Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest match duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams that have been granted Test status, as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact that the long, gruelling matches are mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015. Sides designated as "England" began to play in the late 18th century, but these teams were not representative.
Early international cricket was disrupted by the American Civil War. The earliest international cricket match was between USA and Canada, on 24 and 25 September 1844; this has never been considered a "Test match". Tours of national English sides abroad took place to the US, Australia and New Zealand; the Australian Aborigines team became the first organised overseas cricketers to tour England in 1868. Two rival English tours of Australia were proposed in the early months of 1877, with James Lillywhite campaigning for a professional tour and Fred Grace for an amateur one. Grace's tour fell through and it was Lillywhite's team that toured New Zealand and Australia in 1876–77. Two matches against a combined Australian XI were classified as the first official Test matches; the first match was won by 45 runs and the second by England. After reciprocal tours established a pattern of international cricket, The Ashes was established as a competition during the Australian tour of England in 1882. Beaten, a mock obituary of English cricket was published in the Sporting Times the following day: the phrase "The body shall be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia" prompted the subsequent creation of the Ashes urn.
The series of 1884–85 was the first to be held over five matches: Shaw, writing in 1901, considered the side to be "the best to have left England". South Africa became the third team to play Test cricket in 1888–89, when they hosted a tour by an under-strength England side. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Test status is conferred upon a country or group of countries by the ICC. There are twelve men's teams that have been granted this status. International teams that do not have Test status can play first-class cricket in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, under conditions which are similar to Tests; the teams with Test status are: Australia England South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan Most of these teams represent independent sovereign nations.
The exceptions are the England cricket team, which represents the constituent countries of England and Wales. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended in 2006 because of poor performances, it returned to Test competition in August 2011. The ICC has made several proposals to reform the system of granting Test status. Unimplemented proposals include having two tiers with promotion and relegation, or a play off between the winners of the ICC Intercontinental Cup and the team with the lowest Test ranking; these proposals have not been successful. For statistical purposes, Tests are considered to be a subset of first-class cricket. Performances in first-class matches count towards only the first-class statistical record, but performances in Test matches count towards both the Test statistics and the first-class statistics. Statisticians have developed criteria to determine which matches count as Tests, if they were played before the formal definition of Test status; the first list of matches considered to be "Tests" was drawn up by Clarence Moody, an Australian, in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Se
The curling competition of the 2010 Olympics was held at Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre in Vancouver. It is the fifth time that curling was on the Olympic program, after having been staged in 1924, 1998, 2002 and 2006; the competition followed the same format, used during the 2006 Turin Winter Olympics, with 10 teams playing a round robin tournament, from which the top four teams advance to the semi-finals. The women's competition concluded on Friday, February 26, 2010. In the bronze medal match, the Chinese team made history by becoming the first team from Asia to win an Olympic curling medal; the gold medal match was one of the closest medal games in Olympic competition. Team Canada won the silver medal, their best performance since the 1998 Nagano Olympic Games when Sandra Schmirler skipped the Canadians to gold. Team Sweden won the gold medal. Anette Norberg, Eva Lund, Cathrine Lindahl, Anna Le Moine became the first curlers to win two gold medals at the Olympic Games; the men's competition concluded on Saturday, February 27, 2010.
In the bronze medal match, Markus Eggler of Switzerland became the first male curler to win two Olympic medals. The gold medal final was a rematch between Norway of the 2002 Olympics men's final; the only disturbance was when an unsportsmanlike spectator deliberately blew a horn while the Norwegians were delivering their stones. The crowd promptly booed the horn was not blown again until the medal ceremony; the Canadians controlled the game throughout and never relinquished the lead. Torger Nergård and Kevin Martin became the third men to win two Olympic medals. With the conclusion of the Vancouver Olympic curling tournament, eight athletes now have two Olympic curling medals, they are in the order in which they received their medals: Mirjam Ott, Markus Eggler, Kevin Martin, Torger Nergård, Anette Norberg, Eva Lund, Cathrine Lindahl, Anna Le Moine, all of Sweden. *Throws third rocks**Throws second rocks *Throws second rocks**The World Curling Federation had Olga Jarkova listed as the Third. However, a press release by the Vancouver Organizing Committee has Anna Sidorova listed as Third.***On Feb 21, 2010, Debbie McCormick switched to throwing third, with Allison Pottinger throwing fourth.
Performances at the 2007, 2008 and 2009 World Curling Championships decided which countries were able to send curling teams to the 2010 Olympics. Points were distributed with the top 9 teams qualifying for the Olympics. In case of a tie during the 2007 World championships, the points were split. For the 2008 and 2009 championships, such ties were broken according to head to head matchups, if necessary, by the draw shot challenge. Canada, as the host nation, qualified automatically. Scotland's points counted as Great Britain. *Scotland and Wales all compete separately in international curling. By an agreement between the curling federations of those three home nations, only Scotland can score Olympic qualification points for Great Britain. *Scotland and Wales all compete separately in international curling. By an agreement between the curling federations of those three home nations, only Scotland can score Olympic qualification points for Great Britain. 2009 Canadian Olympic Curling Trials 2010 United States Olympic Curling Trials 2009 Swiss Olympic Curling Trials Wheelchair curling at the 2010 Winter Paralympics Vancouver 2010 official website World Curling Federation's official website Olympic Games Qualification standings Qualification System Olympic Curling Competition Draw Schedule AP Winter Games Video Essay: The Mysteries of Curling AP Winter Games: Curling
The Buccaneer is a 1938 American adventure film made by Paramount Pictures and based on Jean Lafitte and the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. It was produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille from a screenplay by Harold Lamb, Edwin Justus Mayer and C. Gardner Sullivan adapted by Jeanie Macpherson from the novel Lafitte the Pirate by Lyle Saxon; the music score was by the cinematography by Victor Milner. The film stars Fredric March as Lafitte, Franciska Gaal and Akim Tamiroff with Margot Grahame, Walter Brennan, Ian Keith, Spring Byington, Douglass Dumbrille, Beulah Bondi and Anthony Quinn in supporting roles, it is one of the few pre-1950 sound films by Paramount to remain under that studio's ownership, whereas most films from that era had been sold to EMKA, Ltd. – now part of NBCUniversal Television Distribution – in the early television era. Cecil B. DeMille remade the film in 1958 in Technicolor and VistaVision with the same title, but because of ill health, he allowed Henry Wilcoxon, his longtime friend and associate, to produce it, the film was directed by Anthony Quinn, his son-in-law at the time.
DeMille received no screen credit, but did make a personal appearance in the prologue to the film, much as he did in The Ten Commandments. The 1958 version of The Buccaneer stars Yul Brynner, Charles Boyer and Claire Bloom, with Charlton Heston as Andrew Jackson. Douglass Dumbrille appeared in both versions and Quinn acted in the earlier version. In the closing stages of the War of 1812, Dolly Madison evacuates the White House as the British Army arrives and burn Washington. Laffite asks a young woman of good family, Annette de Remy, to marry him but she asks him to give up his piracy first, he and his pirates set up a trading post in Louisiana in the swamp to sell luxury goods to New Orleans society that they have seized from foreign ships but have to suspend their sales when the governor, Ferdinand Claiborne, who has put a bounty on his head, appears with troops. Senator Crawford tells him. Laffite leaves for the sea where he finds one of his captains, Captain Brown has seized the Corinthian, an American ship, contrary to his orders not to attack American ships, burning the ship and killing the crew and passengers.
Laffite's man Dominique You saves the sole survivor Gretchen, made to walk the plank by Brown so no witnesses remained, Lafitte hangs the captain for disobeying orders. Lafitte spares Gretchen despite her potential as a hostile witness and Gretchen works as his maid and falls in love with him, despite You being in love with her; the British, who are planning to attack New Orleans, offer Laffitte position and wealth if he will guide them through the swamps to the city and threaten to attack his stronghold if he will not. Although his men are willing, Lafitte's loyalty is to Louisiana and he delays answering the British, instead warning the city authorities of the British plans. On Crawford's advice, Brevet Major General Andrew Jackson, who leads the available American forces, does not trust Lafitte and instead attacks his stronghold in order to prevent him aiding the English, capturing or killing his men, whom Lafitte has ordered not to resist. Meanwhile, Jackson determines to defend the city, though he has limited forces, despite Crawford's advice to surrender the city.
Lafitte, who escaped from the attack, appearing before Jackson in person and offering to supply him with flints and powder and provide experienced gunners to help defend the city if he will pardon his men. Jackson agrees to grant pardon after the forthcoming battle, although he will only promise to give Lafitte an hour's start from pursuit. Lafitte releases his men, in the process killing Crawford in a sword fight; the entrenched American forces, with the help of Lafitte's artillery and gunners, mow down the advancing ranks of disciplined but over confident British troops. At the victory ball, Gretchen is recognized as a passenger on the Corinthian and as wearing clothing and jewels from Annette's sister, a passenger on the ship, it is revealed that Lafitte's men had sunk it, killing Annette's sister along with the other passengers and crew. Lafitte accepts ultimate responsibility for the tragedy and is only saved from a lynching by Jackson, who keeps his promise of giving Lafitte an hour's start.
With Annette heartbroken, Lafitte leaves, reaching his ship safely, where he finds that Gretchen has stowed away. Fredric March as Jean Lafitte Franciska Gaal as Gretchen Akim Tamiroff as Dominique You Margot Grahame as Annette de Remy Walter Brennan as Ezra Peavey Ian Keith as Senator Crawford Spring Byington as Dolly Madison Douglass Dumbrille as Governor Claiborne Robert Barrat as Captain Brown Hugh Sothern as Andrew Jackson Beulah Bondi as Aunt Charlotte Anthony Quinn as Beluche Louise Campbell as Marie de Remy Montagu Love as Admiral Cockburn Eric Stanley as General Ross Fred Kohler as Gramby Gilbert Emery as Captain Lockyer Holmes Herbert as Captain McWilliams Evelyn Keyes as Madeleine Francis McDonald as Camden Blount Frank Melton as Lieutenant Shreve Stanley Andrews as Collector of Port pirate Jack Hubbard as Charles Richard Denning as Captain Reid The 1975 film, The Day of the Locust, used a fictionalized version of The Buccaneer's Hollywood premier for its climactic finale; the Buccaneer on IMDb The Buccaneer at the American Film Institute Catalog The Buccaneer at Rotten Tomatoes