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Tertiary education

Tertiary education referred to as third-level, third-stage or postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education. The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as trade schools and colleges. Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, while vocational education beyond secondary education is known as further education in the United Kingdom, or continuing education in the United States. Tertiary education culminates in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. UNESCO stated, it includes academic and higher vocational education. The World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on the future of work argues that given the future of work and the increasing role of technology in value chains, tertiary education becomes more relevant for workers to compete in the labor market. Tertiary education systems will keep expanding over the next 10 years.

Globally, the gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education increased from 19% in 2000 to 38% in 2017, with the female enrolment ratio exceeding the male ratio by 4 percentage points. The tertiary gross enrolment ratio ranges from 9% in low-income countries to 77% in high-income countries, after rapid growth in the 2000s, reached a plateau in the 2010s. Between now and 2030, the biggest increase in tertiary enrolment ratios is expected in middle-income countries, where it will reach 52%. Sustainable development goal 4 commits countries to providing lifelong learning opportunities for all, including tertiary education; this commitment is monitored through the global indicator for target 4.3 in the sustainable development goal 4, which measures the participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, whether for work or non-work purposes. "Tertiary education" includes further education, as well as higher education. Since the 1970s, specialized FE colleges, called “tertiary colleges”, have been set up to offer courses such as A Levels, that allow progression to HE, alongside vocational courses.

An early example of this was the reorganization of education in Halesowen in 1982, which saw three-tier education axed after just 10 years in force. In some areas, where schools do not universally offer sixth forms, tertiary colleges function as a sixth-form college as well as a general FE college. Unlike sixth-form colleges, the staff join lecturers' rather than teachers' unions. Under devolution in the United Kingdom, education is administered separately in England, Northern Ireland and Scotland. In 2018 the Welsh Government adopted the term "tertiary education" to refer to post-16 education and training in Wales. Within Australia "tertiary education" refers to continuing studies after a students Higher School Certificate, it refers to any education a student receives after final compulsory schooling, which occurs at the age of 17 within Australia. Tertiary-education options include university and further education or private colleges; the higher education system in the United States is decentralized and regulated independently by each state with accreditors playing a key role in ensuring institutions meet minimum standards.

It is large and diverse with institutions that are governed and institutions that are owned and operated by state and local governments. Some private institutions are affiliated with religious organizations whereas others are secular with enrollment ranging from a few dozen to tens of thousands of students. In short, there are a wide variety of options which are locally determined; the United States Department of Education presents a broad-spectrum view of tertiary education and detailed information on the nation's educational structure, accreditation procedures, connections to state as well as federal agencies and entities. The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education provide one framework for classifying U. S. colleges and universities in several different ways. US tertiary education includes various non-profit organizations promoting professional development of individuals in the field of higher education and helping expand awareness of related issues like international student services and complete campus internationalization.

Although tertiary education in the EU includes university, it can differ from country to country. After going to nursery school, elementary school, middle school, high school, a student may go to university, but may stop at that point. Tertiary education refers to post-secondary education received at Universities, Monotechnics and Colleges of Education. After completing a secondary education, students may enroll in a tertiary institution or acquire a vocational education. Students are required to sit for the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination as well as the Secondary School Certificate Examination or General Certificate Examination and meet varying cut-off marks to gain admission into a tertiary institution. 4th and 5th grades of colleges of technology and special training colleges fall into the category. Colleges of technology are provided by the 1st article of the educational law in Japan as well as universities and junior colleges which are often called as high education for two years but special training colleges are provided by the 124th article of the law as a category of special training schools.

Both are regular educational organisations but special training colleges are not “schools” under the law. They


NORPAC is a bipartisan, multi-candidate political action committee working to strengthen United States support for Israel, founded in New Jersey in 1982. Its activities include fundraising for Senators and Members of the United States Congress who support this relationship, regular emails regarding the situation in the Middle East, the annual Mission to Washington; each year, before its annual Mission to Washington, NORPAC selects 5 issues or bills it will discuss that year, including: Foreign Aid to Israel IFSA, the Iran Freedom Support Act, which imposes sanctions on Iran in response to nuclear activity. USIECA, the US-Israel Energy Cooperation Act, which supports joint alternative energy research. PATA, the Palestinian Anti-Terror Act, which restricts aid to the Hamas-dominated Palestinian Authority unless certain actions opposing terror are taken; the Saudi Arabia Accountability Act, which imposes sanctions on Saudi Arabia unless it shuts down terrorist organizations within the country and ends support for such organizations outside the country.

Each year, NORPAC sends a group of active members to meet with Senators and Members of Congress to discuss the U. S.-Israel relationship. The mission on May 2009 brought 900 participants to meet with more than four hundred Senators and Members of Congress, increase in the number of participants compared to previous years. NORPAC hosts fundraisers for various political candidates who are supportive of the U. S.-Israel relationship. It is the largest donor of New Jersey senator Robert Menendez, donates to various other politicians. National Officers Regional Officers American Israel Public Affairs Committee Political action committee NORPAC website

T4 holin

The T4 Holin Family is a group of putative pore-forming proteins that does not belong to one of the seven holin superfamilies. T-even phage such as T4 use a holin-endolysin system for host cell lysis. Although the endolysin of phage T4 encoded by the e gene was identified in 1961, the holin was not characterized until 2001. A representative list of proteins belonging to the T4 holin family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. T4 holin is large, about 218 amino acyl residues in length; the protein is hydrophilic with 49 acidic and basic residues distributed along its length and a single putative transmembrane segment near its N-terminus, leaving most of the protein in the periplasm. The large periplasmic domain is a major determinant in the timing mechanism and is involved in lysis inhibition. LIN involves the antiholin rI protein of T4. Lysis inhibition is an effective strategy to coordinate lysis timing with phage particle maturation and to exclude other phage; the C-terminal periplasmic domain of T4 holin binds the periplasmic domain of T4 antiholin which like the holin, spans the membrane once.

T-holin of T4 phage forms a 1:1 complex with the RI inhibitor which block aggregation and pore formation. The phage T4 T-holin is identical to the holin from phage K3 and nearly identical to that from phage ARI. Residues 35-96 are 28% identical to residues 436-495 of a K+ uptake protein of Lactococcus lactis, suggesting an evolutionary relationship between a holin and a transporter. Holins have a short C-terminal domain rich in basic residues. Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Catalão MJ, Gil F, Moniz-Pereira J, São-José C, Pimentel M. "Diversity in bacterial lysis systems: bacteriophages show the way". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 37: 554–571. Doi:10.1111/1574-6976.12006. PMID 23043507. Moussa SH, Lawler JL, Young R. "Genetic Dissection of T4 Lysis". Journal of Bacteriology. 196: 2201–2209. Doi:10.1128/JB.01548-14. PMC 4054191. PMID 24706740. Saier MH, Reddy BL, Margolin W. "Holins in Bacteria and Archaea: Multifunctional Xenologues with Potential Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications".

Journal of Bacteriology. 197: 7–17. Doi:10.1128/JB.02046-14. PMC 4288690. PMID 25157079. Tran TA, Struck DK, Young R. "Periplasmic Domains Define Holin-Antiholin Interactions in T4 Lysis Inhibition". Journal of Bacteriology. 187: 6631–6640. Doi:10.1128/JB.187.19.6631-6640.2005. PMC 1251592. PMID 16166524. Tran TA, Struck DK, Young R. "The T4 RI Antiholin Has an N-Terminal Signal Anchor Release Domain That Targets It for Degradation by DegP". Journal of Bacteriology. 189: 7618–7625. Doi:10.1128/JB.00854-07. PMC 2168732. PMID 17693511. Wang I, Smith DL, Young R. "Holins: The Protein Clocks of Bacteriophage Infections". Annual Review of Microbiology. 54: 799–825. Doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.54.1.799. PMID 11018145; as of this edit, this article uses content from "1. E.8 The T4 Holin Family", licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed

Ester Pajusoo

Ester Pajusoo is an Estonian stage, film and television actress whose career has spanned nearly six decades. Born Ester Lage in the small village of Nõmme in rural Tuhala Parish, she was the youngest of three daughters of Johannes Lage and Marie Johanna "Anni" Lage, she had three older half-siblings from her father's previous marriage. She graduated from secondary school in Tallinn in 1953 and attended the Estonian Drama Theatre's training studio, graduating in 1957. In 1956, she began using the surname Pajusoo after her marriage to Jüri Pajusoo. Ester Pajusoo began an engagement at the Estonian Drama Theatre in 1958, the year following her graduation. Pajusoo has been with the theatre since, she made her stage debut at the theatre in Bertolt Brecht's Mr Puntila and his Man Matti in 1958. During her years at the theatre, she has performed in a number of stage productions by such international playwrights and authors as: William Shakespeare, Samuel Beckett, Henrik Ibsen, Evgeny Schwartz, Hjalmar Söderberg, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Yukio Mishima, Arthur Miller and Anton Chekhov, among others.

Notable performances in works by Estonian playwrights and authors include those of: Oskar Luts, Mats Traat, Andrus Kivirähk, Jaan Kross and Anton Hansen Tammsaare. Pajusoo made her film debut as the character Sirje in the 1960 Virve Aruoja directed Estonian drama television film Näitleja Joller; this was followed by a small, uncredited role in the 1972 Sulev Nõmmik directed television film comedy Noor pensionär. In 1981, she made her screen debut in the Arvo Kruusement directed drama Karge meri, she would not appear in another film until 2006. Her appearance in Vana daami visiit would revive her film career and between 2006 and 2016, she would appear in eight films. Among her more memorable roles in television was that of the recurring character Reet from 2008 until 2013 in the historical mini-series Tuulepealne maa, which aired on Eesti Televisioon, she has made appearances on Estonian television series including Ohtlik lend, Kättemaksukontor and IT-planeet. Ester Pajusoo was married to Jüri Pajusoo from 1956 until his death in 2006.

She resides in Tallinn. Väike Ants, Estonian Drama Theatre Prize, Supporting Actress Order of the White Star, IV Class Ester Pajusoo on IMDb

Red-billed chough

The red-billed chough, Cornish chough or chough, is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax. Its eight subspecies breed on mountains and coastal cliffs from the western coasts of Ireland and Britain east through southern Europe and North Africa to Central Asia and China; this bird has glossy black plumage, a long curved red bill, red legs, a loud, ringing call. It has a buoyant acrobatic flight with spread primaries; the red-billed chough pairs for life and displays fidelity to its breeding site, a cave or crevice in a cliff face. It lays three eggs, it feeds in flocks, on short grazed grassland, taking invertebrate prey. Although it is subject to predation and parasitism, the main threat to this species is changes in agricultural practices, which have led to population decline, some local extirpation, range fragmentation in Europe; the red-billed chough, which derived its common name from the jackdaw, was associated with fire-raising, has links with Saint Thomas Becket and Cornwall.

The red-billed chough has been depicted on postage stamps of a few countries, including the Isle of Man, with four different stamps, The Gambia, where the bird does not occur. The red-billed chough was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Upupa pyrrhocorax, it was moved to its current genus, Pyrrhocorax, by Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 Ornithologia Britannica. The genus name is derived from Greek πυρρός, "flame-coloured", κόραξ, "raven"; the only other member of the genus is the Alpine chough, Pyrrhocorax graculus. The closest relatives of the choughs are the typical crows, Corvus the jackdaws in the subgenus Coloeus."Chough" was an alternative onomatopoeic name for the jackdaw, Corvus monedula, based on its call. The similar red-billed species particularly common in Cornwall, became known as "Cornish chough" and just "chough", the name transferring from one species to the other; the Australian white-winged chough, Corcorax melanorhamphos, despite its similar shape and habits, is only distantly related to the true choughs, is an example of convergent evolution.

There are eight extant subspecies. P. p. pyrrhocorax, the nominate subspecies and smallest form, is endemic to the British Isles, where it is restricted to Ireland, the Isle of Man, the far west of Wales and Scotland, although it recolonised Cornwall in 2001 after an absence of 50 years. P. p. erythropthalmus, described by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1817 as Coracia erythrorhamphos, occurs in the red-billed chough's continental European range, excluding Greece. It is larger and greener than the nominate race. P. p. barbarus, described by Charles Vaurie under its current name in 1954, is resident in North Africa and on La Palma in the Canary Islands. Compared to P. p. erythropthalmus, it is larger, has a longer tail and wings, its plumage has a greener gloss. It is the longest-billed form and relatively. P. p. baileyi described by Austin Loomer Rand and Charles Vaurie under its current name in 1955, is a dull-plumaged subspecies endemic to Ethiopia, where it occurs in two separate areas. The two populations could represent different subspecies.

P. p. docilis, described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin as Corvus docilis in 1774, breeds from Greece to Afghanistan. It is larger than the African subspecies, but it has a smaller bill and its plumage is green-tinted, with little gloss. P. p. himalayanus, described by John Gould in 1862 as Fregilus himalayanus, is found from the Himalayas to western China, but intergrades with P. p. docilis in the west of its range. It is the largest subspecies, long-tailed, with blue or purple-blue glossed feathers. P. p. centralis, described by Erwin Stresemann in 1928 under its current name, breeds in Central Asia. It is smaller and less blue than P. p. himalayanus, but its distinctness from the next subspecies has been questioned. P. p. brachypus, described by Robert Swinhoe in 1871 as Fregilus graculus var. brachypus, breeds in central and northern China and southern Siberia. It is similar with a weaker bill. There is one known prehistoric form of the red-billed chough. P. p. primigenius, a subspecies that lived in Europe during the last ice age, described in 1875 by Alphonse Milne-Edwards from finds in southwest France.

Detailed analysis of call similarity suggests that the Asiatic and Ethiopian races diverged from the western subspecies early in evolutionary history, that Italian red-billed choughs are more allied to the North African subspecies than to those of the rest of Europe. The adult of the "nominate" subspecies of the red-billed chough, P. p. pyrrhocorax, is 39–40 centimetres in length, has a 73–90 centimetres wingspan, weighs an average 310 grammes. Its plumage is velvet-black, green-glossed on the body, it has a long curved red bill and red legs; the sexes are similar but the juvenile has an orange bill and pink legs until its first autumn, less glossy plumage. The red-billed chough is unlikely to be confused with any other species of bird. Although the jackdaw and Alpine chough share its range, the jackdaw is smaller and has unglossed grey plumage, the Alpine chough has a short yellow bill. In flight, the two choughs can be distinguished by Alpine's less rectangular wings, longer, less square-ended tail.

The red-billed chough's loud, ringing chee-ow call is clearer and louder th

Lucie Robinson

Lucie Robinson is a portrait and fashion photographer. Robinson was born in Jablonec nad Nisou in the former Czechoslovakia into a family with roots in Austria and Imperial Russia, she studied joaillerie in her hometown and design at the Academy of Arts and Design in Prague. In 1996 she launched a career as a commercial model, moving to Paris in 1998, she had received formal education covering artistic techniques, but concentrated on the medium of photography and by the early 2000s established herself as a portrait and fashion photographer. She photographed many celebrities and top models including a 2009 publicity campaign for Louis Vuitton featuring Paulina Porizkova, Miloš Forman and Helena Houdová, her portraits and fashion editorials have been published by Elle, Harper's Bazaar, Marie Claire, Vision and further fashion and lifestyle magazines in Europe and in Asia. However, Robinson’s uncredited work appeared in commercial advertisement campaigns for industrial clients like Cadbury, Orange Mobile, T-Mobile and Procter & Gamble.

Her art photographs commissioned by the Marriott Group are displayed in over one hundred hotels worldwide. Her work has won various prizes, including the 2006 Cannes Fashion Photography Festival and three consecutive wins of the Schwarzkopf Press Awards. In 2008, a solo exhibition of her work on fashion and architecture was staged in the New York Museum of Arts and Design. At The 2018 Art Fair India in New Delhi, her work on "Follow Me" video art reel has been showcased. During the Art Basel Week Miami 2019, her photographs have been presented in a performative installation at the Satellite Art Show. Official website