Caribou-Targhee National Forest
Caribou-Targhee National Forest is located in the states of Idaho and Wyoming, with a small section in Utah in the United States. The forest extends over 2.63 million acres. To the east the forest borders Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park and Bridger-Teton National Forest. Most of the forest is a part of the 20-million-acre Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Caribou and Targhee National Forests were combined from original forest lands created in 1891. Two designated wilderness areas are located in the easternmost sections of the forest, bordering on National Park lands; the 123,451-acre Jedediah Smith Wilderness is adjacent to Grand Teton National Park on the western slope of the Teton Range. Known for karst limestone formations, the wilderness has many caves and provides excellent views of the less seen west face of the Teton peaks; the smaller 10,715-acre Winegar Hole Wilderness borders Yellowstone National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, was set aside to protect prime grizzly bear habitat.
While western sections of the forest have a mixture of sagebrush and grasses, the higher elevations in the east support lodgepole pine, numerous species of spruce and fir. In addition to grizzlies most of the major megafauna associated with Yellowstone National Park can be found in Caribou-Targhee National Forest. Mammalian species of black bear, elk, mule deer, bison and pronghorn have all been seen by visitors on forest lands. An active peregrine falcon recovery program was begun to return this bird species to some of their ancestral range. Cutthroat trout, brook trout and pike are found in the streams and lakes and the forest is considered one of the best fishing areas in the world for cutthroat trout. Dozens of campgrounds and 1,600 miles of trails allow access to much of the forest. There are two trails that access the high altitude Alaska Basin west of the main Teton Range peaks and allow access to trails in Grand Teton National Park. Caribou National Forest, the smaller and more southerly of the two, is located in southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, northern Utah, has a total area of 987,221 acres.
There are local ranger district offices located in Malad City, Montpelier and Soda Springs in Idaho. The larger and more northerly Targhee National Forest is located in eastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming, has an area of 1,643,501 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Ashton, Driggs and Island Park in Idaho. In Island Park is Big Springs, a first-magnitude spring, the source of the South Fork of Henrys Fork. Linkage of limited habitat, through ecological corridors, is the current, most favored, method of restoring native wildlife communities. Many such corridors have been identified; the montane nature of the Caribou National Forest and its juxtaposition make it a important and unique link between the northern and southern Rocky Mountains. If restoration of native species is to be achieved throughout the wildlands of the American West, the Caribou will play an important role; the combined Caribou-Targhee National Forest is managed by the Forest Service from offices in Idaho Falls, Idaho.
There are two designated wilderness areas within the Caribou-Targhee National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Both lie just south in the Targhee National Forest section. Jedediah Smith Wilderness Winegar Hole Wilderness Counties are listed in descending order of forestland area, by forest. Caribou County, Idaho Bonneville County, Idaho Bannock County, Idaho Bear Lake County, Idaho Oneida County, Idaho Franklin County, Idaho Lincoln County, Wyoming Power County, Idaho Box Elder County, Utah Cache County, Utah Fremont County, Idaho Clark County, Idaho Teton County, Wyoming Bonneville County, Idaho Teton County, Idaho Lemhi County, Idaho Lincoln County, Wyoming Butte County, Idaho Madison County, Idaho Jefferson County, Idaho "Caribou National Forest-Montpelier Ranger District-Montpelier Watershed Analysis" "Lumber, Stone & Concrete", Administrative Facilities of the Caribou-Targhee National Forests, 1891-1955 "Caribou-Targhee National Forest". U. S. Forest Service.
Teton County, Idaho
Teton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,170; the county seat is Driggs, the largest city is Victor. The county was named after the Teton Mountains to the east. Teton County is part of WY-ID Micropolitan Statistical Area; the Teton Valley was discovered by a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. It became known as Pierre's Hole, it hosted the well-attended 1832 Rendezvous, followed by the Battle of Pierre's Hole. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 451 square miles, of which 449 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. It is the second-smallest county in Idaho by area. Fremont County - north Madison County - west Bonneville County - south Teton County, Wyoming - east SH-31 SH-32 SH-33 Targhee National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 5,999 people, 2,078 households, 1,464 families residing in the county; the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 2,632 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 91.32% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 6.73% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 11.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.5% were of English, 15.8% German, 7.6% American and 5.1% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 2,078 households out of which 39.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 5.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.43. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 33.80% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,968, the median income for a family was $45,848. Males had a median income of $32,309 versus $22,243 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,778. About 9.70% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.10% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,170 people, 3,651 households, 2,509 families residing in the county; the population density was 22.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,478 housing units at an average density of 12.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.6% white, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 11.7% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 16.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 29.9% were English, 20.3% were German, 13.0% were Irish, 4.2% were American.
Of the 3,651 households, 39.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families, 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. The median age was 33.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $53,364 and the median income for a family was $56,791. Males had a median income of $39,865 versus $31,966 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,633. About 5.4% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.8% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over. Similar to other Idaho counties, an elected three-member county commission heads the county government. Other elected officials include clerk, sheriff, assessor and prosecutor; until quite Teton County voted Republican along with most other Eastern Idaho counties. However, since 2004, the county has trended towards toss-up status.
In 2008, it was one of three Idaho counties to favor Barack Obama, despite giving George W. Bush a 23-point victory only four years earlier; the margin was narrow and Obama lost the county to Mitt Romney in 2012 by over five hundred votes. At the state level, Teton County in District 31 of the Idaho Legislature; as neighboring counties are still Republican, Republicans control the district. The public schools are operated by Teton School District #401, led by the county's only traditional high school, Teton High School, in Driggs. Bates Driggs Felt Tetonia Victor Cedron Chapen Clementsville Cache Darby National Register of Historic Places listings in Teton County, Idaho Official website Teton Valley Chamber of Commerce Teton School District #401
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Fremont County, Wyoming
Fremont County is a county in the U. S. state of Wyoming. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 40,123, its county seat is Lander. The county was founded in 1884 and is named for John C. Frémont, a general and politician, it is the size of the state of Vermont. Fremont County comprises WY Micropolitan Statistical Area. Fremont County was created on March 5, 1884 by the legislature of the Wyoming Territory The county was created with land ceded by Sweetwater County. In 1890, Big Horn County was carved out of Fremont and Sheridan Counties. Hot Springs County was created in 1911 from parts of Fremont, Big Horn, Park counties. In 1921, Sublette County was created from parts of Fremont and Lincoln counties, leaving Fremont County's boundary at its present configuration. Fremont County was named for John Charles Frémont, an explorer of the American West, United States Senator from California, 1856 Republican presidential candidate. Fremont County is the site of the Wind River Indian Reservation, home of the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes of Native Americans.
Since 1998, Fremont County has been represented in the Wyoming State Senate by the economist/businessman Cale Case, a Republican. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 9,266 square miles, of which 9,184 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by area in Wyoming, as well as in the six Rocky Mountain States. Elevations and climate range from desert at Boysen State Park to glaciers at 13,804-foot Gannett Peak, the highest point not only in Wyoming but in the three Central Rockies states of Wyoming and Montana; the southern end of the county is traversed by the Oregon Trail and in the northwest corner lies Dubois, a gateway town for Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park. Although the county seat is Lander, the largest community is Riverton, home of Central Wyoming College and the economic hub of the region. A large portion of the western edge of the county follows the Continental Divide at the crest of the Wind River Range of the Rocky Mountains, known for its wilderness areas and home of the largest glaciers in the American Rocky Mountains.
Bridger National Forest Shoshone National Forest Teton National Forest The Bridger National Forest and the Teton National Forest have been administratively combined into the Bridger-Teton National Forest. Fremont County contains portions of both originally-designated forests; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 35,804 people, 13,545 households, 9,481 families in Fremont County. The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 15,541 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup was 76.49% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 19.68% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.16% from other races, 2.21% from two or more races. 4.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.1% were of German, 9.9% English, 8.2% Irish and 6.3% American ancestry. There were 13,545 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families.
25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10. The county population contained 27.40% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,503, the median income for a family was $37,983. Males had a median income of $30,620 versus $19,802 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,519. About 13.30% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.70% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 40,123 people, 15,455 households, 10,360 families residing in the county; the population density was 4.4 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 17,796 housing units at an average density of 1.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 74.3% white, 21.2% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 1.0% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.7% were German, 13.5% were English, 12.2% were Irish, 7.7% were American. Of the 15,455 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families, 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 38.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,397 and the median income for a family was $55,531. Males had a median income of $44,087 versus $27,751 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,173. About 10.3% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.
The Wyoming Department of Corrections Wyoming Honor Farm is located in Riverton. The Wyoming Department of Health Wyoming Life Resource Center the Wyoming State Training School, a residential facility for physically and mentally disabled peop
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may