, the BBC Radio 2 presenter known for "always being right" had said that it was ten minutes past ten, while the clock said it was 10 am. After pestering the policeman, Worth had the clock moved forward by ten minutes. Just as the clock was changed, Young appeared on the radio to apologise that the studio clock was wrong by ten minutes. A mortified Worth was seen speeding away to furious shouts from the angry policeman. Following the assassination of President Kennedy on 22 November 1963, the BBC screened Here's Harry as part of its regular programming, a decision which led to the broadcaster receiving complaints through over 2,000 phone calls and 500 letters and telegrams.
Although never scripted, his catchphrase was known as "My name is Harry Worth. I don't know why – but, there it is!" I
The Saint (TV series)
The Saint is a British ITC mystery spy thriller television series that aired in the United Kingdom on ITV between 1962 and 1969. It was based on the literary character Simon Templar created by Leslie Charteris in the 1920s and featured in many novels over the years, he was played by Roger Moore. Templar helps those whom conventional agencies are powerless or unwilling to protect using methods that skirt the law. Chief Inspector Claud Eustace Teal is his nominal nemesis who considers Templar a common criminal, but grudgingly tolerates his actions for the greater good. NBC picked up the show as a summer replacement in its evening schedule in 1966 because of the strong performance in the United States of the first two series in first-run syndication; the programme, ended its run with both trans-Atlantic primetime scheduling and colour episodes. It proved popular beyond the UK and US airing in over 60 countries, made a profit in excess of £350m for ITC. With 120 episodes, the programme is exceeded only by The Avengers as the most productive show of its genre produced in the UK.
As with The Avengers, the colour episodes were broadcast in the UK in black and white before the advent of colour transmissions on ITV. Roger Moore had earlier tried to buy the production rights to the Saint books himself, was delighted to be able to play the part. Moore became co-owner of the show with Robert S. Baker when the show moved to colour and the production credit became Bamore Productions. Most of the wardrobe Moore wore, he was offered the role of James Bond at least twice during the run of the series, but he had to turn it down both times due to his television commitments. In one early episode of the series, another character mistakes Templar for Bond. Moore accepted the Bond role. Moore had a few recurring co-stars Ivor Dean, who played Templar's nemesis, Inspector Teal. In three early episodes, Teal had been played by Campbell Singer, Norman Pitt, Wensley Pithey. Teal's relationship with Templar was broadly similar to that depicted in the novels, but in the series, he is depicted as bungling, rather than Charteris's characterisation of him as an officious, unimaginative policeman.
When in France, Templar had a similar relationship with Colonel Latignant. Latignant is depicted as being less competent than Teal, is keener than Teal to find Templar guilty, though Templar helps him solve the case. Unlike Teal, Latignant did not appear in Charteris's novels. In all, Inspector Teal featured in Colonel Latignant in six; the Saint began as a straightforward mystery series, but over the years adopted more secret agent- and fantasy-style plots. It made a well-publicised switch from black-and-white to colour production midway through its run; the early episodes are distinguished by Moore breaking the fourth wall and speaking to the audience in character at the start of every episode. With the switch to colour, this was replaced by simple narration; the precredits sequence ended with someone referring to the Saint by name – "Simon Templar". Some episodes, such as "Iris", broke away from this formula and had Templar address the audience for the entire precredits sequence and referring to himself by name, setting up the story that followed.
Many episodes were based upon Charteris's stories, although a higher percentage of original scripts were used as the series progressed. The novel Vendetta for the Saint, credited to Charteris but written by Harry Harrison, was one of the last Saint stories to be adapted; some of the scripts were novelised and published as part of the ongoing series of The Saint novels, such as The Fiction Makers and The People Importers. The first of these books, which gave cover credit to Charteris, but were written by others, was The Saint on TV, the series of novelisations continued for several years after the television programme had ended. Templar's car, when it appeared, was a white Volvo P1800 with the number plate ST1; this model Volvo is still referred to as "the Saint's car", with miniature versions made by Corgi which have proved popular. Volvo was pleased to supply their introduced car in 1962 for its promotional value, after Jaguar Cars had rejected a request from the producers to provide an E-type.
Unlike its contemporary rival, The Avengers, The Saint was shot on film from the beginning, whereas the first three series of the other series were videotaped, with minimal location shooting. All episodes of The Saint were syndicated abroad; the black-and-white series were first syndicated in the US by NBC affiliate stations in 1967 and 1968, 32 of the 47 colour episodes were broadcast by NBC from 1968 to 1969, have since played in syndication in the US for many years after. Most series are available on DVD in North America. Two two-part episodes from series 6, "Vendetta for the Saint" and "The Fiction Makers", were made into feature films and distributed to theatres in Europe, show up on late-night television in America, they are available on DVD. In the UK, ITV4 has broadcast colour episodes. In the US, FamilyNet and RTV have airied both the colour episodes. Me-TV has broadcast the series. In March 2015, the
Terence Alan Milligan, known as Spike Milligan, was a British-Irish comedian, poet and actor. The son of an Irish father and an English mother, Milligan was born in India where he spent his childhood, before returning to live and work the majority of his life in the United Kingdom. Disliking his first name, he began to call himself "Spike" after hearing the band Spike Jones and his City Slickers on Radio Luxembourg. Milligan was the co-creator, main writer and a principal cast member of the British radio programme The Goon Show, performing a range of roles including the Eccles and Minnie Bannister characters, he was the longest-lived and last surviving member of the Goons. Milligan parlayed success with the Goon Show into television with Q5, a surreal sketch show credited as a major influence on the members of Monty Python's Flying Circus. Milligan wrote and edited many books, including Puckoon and a seven-volume autobiographical account of his time serving during the Second World War, beginning with Adolf Hitler: My Part in His Downfall.
He wrote comical verse, with much of his poetry written for children, including Silly Verse for Kids. When the Commonwealth Immigrants Act removed Indian-born Milligan's automatic right to British citizenship in 1962, he became an Irish citizen, exercising a right conferred through his Irish-born father. Milligan was born in Ahmednagar, India, on 16 April 1918, the son of an Irish father, Captain Leo Alphonso Milligan, MSM, RA, serving in the British Indian Army, his mother, Florence Mary Winifred, was English. He spent his childhood in Poona and in Rangoon, capital of British Burma, he was educated at the Convent of Jesus and Mary, at St Paul's High School, Rangoon. When he traveled, by sea, from India to England for the first time, he arrived on a winter's morning and was bemused by the climate, so different from India's, remembering the dock's "terrible noise, everything so cold and grey." After moving to Brockley, south east London from the age of 12 in 1931, he attended Brownhill Road School and St Saviours School, Lewisham High Road.
On leaving school he discovered jazz. He joined Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists, who were gaining support near his home in south London. After returning from Burma, Milligan lived most of his life in the United Kingdom apart from overseas service in the British Army in the Royal Artillery during the Second World War. During most of the late 1930s and early 1940s, Milligan performed as an amateur jazz vocalist and trumpeter before and after being called up for military service in the fight against Nazi Germany, but then he wrote and performed comedy sketches as part of concerts to entertain troops. After his call-up, but before being sent abroad, he and fellow musician Harry Edgington would compose surreal stories, filled with puns and skewed logic, as a way of staving off the boredom of life in barracks. One biographer describes his early dance band work as follows: "He managed to croon like Bing Crosby and win a competition: he played drums and trumpet, in which he was self taught".
Milligan had perfect pitch. During the Second World War, Milligan served as a signaller in the 56th Heavy Regiment Royal Artillery, D Battery, as Gunner Milligan, 954024; the unit was equipped with the obsolete First World War era BL 9.2-inch howitzer and based in Bexhill on the south coast of England. Milligan describes training with these guns in part two of Adolf Hitler: My Part in His Downfall, claiming that, during training, gun crews resorted to shouting "bang" in unison as they had no shells with which to practise; the unit was re-equipped with the BL 7.2-inch howitzer and saw action as part of the First Army in the North African campaign and in the succeeding Italian campaign. Milligan was appointed lance bombardier and was about to be promoted to bombardier, when he was wounded in action in the Italian theatre at the Battle of Monte Cassino. Subsequently, hospitalised for a mortar wound to the right leg and shell shock, he was demoted by an unsympathetic commanding officer back to Gunner.
It was Milligan's opinion that Major Jenkins did not like him, because Milligan kept up the morale of his fellow soldiers, whereas Jenkins's approach was to take an attitude towards the troops similar to that of Lord Kitchener. An incident mentioned was when Jenkins had invited Gunners Milligan and Edgington to his bivouac to play some jazz with him, only to discover that the musicianship of the gunners was far superior to his own ability to play the military tune "Whistling Rufus". After hospitalisation, Milligan drifted through a number of rear-echelon military jobs in Italy becoming a full-time entertainer, he played the guitar with a jazz and comedy group called The Bill Hall Trio, in concert parties for the troops. After being demobilised, Milligan remained in Italy playing with the trio but returned to Britain soon after. While he was with the Central Pool of Artists he began to write parodies of their mainstream plays, which displayed many of the key elements of what would become The Goon Show with Peter Sellers, Harry Secombe and Michael Bentine.
Milligan returned to jazz in the late 1940s and made a precarious living with the Hal
Llandaff is a district and coterminous electoral ward in the north of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It was incorporated into the city in 1922, it is the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff, whose diocese within the Church in Wales covers the most populous area of South Wales. Most of the history of Llandaff centres on its role as a religious site. Before the creation of Llandaff Cathedral, it became established as a Christian place of worship in the 6th century AD because of its location as the first firm ground north of the point where the river Taff met the Bristol Channel, because of its pre-Christian location as a river crossing on a north-south trade route. Evidence of Romano-British ritual burials have been found under the present cathedral; the date of the moving of the cathedral to Llandaff is disputed, but elements of the fabric date from the 12th century, such as the impressive Romanesque Urban Arch, named after the 12th century Bishop, Urban. It has had a history of continual destruction and restoration, as a result of warfare and natural disaster.
Llandaff has been a focal point of devastating attacks by Oliver Cromwell. It was the second most damaged cathedral in the UK, following Luftwaffe bombing during World War II, subsequently restored by the architect George Pace. One of its main modern points of interest is the aluminium figure of Christ in Majesty, by Jacob Epstein, suspended above the nave. In 2007, a lightning strike to its spire sent a surge through the building, its replacement, the largest to be built in the UK for over 40 years, was inaugurated in 2010. A bishop's palace, now in ruins, lies to the south of the cathedral, it is believed it was constructed at a similar date in the late 13th century. It is believed it was abandoned after being attacked and damaged by Glyndŵr in the 15th century; the gatehouse of the Palace survives, the courtyard is now a public garden. Llandaff never developed into a chartered borough, by the 19th century, was described as "reduced to a mere village... It consists of little more than two short streets of cottages, not lighted or paved, terminating in a square, into which the great gateway of the old palace opened, where are still several genteel houses."
Llandaff was informally known as a'city', because of its status as the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff. This city status was never recognised because the community did not possess a charter of incorporation; the ancient parish of Llandaff included a wide area. Apart from Llandaff itself, it included the townships of Canton, Ely and Gabalfa. During the development of the South Wales coalfield and Cardiff Docks, the parish was absorbed into the Borough of Cardiff during the 19th and 20th centuries. Seen as a clean and green up-market countrified village location close to the fast developing city, many of the better-off coal merchants and business people chose to live in Llandaff, including the Insole family; the house now known as Insole Court dates from 1856. Llandaff itself became a civil parish, from 1894 to 1922, was part of the Llandaff and Dinas Powis Rural District. On 9 November 1922, the county borough of Cardiff was extended to include the area. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Llandaff was 8,997.
91.6% were recorded as being of various white ethnicities. 65% of the population were returned as Christian, with about 1.5% each being Hindu or Muslim, 30% having no religion or no stated religion. In the 2011 census, 15.3% of the population over 3 years old in Llandaff were recorded as speaking Welsh, or 1,337 people. This was a small drop compared to the 2001 census figure, 15.4%. The headquarters of BBC Cymru Wales is in Llandaff. Research by Owen John Thomas shows the historical strength of the Welsh language in Llandaff. According to his book:'Yr Iaith Gymraeg yng Nghaerdydd c. 1800–1914’, the nonconformist church in Cardiff Road was a Welsh-language church in 1813. His work shows that Welsh was the main language of the street in Llandaff in the 17th century. Llandaff is both an electoral ward, a community of the City of Cardiff. There is no community council for the area; the electoral ward of Llandaff is bounded by Morganstown to the north west. The ward is represented by two councillors on Cardiff Council, Sean Driscoll and Philippa Hill-John, both members of the Conservative Party.
In the UK Parliament, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West. Its most prominent MPs were former Speaker of the House of Commons; the current MP is Labour's Kevin Brennan, elected in 2001. In the Welsh Assembly, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West, whose current AM since 2011 is Mark Drakeford of Labour; the constituency falls within the electoral region of South Wales Central, whose four current AMs are Conservatives Andrew R. T. Davies and David Melding. Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff campus St. Michael's College, Anglican theological college Bishop of Llandaff Church in Wales High School, English medium. Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf, Welsh medium. Danescourt Primary School, English medium. Ll
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Davros is a character from the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. He was created by screenwriter Terry Nation for the 1975 serial Genesis of the Daleks. Davros is a major enemy of the series' protagonist, the Doctor, is the creator of the Doctor's deadliest enemies, the Daleks. Davros is a genius who has mastered many areas of science, but a megalomaniac who believes that through his creations he can become the supreme being and ruler of the Universe; the character has been compared to the infamous dictator Adolf Hitler several times, including by the actor Terry Molloy, while Julian Bleach defined him as a cross between Hitler and the renowned scientist Stephen Hawking. Davros is from the planet Skaro, whose people, the Kaleds, were engaged in a bitter thousand-year war of attrition with their enemies, the Thals, he is horribly scarred and disabled, a condition that various spin-off media attribute to his laboratory being attacked by a Thal shell. He has one functioning hand and one cybernetic eye mounted on his forehead to take the place of his real eyes, which he is not able to open for long.
It would become an obvious inspiration for his eventual design of the Dalek. The lower half of his body is absent and he is physically incapable of leaving the chair for more than a few minutes without dying. Davros' voice, like those of the Daleks, is electronically distorted, his manner of speech is soft and contemplative, but when angered or excited he is prone to ranting outbursts that resemble the hysterical, staccatissimo speech of the Daleks. Davros first appeared in the 1975 serial Genesis of the Daleks, written by Terry Nation. Nation, creator of the Dalek concept, had deliberately modelled elements of the Daleks' character on Nazi ideology, conceived of their creator as a scientist with strong fascist tendencies; the physical appearance of Davros was developed by visual effects designer Peter Day and sculptor John Friedlander, who based Davros' chair on the lower half of a Dalek. Producer Philip Hinchcliffe told Friedlander to consider a design similar to the Mekon from the Eagle comic Dan Dare, with a large dome-like head and a withered body.
Cast in the role of Davros was Michael Wisher, who had appeared in several different roles on Doctor Who and had provided Dalek voices in the serials Frontier in Space, Planet of the Daleks and Death to the Daleks. Wisher based his performance as Davros on the philosopher Bertrand Russell. In order to prepare for filming under the heavy mask, Wisher rehearsed wearing a paper bag over his head. Friedlander's mask was cast with only the mouth revealing Wisher's features. In the Destiny of the Daleks, Davros is played by David Gooderson using the mask Friedlander made for Wisher after it was split into intersecting sections to get as good a fit as possible; when Terry Molloy took over the role in Resurrection of the Daleks, a new mask was designed by Stan Mitchell. The Fourth Doctor first encountered Davros in Genesis of the Daleks when he and his companions were sent to Skaro to avert the creation of the Daleks; as chief scientist of the Kaleds and leader of their elite scientific division, Davros devised new military strategies in order to win his people's thousand-year war against the Thal race that occupies Skaro.
When Davros learned his people were evolving from exposure to nuclear and biological weapons used in the war, he artificially accelerates the process to his design and stores the resulting tentacle creatures in tank-like "Mark III travel machines" based on the design of his wheelchair. He names these creatures "Daleks", an anagram of Kaleds. Davros becomes obsessed with his creations, considering them to be the ultimate form of life compared to others; when other Kaleds attempted to thwart his project, Davros arranges the extinction of his own people by using the Thals, whom he killed with the Daleks later. Davros weeds out those in elite scientific division who are loyal to him so he can have the Daleks eliminate the rest. However, the Daleks turn on Davros, killing his supporters before shooting him when he tries to halt the Dalek production line. In Destiny of the Daleks, it is revealed that Davros was not killed, but placed in suspended animation and buried underground; the Daleks unearth their creator to help them break a logical impasse in their war against the android Movellans.
However, the Dalek force is destroyed by the Doctor, Davros is captured and imprisoned in suspended animation by the humans, before being taken to Earth to face trial. In the Fifth Doctor story Resurrection of the Daleks, Davros is released from his space station prison by small Dalek force aided by human mercenaries and Dalek duplicates; the Daleks require Davros to find an antidote for a Movellan-created virus that has all but wiped them out. Believing his creations to be treacherous, Davros begins using mind control on Daleks and humans releasing the virus to kill off the Daleks before they can exterminate him. Davros expresses a desire to build a new and improved race of Daleks, but he succumbs to the virus himself before he can escape, his physiology being close enough to that of the Daleks for the virus to affect him, but in the Sixth Doctor story Revelation of the Daleks, Davros goes into hiding as "The Great Healer" of the funeral and cryogenic preservation centre Tranquil Repose on the planet Necros.
There, creating a clone of his head to serve as a decoy while modifying his bod